Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
Solar energy for your home is coming. It can help you as a single home owner.It can help the whole country as well.Whether or not solar energy can save your money depends on many things. Where you live is one factor. The type of home you have is another. Things like insulation present energy coasts, and the type of ssstem you buy are added factors.
Using solar energy can help save our precious fuel. As you know, our supplies of oil and gas are very limited. There is just not enough on hand to meet all our future energy needs.And when Mother Nature says that’s all. The only way we can delay hearing those words is by starting to save energy now and by using other sources, like the sun.
We won’t have to worry about the sun’s running out of energy for another several billion years or so. Besides begin an endless sourse of energy, the use of the sun has other advantages as well. The sun doesn’t offer as many problems as other energy sources. For example, fossil fuel plants add to already high pollution levels. With solar energy, we will still need sources of energy, but we won’t need as much. That means we can cut down on our pollution problems.
With all these good points, why don’t we use more solar power? There are many reasons for this. The biggest reason is money. Until now, it was just not practical for a home owner to put in a solar unit. There were cheaper sources of energy.
All that is changing now. Solar coats are starting to equal the costs of oil and electricity. Experts say that gas, oil and electricity prices will continue to rise. The demand for electricity is increasing rapidly. But new power plants will use more gas,oil or coal. Already in some places the supply of electricity is being rationed. Solar energy is now in its infancy. It could soon grow to become a major part of our nation’s energy supply.
21. Which statement best expresses the main idea?
A) Something about Solar Energy and Pollution.
B) Solar Energy.
C) Energy and Pollution
D) Energy and Money.
22. Solar energy can help us save ____.
A) the earth and natural resources
B) mother nature
C) the sun
D) our precious fuel
23. The sun is an endless source of energy, it will not run out of it for ____.
A) several million years
B) several hundred years
C) several billion years
D) several thousand years
24. Which of the following statements is correct?
A) Energy from coal would not pollute our living environment.
B) Energy from natural gas would not pollute our living environment.
C) Energy from the sun would not pollute our living environment.
D) Energy from oil would not pollute our living environment.
25. Solar energy is now in its infancy, ____.
A) but it will be considered as an important part of our nation ’ s energy supply
B) yet we will build more power plants
C) and the supply of electricity will be rationed
D) but we don ’ t need practice energy rationing now
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
Nearly 54 million cars and trucks in the United States are equipped with driver side air bags located in the center of the steering wheel. 24 million also have a passenger side device located in the dashboard. Air bags are designed to protect against sudden, fierce frontal highway impacts.
Five years ago evidence of serious air bag injuries began to surface. Drivers in minor fender benders suffered severe eye and ear injuries, broken bones and third degree burns from the force of the inflating bags. In December 1991 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) advised parents to avoid putting rear facing infant sets in front of air bags, acknowledging that the force of the explosive bag could harm infants, whose heads were only inches away from the devices.
Last October it was determined that all children 12 and under were more susceptible to injury and death than adults;their more fragile bodies were seated lower, increasing the impact of the air bag to the head area. In addition, more children were not properly restrained or were out of position when the air bag inflated. On November 22, 1996, after nearly 60 deaths and thousands of injuries were attributed to the devices, the NHTSA mandated improved labels for all new vehicles,warning of the risk to children under 13. Despite these problems, officials stress the overall effectiveness of these devices. “All in all, air bags work well and are responsible for an 11 percent reduction in driver fatalities,” says NHTSA Administrator Dr. Ricardo Martinez.
“ First and foremost, make sure you’re properly buckled up before getting on the road,” says Brain O’Neill, president of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Keep in mind how close you sit to an air bag. Push seats as far back as possible, remaining just close enough to control the pedals. Your face and torso should be at least ten to 12 inches from the steering column. “It’s not a bad idea actually to measure the distance with a ruler to be sure.” adds O’Neill.
Adjustable steering wheels should be pointed toward the chest rather than the head to prevent inflating bag from damaging the face or neck. Also, position hands at nine o’clock and three o’clock on the wheel to keep your arms away from an opening air bag.
Pregnant women in particular should keep their abdomen as distant from theair bag as possible. In the final trimester,women should point adjustable steeringwheels upward, away from their fetus.Perhaps most important, children 12 and under should always ride in the backseat, buckled up.
