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College English Model Test Three
—Band Four—

Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes)

Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter to your American friend Lawrence, to introduce Spring Festival in China and invite him to join you to spend this Spring Festival. Suppose you are Yuan Chao. You should write at least 120 words following the suggestions given below in Chinese:
1. 表达你对Lawrence的想念之情;
2. 介绍中国的春节;
3. 邀请Lawrence和你们一起过春节。
提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡1上。 A Letter to Lawrence
September 23, 2005
Dear Lawrence,
Yuan Chao
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes) 
Directions:In this part,you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7,mark
Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN)if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.
Computer Crime
A computer crime is generally defined as one that involves the use of computers and software for illegal purposes. This doesn't mean that all the crimes are new types of crime. On the contrary, many of these crimes, such as embezzlement of funds, the alteration of records, theft, vandalism, sabotage, and terrorism, can be committed without a computer. But with a computer, these offenses can be carried out more quickly and with less chance that the person responsible for the crime will be discovered.
Computer crimes are on the rise and have been for the last twelve years. Just how much these computer crimes cost the American public is in dispute, but estimates range from $3 billion to $5 billion annually. Even the FBI, which attempts to keep track of the growth or decline of all kinds of crimes, is unable to say precisely how large a loss is involved; however, it estimates that the average take from a company hit by computer crime is $600,000. A number of reasons are given for the increase in computer crime: (A) more computers in use and, thus, more people who are familiar with basic computer operation; (B) more computers tied together in satellite and other data—transmission networks; and (C) the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.
The Criminal
Movies and newspaper stories might lead us to believe that most computer crimes are committed by teenage “hackers”—brilliant and basically good children who let their imagination and technical genius get them into trouble. But a realistic look at the crimes reveals that the offender is likely to be an employee of the firm against which the crime has been committed, i.e., an “insider”.
Difficulty of Detection and Prevention
Given the kind of person who commits a computer crime and the environment in which the crime occurs, it is often difficult to detect who the criminal is. First of all, the crime may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone discovers it.
Second, once the crime has been revealed, it is not easy to find a clear trail of evidence that leads back to the guilty party. After all, looking for “weapons” or fingerprints does not occur as it might in the investigation of more conventional crimes.
Third, there are usually no witnesses to the computer crime, even though it may be taking place in a room filled with people. Who is to say if the person at the next terminal, calmly keying in data, is doing the company's work or committing a criminal act?
Fourth, not enough people in management and law enforcement know enough about computer technology to prevent the crimes. Authorities have to be familiar with the computer's capabilities within a given situation to guard against its misuses. In some large cities, such as Los Angeles, police departments have set up specially trained computer crime units.
But even when an offender is caught, the investigators, attorneys (律师), judges, or juries may find the alleged crime too complicated and perplexing to handle. More attorneys are specializing in computer law and studying the computer's potential for misuse.
After a computer crime has been discovered, many companies do not report it or prosecute (起诉) the person responsible. A company may not announce the crime out of fear that the pubic will find out the weaknesses of its computer system and lose confidence in its organization. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities (脆弱性) because they rely heavily on customer trust.
To avoid public attention, cautious companies will often settle cases of computer tampering out of court. And if cases do go to trial and the offenders are convicted, they may be punished only by a fine or light sentence because the judge or jury isn't fully trained to understand the nature and seriousness of the crime.
Not all companies are timid in apprehending computer criminals. For example, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company decided it had to get tough on violators. So when the company discovered that one of its computer technicians had embezzled $200,000 by entering false benefit claims, it presented it findings to the state's attorney and aided in the prosecution of the technician. The technician was found guilty and sentenced to prison, not just for the computer misuse, but also for grand theft and insurance fraud. Connecticut General now has a policy of reporting all incidents of theft or fraud, no matter how small.
1. The FBI knows exactly how large a loss is involved in computer crimes.
2. It has become easy for microcomputer owners to use huge mainframe data bases.
3. It is implied in the Paragraph 3 that most computer criminals are the employees of the concerned companies.
4. Many companies dont report computer crimes because law procedures against computer crimes usually cost a lot of money.
5. When computer crime takes place in a room filled with people, there are usually many witnesses to the crime.
6. The passage is mainly about the increase of computer crimes in America and the difficulties in combating computer crimes.
7. Computer crimes are on the rise because more cheap microcomputers are available.
8. According to the passage, computer crimes has been on the rise for the last years.
9. Connecticut General Life Insurance company is cited as of companies that took serious measures to fight against computer crimes.
10. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities because they place too much reliance on .

Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension(35 minutes) 

Section A 
Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the end of each conversation,one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11 A) She won't let her friend borrow the car.
B) She will shop for a car.
C) She has a good car.
D) She will lend her car to her friend.
12A) She hasn't heard from the professor in a week.
B) The class has extra time to complete the assignment.
C) She only just found out about the economics paper.
D) She won't see the professor until next week.
13A) Her backhand is almost perfect.
B) The time the man spent practicing has helped him.
C) The man's mother wanted him to practice.
D) Her mother is a good tennis coach.
14A) Board the train.
B) Send a fax.
C) Change his departure time.
D) Have breakfast.
15A) He turned a corner so fast.
B) He ran a red light.
C) He went through a stop sign.
D) He was speeding.
16A) Each person will be allowed to buy only one ticket.
B) The tickets will sell out quickly.
C) The rock concert will probably be rescheduled.
D) There will be extra tickets.
17A) They didn't get wet.
B) They're late for the concert.
C) They prefer to dress casually.
D) They're really looking forward to the concert.
18A) She was working on a train schedule.
B) She didn't get home until after midnight.
C) She was busy with her guests all evening.
D) She left too late to catch the train.
Question 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) How different kinds of pepper are produced.
B) Why white pepper is superior to black pepper.
C) How the pepper plant is grown.
D) How various peppers are used in cooking.
20. A) He read about it in a cookbook.
B) He grows his own herbs and spices.
C) He heard about it from a friend.
D) He studied it in cooking school.
21. A) It's preserved in liquid.
B) The skin is removed.
C) It's dried in the sun.
D) It's freeze—dried.
22. A) It's more pure than other types of pepper.
B) It helps maintain the color of certain dishes.
C) It has a fruity flavor.
D) It's easier to grow.


Question 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) A story in prose.
B) A poem that rhymes.
C) A translation of a short literary work.
D) A journal about the process of writing.
24. A) The class has been assigned to read it.
B) He was able to read it in French.
C) He isn't sure it's available in English.
D) He thinks it's an example of what the professor wants.
25. A) It's pronounced differently in French than it is in English.
B) To write without using it is difficult both in English and in French.
C) Every word in the French author's book contained it.
D) It's commonly used in English to make poetry rhyme.转
Section B
Directions:In this section,you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage,you will hear some questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D) .Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

Passage One

Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26A) Automobile safety.
B) Increasing fuel efficiency.
C) California's pollution laws.
D) Electric—powered cars.
27A) They are cheaper.
B) They do not pollute as much.
C) They are simpler to drive.
D) They are faster.
28A) It is not comfortable.
B) It is difficult to steer.
C) It cannot go long distance without recharging.
D) Its engine easily overheats.

Passage Two

Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29A) Its publication was banned by the British government.
B) It was the first weekly newspaper.
C) It caused a prison revolt.
D) It was the first magazine ever published.
30A) He wrote articles critical of the Church of England.
B) He refused to stop publishing The Review.
C) He refused to pay publishing taxes.
D) He refused to join the Church of England.
31A) It was not really a magazine.
B) It featured a variety of articles and stories.
C) It was praised by readers of poetry.
D) It was unpopular with political analysis.
Passage Three

Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Miss Straus.
B) Mabel Bird.
C) Isidor Straus.
D) Mabel Bird's servant.
33. A) To get into the lifeboat.
B) To stay with her husband.
C) To be close to her husband.
D) To stand arm in arm on the deck with her husband.
34. A) Her best friend.
B) Her heart's true companion.
C) Always a comfort to her soul.
D) All of the above.
35. A) She wanted to put the children first into the lifeboat.
B) She could not bear to leave her husband.
C) She helped her servant to get into the boat.
D) She was too old to put her foot on the edge of the boat.

