College English Model Test Three
Part ⅠWriting（30 minutes）
Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter to your American friend Lawrence, to introduce Spring Festival in China and invite him to join you to spend this Spring Festival. Suppose you are Yuan Chao. You should write at least 120 words following the suggestions given below in Chinese:
提示:在实考试卷中，该试题在答题卡1上。 A Letter to Lawrence
September 23, 2005
Part ⅡReading Comprehension （Skimming and Scanning）（15 minutes）
Directions:In this part,you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7,mark
Y （for YES）if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N （for NO）if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG （for NOT GIVEN）if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.
A computer crime is generally defined as one that involves the use of computers and software for illegal purposes. This doesn't mean that all the crimes are new types of crime. On the contrary, many of these crimes, such as embezzlement of funds, the alteration of records, theft, vandalism, sabotage, and terrorism, can be committed without a computer. But with a computer, these offenses can be carried out more quickly and with less chance that the person responsible for the crime will be discovered.
Computer crimes are on the rise and have been for the last twelve years. Just how much these computer crimes cost the American public is in dispute, but estimates range from ＄3 billion to ＄5 billion annually. Even the FBI, which attempts to keep track of the growth or decline of all kinds of crimes, is unable to say precisely how large a loss is involved; however, it estimates that the average take from a company hit by computer crime is ＄600,000. A number of reasons are given for the increase in computer crime: （A） more computers in use and, thus, more people who are familiar with basic computer operation; （B） more computers tied together in satellite and other data—transmission networks; and （C） the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.
Movies and newspaper stories might lead us to believe that most computer crimes are committed by teenage “hackers”—brilliant and basically good children who let their imagination and technical genius get them into trouble. But a realistic look at the crimes reveals that the offender is likely to be an employee of the firm against which the crime has been committed, i.e., an “insider”.
Difficulty of Detection and Prevention
Given the kind of person who commits a computer crime and the environment in which the crime occurs, it is often difficult to detect who the criminal is. First of all, the crime may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone discovers it.
Second, once the crime has been revealed, it is not easy to find a clear trail of evidence that leads back to the guilty party. After all, looking for “weapons” or fingerprints does not occur as it might in the investigation of more conventional crimes.
Third, there are usually no witnesses to the computer crime, even though it may be taking place in a room filled with people. Who is to say if the person at the next terminal, calmly keying in data, is doing the company's work or committing a criminal act?
Fourth, not enough people in management and law enforcement know enough about computer technology to prevent the crimes. Authorities have to be familiar with the computer's capabilities within a given situation to guard against its misuses. In some large cities, such as Los Angeles, police departments have set up specially trained computer crime units.
But even when an offender is caught, the investigators, attorneys （律师）, judges, or juries may find the alleged crime too complicated and perplexing to handle. More attorneys are specializing in computer law and studying the computer's potential for misuse.
After a computer crime has been discovered, many companies do not report it or prosecute （起诉） the person responsible. A company may not announce the crime out of fear that the pubic will find out the weaknesses of its computer system and lose confidence in its organization. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities （脆弱性） because they rely heavily on customer trust.
To avoid public attention, cautious companies will often settle cases of computer tampering out of court. And if cases do go to trial and the offenders are convicted, they may be punished only by a fine or light sentence because the judge or jury isn't fully trained to understand the nature and seriousness of the crime.
Not all companies are timid in apprehending computer criminals. For example, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company decided it had to get tough on violators. So when the company discovered that one of its computer technicians had embezzled ＄200,000 by entering false benefit claims, it presented it findings to the state's attorney and aided in the prosecution of the technician. The technician was found guilty and sentenced to prison, not just for the computer misuse, but also for grand theft and insurance fraud. Connecticut General now has a policy of reporting all incidents of theft or fraud, no matter how small.
1. The FBI knows exactly how large a loss is involved in computer crimes.
2. It has become easy for microcomputer owners to use huge mainframe data bases.
3. It is implied in the Paragraph 3 that most computer criminals are the employees of the concerned companies.
4. Many companies dont report computer crimes because law procedures against computer crimes usually cost a lot of money.
5. When computer crime takes place in a room filled with people, there are usually many witnesses to the crime.
6. The passage is mainly about the increase of computer crimes in America and the difficulties in combating computer crimes.
7. Computer crimes are on the rise because more cheap microcomputers are available.
8. According to the passage, computer crimes has been on the rise for the last years.
9. Connecticut General Life Insurance company is cited as of companies that took serious measures to fight against computer crimes.
10. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities because they place too much reliance on .
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension（35 minutes）
Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the end of each conversation,one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A）,B）,C） and D）,and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11 A） She won't let her friend borrow the car.
B） She will shop for a car.
C） She has a good car.
D） She will lend her car to her friend.
12A） She hasn't heard from the professor in a week.
B） The class has extra time to complete the assignment.
C） She only just found out about the economics paper.
D） She won't see the professor until next week.
13A） Her backhand is almost perfect.
B） The time the man spent practicing has helped him.
C） The man's mother wanted him to practice.
D） Her mother is a good tennis coach.
14A） Board the train.
B） Send a fax.
C） Change his departure time.
D） Have breakfast.
15A） He turned a corner so fast.
B） He ran a red light.
C） He went through a stop sign.