26. From the passage, we learned that ____.
A) there are 24 million cars and trucks in the United States
B) there are 78 million cars and trucks in the United States
C) there are 24 million cars and trucks equipped with air bags in the United States
D) there are 78 million cars and trucks equipped with air bags in the United States
27. The air bags are ____.
A) safety devices which can protect people from being hurt during highway accidents
B) unsafe devices which hurt many people
C) safety devices which saved 11% American drivers
D) safety devices but need to be improved
28. The air bag is located in the center of the steering wheel,so you should ____.
A) keep in mind how close you sit to an air bag
B) push the front seat as far back as possible, remaining just close enough to control the pedal
C) keep your face and torso at least 10 to 12 inches from the steering column
D) all of the above
29. Adjustable steering wheels should ____.
A) be pointed toward the chest rather than the head
B) be driven at 9 o ’ clock
C) be driven at 3 o ’ clock
D) keep your arms away from an opening air bag
30. The air bag is a good safety device, but children 12 and under should always ride in the back seat buckled up means____.
A) air bags are no good for children
B) air bags are only good for the parents who have more than 12 children
C) the best position for children to ride a car is in the back seat and be buckled up
D) the front seat is unsafe for young people
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
In the debates about how a particular piece of land is to be used, the priorities often conflict. What should you do, for example, if you find out that under the fertile fields of a farming community there is a thick bed of coal which can be strip mined? Strip mining rips up top soil and vegetation. But mining may create jobs, bring money to the town’s businesses. Those who approve of strip mining say that the coal is needed, and they point out that it is quicker and cheaper to get coal from the surface than to go deep into the earth to get it by standard mining techniques. On the other hand, it takes nature 500 years to create an inch of top soil. As the countryside fills up, people are becoming more aware of the need for open space. Nearly every proposal for a new power plant, highway, or airport draws fierce opposition. Everyone wants the big, land eating “ uglies ” to be in someone else ’ s backyard.
Minneapolis and St.Paul, Minnesota, for example, have been debating about the site of a future airport for years. Yet if a new airport is needed, it will have to go somewhere.How do we find our way out of the land used problem? One way might be to reexamine our values, to think in new directions. Does everyone have to have a car with its need for highways and parking lots? What about developing mass transit systems that use less land? Do suburbs have to sprawl? Can they be designed so they use less space? Do we have to have more energy? If we do, do we really have to strip mine coal to provide it?
However difficult they may be to arrive at, choices will have to be made if we want to preserve the beauty and usefulness of the land. For there is at least one point on which all of us can agree: The land does have its limits.
31. The word “priorities” in the sentence means ____.
A) the various needs
B) the most important goal
C) the number one necessity
D) the first thing to be considered
32. “… ,people are becoming more aware of the need for open space. ” tells us that ____.
A) people are thinking to develop their living space into the sky
B) people noticed the need for unoccupied land
C) people are struggling to get more land from the space
D) people are becoming more active on the space issue
33. How do we find our way out of the land use problems?
A) One way might be to reexamine our values, to think in new directions.
B) Everyone has to have a car with its need for highways and parking lots.
C) We have to have more energy. We need strip mine coal to provide it.
D) We may develop mass transit systems which use less land.
34. “ Everyone wants the big, land eating ‘ uglies ’ to be in someone else ’ s backyard. ” shows that ____.
A) people don ’ t want more big projects
B) people don ’ t want to live in the neighborhood of the big projects
C) people regard the large construction projects are “ uglies ”
D) people don ’ t like the undesirable building projects
35. The main idea of this article is ____.
A) The Limits of Land
C) Land and Our Life Styles
D) Land and Space
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
Television, or TV, the modern wonder of electronics, brings the world into your own home in sight and sound. The name television comes from the Greek word tele, meaning “far”,and the Latin word videre, meaning “to see”. Thus, television means“seeing far”. Sometimes television is referred to as video,from a Latin word meaning “I see”. In Great Britain, the popular word for television is “telly”.
Television works in much the same way as radio. In radio, sound is changed in to electromagnetic waves which are sent through the air. In TV, both sound and light are changed into electromagnetic waves. Experiments leading to modern television took place more than a hundred years ago. By the 1920s, inventors and researchers had turned the early theories into working models. Yet it took another thirty years for TV to become an industry.