Section C
Directions:In this section,you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for the first time,you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for the second time,you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard.For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information.For these blanks,you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time,you should check what you have written.
One of the best ways to celebrate Mother's Day is to give your mom the day off. Let her take it easy and (36)while the rest of the family does the work.
My families begin Mother's Day with (37) in bed. Usually dad and the kids will let mom sleep late as they go into the (38)and prepare her
(39)meal. A Mother's Day breakfast can (40)of anything your mom likes.
After the food is cooked (41)everything nicely on a (42). Don't forget the (43)with a single flower. Wite spring here, the children can pick a tulip(郁金香)or daffodil(黄水仙花) from the garden outside. When everything is ready (44) Cards and small presents from the children can be placed on the tray before it is presented to mom in bed.
Many families make a special Mother's Day dinner or (45) . It is a good day to let your mom have a good rest and let her see what a wonderful family she has.
(46).These telegrams can be sent from any post office in this country.
Part ⅣReading Comprehension(Reading in Depth)(25 minutes) 
Section A 
Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel 47 about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We're48 with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity(肥胖). Perhaps the 49 to this ambivalence(矛盾情结) lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop(经济作物) wasn't eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 50 ways of doing it.
The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation's food has come to be
51 by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country's most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.
Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation's defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sitins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political 52 .
But strong opinions have not brought 53 . Americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. We have become54 of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.
The 55 in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It's no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage(束缚). It's what we eat—and how we 56 it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today.
A. answerB. resultC. shareD. guiltyE. constant
F. definedG. vanishH. adaptedI. creativeJ. belief
K. suspiciousL. certaintyM. obsessedN. identifyO. ideals
Section B 
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D) .You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative sense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing absolute scarcity; but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity of resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.
The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society's available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ultimately be taken into account.
In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this relationship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs, in turn, depends on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up correspondingly.
57. What does this passage mainly discuss?
A) The scarcity of manufactured goods.
B) The value of scarce materials.
C) The manufacturing of scarce goods.
D) The cost of producing shoes.
58. According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an item?
A) The amount of time and money spent in producing it.
B) The opportunities a person has to buy it.
C) The value of what could have been produced instead.
D) The value of the resources used in its production.
59. According to the passage, what is the relationship between production and resources?
A) Available resources stimulate production.
B) Resources are totally independent of production.
C) Production increases as resources increase.
D) Production lessens the amount of available resources.
60. What determines the price of a good in a market economy?
A) The cost of all elements in production.
B) The cost of not making other goods.
C) The efficiency of the manufacturing process.
D) The quantity of materials supplied.
61. Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society as defined in the passage?
A) A family buying a dog.
B) Eating in a restaurant instead of at home.
C) Using land for a house instead of a park.
D) Staying at home instead of going to school.