D） He was speeding.
16A） Each person will be allowed to buy only one ticket.
B） The tickets will sell out quickly.
C） The rock concert will probably be rescheduled.
D） There will be extra tickets.
17A） They didn't get wet.
B） They're late for the concert.
C） They prefer to dress casually.
D） They're really looking forward to the concert.
18A） She was working on a train schedule.
B） She didn't get home until after midnight.
C） She was busy with her guests all evening.
D） She left too late to catch the train.
Question 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A） How different kinds of pepper are produced.
B） Why white pepper is superior to black pepper.
C） How the pepper plant is grown.
D） How various peppers are used in cooking.
20. A） He read about it in a cookbook.
B） He grows his own herbs and spices.
C） He heard about it from a friend.
D） He studied it in cooking school.
21. A） It's preserved in liquid.
B） The skin is removed.
C） It's dried in the sun.
D） It's freeze—dried.
22. A） It's more pure than other types of pepper.
B） It helps maintain the color of certain dishes.
C） It has a fruity flavor.
D） It's easier to grow.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26A） Automobile safety.
B） Increasing fuel efficiency.
C） California's pollution laws.
D） Electric—powered cars.
27A） They are cheaper.
B） They do not pollute as much.
C） They are simpler to drive.
D） They are faster.
28A） It is not comfortable.
B） It is difficult to steer.
C） It cannot go long distance without recharging.
D） Its engine easily overheats.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29A） Its publication was banned by the British government.
B） It was the first weekly newspaper.
C） It caused a prison revolt.
D） It was the first magazine ever published.
30A） He wrote articles critical of the Church of England.
B） He refused to stop publishing The Review.
C） He refused to pay publishing taxes.
D） He refused to join the Church of England.
31A） It was not really a magazine.
B） It featured a variety of articles and stories.
C） It was praised by readers of poetry.
D） It was unpopular with political analysis.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A） Miss Straus．
B） Mabel Bird．
C） Isidor Straus．
D） Mabel Bird's servant．
33. A） To get into the lifeboat．
B） To stay with her husband．
C） To be close to her husband．
D） To stand arm in arm on the deck with her husband．
34. A） Her best friend．
B） Her heart's true companion．
C） Always a comfort to her soul.
D） All of the above．
35. A） She wanted to put the children first into the lifeboat．
B） She could not bear to leave her husband．
C） She helped her servant to get into the boat．
D） She was too old to put her foot on the edge of the boat.
Directions:In this section,you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for the first time,you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for the second time,you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard.For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information.For these blanks,you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time,you should check what you have written.
One of the best ways to celebrate Mother's Day is to give your mom the day off. Let her take it easy and （36）while the rest of the family does the work.
My families begin Mother's Day with （37） in bed. Usually dad and the kids will let mom sleep late as they go into the （38）and prepare her
（39）meal. A Mother's Day breakfast can （40）of anything your mom likes.
After the food is cooked （41）everything nicely on a （42）. Don't forget the （43）with a single flower. Wite spring here, the children can pick a tulip（郁金香）or daffodil（黄水仙花） from the garden outside. When everything is ready （44） Cards and small presents from the children can be placed on the tray before it is presented to mom in bed.
Many families make a special Mother's Day dinner or （45） . It is a good day to let your mom have a good rest and let her see what a wonderful family she has.
（46）.These telegrams can be sent from any post office in this country.
Part ⅣReading Comprehension（Reading in Depth）（25 minutes）
Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel 47 about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We're48 with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity（肥胖）. Perhaps the 49 to this ambivalence（矛盾情结） lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop（经济作物） wasn't eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 50 ways of doing it.
The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation's food has come to be
51 by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country's most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles.
Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation's defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sitins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political 52 .
But strong opinions have not brought 53 . Americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. We have become54 of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain.
The 55 in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It's no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage（束缚）. It's what we eat—and how we 56 it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today.
A. answerB. resultC. shareD. guiltyE. constant
F. definedG. vanishH. adaptedI. creativeJ. belief
K. suspiciousL. certaintyM. obsessedN. identifyO. ideals
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A）,B）,C） and D） .You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative sense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing absolute scarcity; but the scarcity that concerns economists is the relative scarcity of resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.
The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society's available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ultimately be taken into account.
In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism enforces this relationship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs, in turn, depends on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up correspondingly.
57. What does this passage mainly discuss?
A） The scarcity of manufactured goods.
B） The value of scarce materials.
C） The manufacturing of scarce goods.
D） The cost of producing shoes.
58. According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an item?
A） The amount of time and money spent in producing it.
B） The opportunities a person has to buy it.
C） The value of what could have been produced instead.
D） The value of the resources used in its production.
59. According to the passage, what is the relationship between production and resources?
A） Available resources stimulate production.
B） Resources are totally independent of production.
C） Production increases as resources increase.
D） Production lessens the amount of available resources.
60. What determines the price of a good in a market economy?
A） The cost of all elements in production.
B） The cost of not making other goods.
C） The efficiency of the manufacturing process.
D） The quantity of materials supplied.
61. Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society as defined in the passage?
A） A family buying a dog.
B） Eating in a restaurant instead of at home.
C） Using land for a house instead of a park.
D） Staying at home instead of going to school.