As an industry, TV provides jobs for hundreds of thousands who make TV sets and broadcasting equipment. It also provides work for actors, technicians, and others who put on programs.
Many large schools and universities have “closed—circuit”television equipment that will telecast lectures and demonstrations to hundreds of students in different classrooms; and the lecture can be video taped to be kept for later use.Some hospitals use TV to allow medical students to get close up view of operations.
In 1946, after World War II, TV began to burst upon the American scene with a speed unforeseen even by the most optimistic leaders of the industry. The novelty of seeing TV pictures in the home caught the public’s fancy and began a revolution in the world of entertainment. By 1950, television had grown into a major part of show business. Many film and stage stars began to perform on TV as television audiences increased. Stations that once telecast for only a few hours a day sometimes telecast around the clock in the 1960s.
36. “… others who put on programs. ” means that ____.
A) people get on their clothes with programs printed on
B) people prepare and present the programs on TV
C) people like the programs
D) people acted in the TV programs
37. “… to allow medical students to get close up view of operations ” suggests ____.
A) the students can have view of operations with enlarged details
B) the students can operate through TV
C) the students were allowed to learn operations
D) TV is being used by students
38. “… TV began to burst upon the American, …” indicates that____.
A) in 1946 TV sets exploded in American families
B) TV may injure people
C) TV suddenly became available to many American families
D) TV was very popular in 1946
39. “ TV pictures in the home caught the public ’ s fancy, …” tells us ____.
A) TV pictures are better than movies
B) TV pictures can be seen at home
C) TV pictures can hurt people’s eyes
D) TV pictures had aroused people’s interests
40. “… sometimes telecast around the clock in the 1960s. ” means____.
A) TV telecast used to have a round clock
B) people watch TV with around clock nearby
C) TV telecast 24 hours a day in the 1960s
D) TV was on show everyday
Part Ⅲ Vocabulary and Structure (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D). Choose the one answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
41. She always rides the same kind of bike ____ her twin sister does.
A) that B) which C) as D) what
42. ____ , I ’ d have done it myself.
A) If I would have known it C) Had I known it
B) If I had have known it D) Should I known it
43. The sun ’ s appearing to rise in the east is ____ the revolution of the earth on its axis from west to east.
A) owe to C) as to
B) due to D) as for
44. It was because she was too inexperienced ____ she didn ’ t know how to deal with the situation.
A) so that C) that is why
B) that D) so
45. We obey him, ____ we are afraid of him, ____ we honor and love him.
A) not for,but for C) not that,but that
B) not as, but as D) not since, but since
46. ____ from space, the earth looks like a huge water covered globe.
A) Having seen C) Seeing
B) To see D) Seen
47. ____ the increase in air fares, most people still prefer to travel by plane.