Passage Two
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. In the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment.
Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders”. It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group.
Research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done”. Expressive leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective wellbeings of a social groups members. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.
Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. They give others and may discipline group members who inhibit(阻碍) attainment of the groups goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the difference in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect.
62. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A) The problems faced by leaders.
B) How leadership differs in small and large groups.
C) How social groups determine who will lead them.
D) The role of leaders in social groups.
63. The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT .
A) recruitment
B) formal election process
C) specific leadership training
D) traditional cultural patterns
64. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2?
A) person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group.
B) Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person.
C) A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership.
D) Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications.
65. In mentioning “natural leaders” in line 7, the author is making the point that .
A) few people qualify as “natural leaders”
B) there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist
C) “natural leaders” are easily accepted by the members of a group
D) “natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics
66. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on .
A) ensuring harmonious relationships
B) sharing responsibility with group members
C) identifying new leaders
D) achieving a goal
Part Ⅴ Error Correction
Direction:This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in thecorresponding blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash (/) in the blank.
When we speak of a human need, we mean something
which is unnecessary to life, something we can live with. 67
Food is a human need. We will starve to death if there 68
were no food on earth; but even if we have plenty of food,
but of the wrong kind, our bodies will have problem from
lack of the right food. This is known for malnutrition(营 69养不良).
In countries where are not developed, man's food 70
needs are the same like in the most advanced societies. We 71
all need food and could live a good life on very few types of
food. People in very developed countries eat only the kinds 72
of food which can be grown near their homes, whereas
people in developed countries eat foods which are often
grown many thousands of miles away form their homes.
People in undeveloped countries are happy with less
different kinds of foods than people in very developed ones
are, so we can say that despite the needs of the two kinds 73
of people are the same, their wants are different. People in
very developed countries eat many different types of
meat—they could live by only one, but they would be very 74
unhappy because every time what they ate was the same.
Even such special foods like chicken would be less fun to 75
eat if you had them every day. But we can't just live on
meat—we need other kinds of food like bread, rice, and
vegetables which are no more necessary to our bodies. 76
Part ⅥTranslation (5 minutes)
Direction:Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
77. Jinling Hotel, where I stayed during my first visit to Nanjing, (座落在)on Hanzhong Road.
78. I am sure we can solve the problem if we all (集思广益).
79. Mary constantly (挑剔) her husband, which annoys him.
80. It is no good waiting for the bus, (我们不妨走回家吧).
81. Prices are going up rapidly. Petrol now (现在汽油的价格是几年前的两倍).
Part ⅠWriting
Dear Lawrence,
It has been five years since we met each other last time. How time flies! How are things with you? The happy time we spent together is always on my mind and I really hope to meet you again. As you know, Spring Festival, Lunar New Year, is the most favorable holiday for us Chinese. With its colorful and rich traditions, it is celebrated almost in every part of China. Everyone is indulged in the dominant atmosphere of joyous family reunion and with the fresh and vigorous look people greet the New Year.
The celebrations vary from place to place, but there are three traditions that have never differed throughout the country. First, the New Year's Eve dinner is a symbol of family reunion, with all family members sitting around the steaming table, tasting a variety of delicious food and wishing each other health, success and happiness. Second, people, during the holidays, will visit each other to express their best regards and wishes. And finally, we can enjoy the marvelous lion and dragon dances symbolizing happiness, good fortune and prosperity.