A) No matter how C) Though
B) Regardless D) Despite
48. Now the need ____ foreign languages is becoming greater and greater.
A) to learn C) to be learned
B) learning D) being learned
49. He has been studying here for three years, by next summer he____.
A) will graduate C) will have graduated
B) will be graduated D) will be graduating
50. She didn ’ t answer the telephone, she ____ asleep.
A) must fall C) should have fallen
B) must have fallen D) can have fallen
51. Electrical energy ____ from the sun in a round way is the most widely used energy today.
A) come C) coming
B) to come D) having come
52. You remain about the same as when you parted with us ____you’ve got a little thinner.
A) except for C) except that
B) besides D) because
53. Fertilizers are used primarily to enrich the soil and ____ yield.
A) increasing C) to increase
B) increase D) have increased
54. A beam of light will not bend round corners unless ____to do so with the help of a reflecting device.
A) made C) having made
B) being made D) to be made
55. He has a large collection of books, ____ are written in English.
A) many among C) many ones of which
B) many in which D) many of which
56. I don ’ t think it is funny, but my friend ____.
A) cannot help to laugh C) cannot but laughing
B) cannot help laugh D) cannot help but laugh
57. Science and technology have brought ____ many changes in our lives.
A) forward C) out
B) about D) to
58. With the map of the city to help them, they had no ____the place.
A) difficulties in finding C) difficulty to find
B) difficulty in finding D) trouble to find
59. It is difficult to understand this kind of ____ calculation.
A) intricate C) indispensable
B) varied D) equable
60. Industrial managers employ specialists to keep machines working properly and to ____ the supply of spare parts.
A) ensure C) guarantee
B) promise D) assure
61. The competition is open to both professionals and ____.
A) aliens C) juniors
B) amateurs D) editors
62. He ’ s ____ to his family because he never tells them he ’ s working late.
A) inconsiderate C) careless
B) thoughtless D)neckless
63. They did their utmost and made ____ progress in a short time.
A) remarkable C) unapparent
B) obvious D) spectacular
64. I would rather not ____ him until I ’ m absolutely sure that he is trustworthy.
A) rely on C) count for
B) believe in D) rely in
65. We all ____ him because, although he was stern, he was fair.
A) looked out upon C) looked up to
B) looked up at D) looked out for
66. His success doesn ’ t ____ his cleverness. Hard working____ progress.
A) lie on … lead to C) lead to … lie in
B) lead to … leads to D) lie in … leads to
67. The old man has the ____ habit of forgetting to tie his shoes.
A) unusual C) peculiar
B) ignorant D) crazy
68. After a long time coordination, the ____ between them has been made.
A) consequence C) convenience
B) contract D) contention
69. Abundant natural resources are part of a country ’ s ____.
A) treasure C) goods
B) wealth D) property
70. We have ____ the serious flood disaster and made advances in agriculture.
A) overcome C) succeeded
B) conquered D) defeated
Part Ⅳ Cloze (15 minutes)
There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Anyone who has ridden on a railroad train knows how rapidly another train ____(71)____ by when it is traveling in the__(72) __ direction and conversely how it may look almost __(73) __ when it is moving in the same direction. __(74) __ a train at a station starts to move forward __(75) __ gently that passengers feels no backward movement ___(76)__. Then if they happened to__(77)__ the window and see another train slide past on the next track, they have no way of knowing __(78) __ train is in motion and which is at rest;__(79) __ can they tell how fast either one is moving or in which direction. The only way they can judge their __ (80)__ is by looking out the other side of the car for some fixed body of reference __(81) __ the station platform or a single light. Newton was__ (82)__ these tricks of motion, only he thought in terms of ships. He knew that on a calm day at sea a sailor can shave himself or drink soup as__(83) __ as when his ship is lying motionless in harbor. The water in his basin, the soup in his bowl, will remain __(84)__whether the ship is making five knots, 15 knots or 25 knots. So __(85) __ he looks hard at the sea it will be __(86)__ for him to know how fast his ship is moving or indeed if it is moving at all. Of course, if the sea should get rough or the ship changes course suddenly,__ (87)__ he will sense his state of motion. But even supposing that we have the idealized conditions of a glass calm sea and a silent ship, nothing that happens below decks —no amount of observation or mechanical experiment performed inside the ship — will reveal its velocity through the sea. The physical__ (88)__ based on these facts was formulated by Newton in 1687. “The motions of bodies included in a given space”,he wrote,“are the same __(89) __themselves, whether that space is at rest or moves uniformly__ (90)__in a straight line.”
71. A) passes B) goes C) flashes D) moves
72. A) different B) opposite C) unlike D) diverse
73. A) noiseless B) motionless C) calmness D) movingly
74. A) At all times B) All the while C) At all time D) Once in a while
75. A) so B) very C) much D)as
76. A) whenever B) wherever C) whatever D) whichever
77. A) watch you B) mark out C) look out D) view
78. A) which B) what C) that D) if
79. A) and B) but C) or D) nor
80. A) condition B) position C) situation D) state
81. A) like B) love C) devote D) attach
82. A) fond of B) aware of C) keen on D) interested in
83. A) easily B) comfortably C) reliably D) vigorously
84. A) unruffled B) uneven C) unstable D) uncertain
85. A) when B) while C) unless D) since
86. A) possible B) probable C) impassible D) impossible
87. A) that B) then C) and D) after
88. A) reason B) standard C) principle D) formula
89. A) at B) to C) among D) during
90. A) forward B) awkward C) rearward D) coward
Part Ⅴ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic “Desk Culture”. You should write at least 100 words and you should base your composition on the outline (given in Chinese) below.
1. 什么是课桌文化 ( 学生在课桌上留下的文字或符号 );
2. 课桌文化的内容及产生原因 ;
21. 答案 B 。
22. 答案 D 。
23. 答案 C 。
24. 答案 C 。
25. 答案 A 。
在美国有七千八百万汽车和卡车上装有防护气囊，用来缓解猛烈的正面冲击。五年前严重的防护气囊事故开始出现，去年十月测定出 12 岁以下的孩子比成人更容易伤亡， 1996 年 11 月近 60 人死亡几千人受伤都归于防护气囊装置。但总的说来，这种装置还是有用的，使司机死亡率减少了 11% 。所以公路安全保险部门告诫人们上路之前一定要系好安全带，不要坐得太靠前，只要刚好能踩着油门就可以了。可调方向盘应对准胸前而不是头部，孕妇尤其要近可能使腹部远离防护气囊，12 岁以下的孩子应该系上安全带坐在后座。
26. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 因为有 2400 万辆车在乘客座位前也安装了防护气囊，其它几个选择不符合题意。
27. 答案 D 。
28. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 根据文章第四段的大意可知 A 、 B 、 C 均为应注意的事项，因此选 D 。
29. 答案 A 。
见文章倒数第三段第一句、第二句，意思是把两手分别放在方向盘上 3 点钟和 9 点钟的位置以便使手臂远离开着的防护气囊。
30. 答案 C 。
【参考译文】 防护气囊是安全装置，但 12 岁以下的儿童应该总是坐在后座并且系上安全带意味着……
关于如何利用某块土地的问题，首先应考虑什么经常成为辨论的要点。例如，如果在肥沃的农田下面发现有厚厚的一层可开采的煤的话，该如何做呢 ? 开矿得掀开上面的土壤和蔬菜，但开矿可以提供就业机会，给城市商业带来经济利益。赞成开采的认为需要煤且这样挖煤更容易，但另一方面，表层的土壤也十分珍贵，人们越来越需要开阔的空间。所以修建新的机场、发电厂、公路等计划几乎都遭到强烈的反对，那么如何解决土地利用问题呢 ? 更换价值观念可能是一种解决办法。如果我们想保持土地的美，又使土地可以利用，无论多难也得作出选择，毕竟土地有限这一点是大家公认的。 [FK)][CSX]
31. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 应是首先要考虑的事情，而不是 A “多种需要”， B “最重要的目的”，或 C “第一需要”。
32. 答案 B 。
33. 答案 A 。
【参考译文】 我们该如何解决土地利用的问题呢 ?
【详细解答】 应是更新价值观念，换一种新的思维方式。 B 、 C 、 D 都不符合题意。
34. 答案 B 。
35. 答案 A 。
现代电子科学的奇迹——电视使我们呆在家就可以知道外面的世界。“ television ”一词来源于希腊词“ tele ”和拉丁词“ videre ”，意思是“看见远处”。电视将声音和图像以电磁波的形式发射到空气中，跟收音机的原理一样。一百多年前就开始做实验，直到 20 年代研究者们才将早期理论变成模型，又花了30年才成为工业产品。电视给人们提供了很多就业机会，许多大学教室里装有闭路电视，医院也用电视让学生们看清手术过程。二战后，电视在美国流行起来，到 1950 年电视成为娱乐圈的主要部分。 [FK)][CSX]
36. 答案 B 。
37. 答案 A 。
38. 答案 C 。
39. 答案 D 。
【关键词语】 catch one ’ s fancy
【详细解答】 指电视节目让人们很感兴趣而愿意收看。词组“ catch/take one ’ s fancy ”意为“被某人喜欢”。
40. 答案 C 。
【关键词语】 around the clock
【详细解答】 指每天 24 小时不间断地播放电视节目。…“ around/round the clock ”意思是“ all day and all night without stopping ”。
41. 答案 C 。
【参考译文】 她总是和她的孪生姐 ( 妹 ) 骑一样的自行车。
【详细解答】 先行词是 the same 或受 the same 修饰时，定语从句通常用 as 引导，少用 that 引导。
42. 答案 C 。
【试题分析】 此题为语法题，考查虚拟语气的省去 if 的形式。
【详细解答】 if 条件句中包含有 should, had,were 则可省去 if 并把 should,had,were 移到句首，构成倒装句式，而意思不变。
43. 答案 B 。
【词义辨析】 owe 是动词，常用作 owe … to 意为“把……归于……”，“靠……而”; due to 表示原因; as to,as far 就……而论，至于，用于对谈过的事作进一步的说明或介绍新话题，放在句首。 44. 答案 B 。
【详细解答】 这是一个 it is … that …的强调句型，因此选 B 。强调部分是 because she was too inexperienced 。
45. 答案 C 。
【详细解答】 not that … but that 意同 not because … but because, 表示两个原因和理由，一正一反，前后对比。
46. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 过去分词 seen 表示被动意义。过去分词短语作状语时，其逻辑主语是句子的主语。地球是被看的对象，而不是看这个动作的发出者， seeing, having seen 是现在分词，表示主动的意义，所以不可选用。 to see 是不定式，不定式短语放在句首，通常表示目的，也不能选用。
47. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 no matter how 不管，无论，引导让步从句; regardless 不顾，应与 of 连用; though 尽管引导让步从句; despite 尽管，不顾，后面接名词或名词性词组。