The day is drawing nearer, my families and I sincerely invite you to join us for this year's Spring Festival. If you'd like to, we can make further arrangements. Looking forward to your reply!
Yuan Chao
Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)
1. N.该句句意为:美国联邦调查局确切知道计算机犯罪造成了多大损失。本题解题依据为本文第二段 “Even the FBI,which attempts…is involved”,该句大意为:尽管FBI致力于对各种犯罪的上升和下降有清晰认识,但并不能精确说明损失多大,所以与原文之意不合。
2. Y. 该句句意为:计算机拥有者很容易利用大量计算机数据库,本题解题依据为第二段最后一段话“…the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.”与原文之义吻合。
3. Y. 该句句意为: 本文第三段暗示大多数利用计算机犯罪者是相关公司雇员。本题解题依据为文章第三段最后一句话,其大意为: 现实情况表明很可能是该公司雇员内部人…,与原文所述之义吻合。
4. N. 该句句意为: 许多公司不举报计算机犯罪是因为法律诉讼通常花费很多钱。解题依据为本文第九段第一和第二句话,他们不举报是害怕公众发现其计算机系统的弱点而对其丧失信心。据此可确定与原文所述不符。
5. N. 该句句意为: 当计算机犯罪在满是人的房间里发生时,通常有很多证人指证犯罪。本题解题依据为本文第六段第一句话,该句大意为:即使计算机犯罪发生在满是人的房间里,通常也无证人。据此可知该句所述之义与原文不符。
6. Y. 该句句意为:本篇文章主要是关于计算机犯罪的增长及与之作斗争的困难性,通览全文,尤其根据小标题的提示,我们不难看出文章主要论述了计算机犯罪与日俱增及难于发觉和阻止诸方面的原因,即文章的中心思想,与原文所述主旨吻合。
7. NG.该句句意为:计算机犯罪上升是因为有更多便宜的计算机。本文第二段用a,b,c列出了计算机犯罪增加的三大原因,其中并未提及计算机便宜这一点。
8. twelve 答案依据为第二段第一句话。
9. an example “…be cited as an example”,表示“引用…来作为一个例证”答案依据为文章最后一段第二句话。但原文没有直接照抄的语言,只能根据理解完成此空。
10. customer trust 答案依据为本文第九段最后一句话。
Part ⅢListening Comprehension
Section A
11. A12. B13. B14. B15. B 16. B17. D18. C19. D20. D
21. C22. A23. B24. D25. B
Section B
26. D27. B28. C29. D30. A 31.B32. B33. A34. D35. B
Section C
Part ⅣReading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)
Section A
47. Dfeel是一个系动词,可以判断此处应填入一个形容词,通过上下文意思,以及后面介词about, 可以确定选项为D项guilty, 短语feel guilty about sth. “对…感到有愧”。全句的意思为“我们很爱吃,但是往往在吃完之后又有负罪感”。
48. Mbe obsessed with 为固定搭配,原意为“被…附上/缠住/迷住心窍”,放在本句表示“十分重视”。全句的意思为“我们很关心健康和减肥,但肥胖却又空前地在蔓延”。
49. A本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词to的搭配,可以推断出正确选项answer.
50. I 本句根据more和ways可以判断出需要填入一个形容词构成比较级,根据上下文,表示“旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒”,可以确定I为正确选项。
51. F本题较难。根据be 和by 确定应填入一个过去分词。再根据上下文,上文表示“应该吃典型的美国人吃的食物”,下文通过 but 转折,表示实际上“美国的食物已经被诸如比萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了”,因此可以确定F为正确选项。
53. L由于横线后面没有宾语,可以确定不是形成bring的短语,这样本句所缺的为一名词,做bring的宾语。根据下文解释,“美国人对他们所吃的食物的态度是矛盾的”,可以推出本句意义为“坚定的观点也不是确定不变的”。因此可以确定L为正确选项。
54. K系动词become后应填入一个形容词,和后面介词of形成短语be/become suspicious of “对…感到怀疑”。
55. J本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词in的搭配,可以推断出正确选项belief,“(have)belief in sth.” 相信…。
56. C本句是一般现在时,缺一个动词,且和with 搭配,确定选项share,“share sth with sb, 与某人分享某事”。
Section B
57. B主旨题。本文三段内容均围绕短缺原料的价值进行说明。文章第一段说明了什么叫原料相对短缺,第二段说明了什么叫机会成本,第三段说明了原料的价格是由什么决定的。
58. C细节归纳题。第二段中“Every act of production uses up some of societys available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else.”说明机会成本是用可生产的其他商品来衡量的,选项C正好符合该意思。
59. D细节归纳题。第一段“Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.”说明社会总资源是有限的,用掉其中一些就会使总量减少并限制其他商品的生产。
60. A细节归纳题。文章第三段“In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depends on the cost of making it”(市场经济条件下,商品的价格和产量取决于其成本),然后又说 “The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them.”以鞋子为例说明商品价格是由生产要求决定的。
61. C推断题。文主要阐述了经济学里面的一个重要概念——“机会成本”,是讲商品生产和社会资源之间的关系。A、B、D均未涉及到生产领域,只有C符合本文的主旨。
62. D主旨题。本篇主要讨论不同的领导者(如instrumental leaders以及expressive leaders)在不同的社会群体中所充当的角色和发挥的功能。所以D为正确答案。A、B、C选项都不能正确概括本文主旨。
63. C细节理解题。A选项的招募(recruitment)和B选项选举程序(election process)都在第一段中作为大群体的领导者产生的方式被明确提到。D选项也在第一段中作为家庭领导者的产生的方式被明确提到。只有C选项没有作为产生领导者的一种方式在本文中被提及。
64. A推论题。A选项意思是:某一特定群体的有效领导者,不一定就可以成为另一群体的有效领导者。这正好与第二段的意思相吻合,即领导者没有一个固定的特点,只是符合了一个特定群体需要的人就有可能成为该群体的领导者(It seems…virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group)。B选项和C选项的意思与本文无关。D选项意为:许多人想成为领导者,但却很少能拿出证据来证明他们具有这样的资格。显然是对文章意思的曲解。
65. B细节理解题。第二段中“…decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of 'natural leaders'”意思是说数十年来的研究并不能找出可靠证据来证明那些人可以成为“天生领导者”,与B项意思一致。
66. D细节理解题。第三、四段主要讲了两种类型的领导者的区别。其中instrumental leader侧重于群体目标的实现,而expressive leader相对于前者并不侧重于群体目标的实现,而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持,并尽力减少内部纷争。(Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.)
Part ⅤError Correction
67. 本题考查上下文语义关系,unnecessary 改为necessary .本句句意为:我们所谈及的人的需要,是指我们生活中必不可少的东西。据此,应用肯定意义的necessary.
68. 本题考查虚拟语气用法, will改为would.根据英语语法,与一般现在事实相反的虚拟语气,条件句用一般过去时,主句用would加动词原形。
69. 本题考查搭配关系, for改为 as.“be known as,被认为是…”, “be known for,因…而众所周知”。根据题意,应是be known as,即“这被称为营养不良”。
70. 本题考查定语从句的关系词,where改为which/that.此处引导定语从句的关系词在定语从句里必须充当主语,而where 在定语从句里作地点状语,没有作主语的功能,因此,where改为which或that.
71. 本题考查固定搭配,like改为as.“the same as…,与…同样的”,为固定搭配。
72. 本题考查上下文语义关系,developed改为undeveloped.考生做此题时要有全局意识。本句与下句是发达国家和不发达国家的两个对比。本句中whereas引出转折,前部分指“欠发达国家的人们只食用在其家园附近种植的食物”,而后部分指“发达国家的人们吃的是距其家好几千英里之外生长的食物”。之所以改成undeveloped 而不是underdeveloped是因为下句中也出现了undeveloped, 作为提示。
73. 本题考查介词用法,despite改为although/though.despite是介词,不能引导句子,如要引导,必须改成 “despite the fact that…, ”。比较简洁的方法是把despite改为although或though.
74. 本题考查习惯用法,by改为on.“live on (sth.), 继续生活, 以…为主食, 靠…生活”。“live by (doing sth.),以…为生”。本句意思为:他们可以只吃一种肉。并且下文再次出现live on作为提示。
75. 本题考查固定搭配,like改为as.such as 为固定搭配。
76. 本题考查上下文语义关系,more改为less“no more necessary,表示否定,”不重要多少“; ”no less necessary“是双重否定表示肯定,”同样必要“。
Part ⅥTranslation
77. is situated
78. put our heads together
79. finds fault with
80. we may/might as well walk home
81. petrol now is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.
4 考试

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