48. 答案 A 。
【详细解答】 动词不定式短语修饰抽象名词 need ，相当于形容词的作用。不定式被动式不可采用。 B 、 D 也是错误的。
49. 答案 C 。
【详细解答】 将来完成时主要表示将来某时将会发生的事情，一般要用表示将来的时 间状语，如： by 或 before 引导的介词词组或 before 引导的时 间状语从句。
50. 答案 B 。
【详细解答】 “ must have 过去分词”表示对过去发生的动作或存在的状态作可能性最大的推测，意为“必定，已经”。 can have 过去分词，表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定。有本来可能做而没有做的意思，是虚拟语气用法。“ should have 过去分词”表示过去应该做而实际上未来得及做的事，有本该的意思。
51. 答案 C 。
52. 答案 C 。
【详细解答】 except for 除……以外，其后一般接名词，代词，用来表示理由或细节，修饰前面所述的情况。 except that 其后接从句，可与 except for 换用，但用法有区别。 besides 作介词其后常用名词，动名词或 what 引导的从句，意为“除……以外 ( 还 ) ”。
53. 答案 C 。
【详细解答】 to increase 用来与 to enrich 保持结构上的平行。
54. 答案 A 。
【详细解答】 unless made 状语从句中省略了 it is 。完整的句子应是 unless it is made …科技文献中常可见到这种语法现象。
55. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 many of which are written in English 是一个关系代词带前置介词 of 的非限定性从句。 which 代替 books 。 many of which 在从句中作主语。
56. 答案 D 。
【详细解答】 表示“不得不，情不自禁”可以用以下几种结构： 1) cannot help 动名词; 2) cannot help but 动词原形; 3) cannot but 动词原形。
57. 答案 B 。
【详细解答】 bring forward 提出，显示; bring about 带来，造成; bring out 出版，生产; bring to 停下，恢复知觉。
58. 答案 B 。
【详细解答】 difficulty 相当于 trouble( 麻烦，困难 ) ，是不可数名词，常用句型为 have some (no/little) difficulty (in) doing sth.
59. 答案 A 。
【词义辨析】 intricate 错综复杂的，纠缠不清的; varied 不同的，种种的; indispensable 不可缺少的，绝对必要的; equable 变动甚少的，稳定的。
Part Ⅴ 写作指导
Sitting in a classroom at college, you occasionally catch sight of something written on the desk, which is an index of some college students’ psychology and becomes part of the campus culture. This is why it is called“desk culture.”Desk culture has its substantial content. On most occasions they are definitions, formulas, or English expressions kept either for memory, for convenience because they have no paper at hand, or because they have them for a special “service ”— to provide information for cheating on exams. Sometimes there are also some ragged verses, drawings or even dirty words created by some naughty or sentimental ones, made for joking or expressing their own feelings. Occasionally there are some mottos for encouragement, or some senseless marks habitually made to kill time when they are bored or absent minded in class. In a word, all these things contribute to the flourishing desk culture.
As far as I am concerned, desk culture indirectly indicates college students mental attitudes. It is ,for whatever reasons, at least a destruction of the perfectness of the desks. So colleges concerned should take effective measures against it and put more emphasis on quality education and spiritual civilization.