星火:2012年12月英语四级模拟试卷样题及解析

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星火:2012年12月英语四级模拟试卷样题及解析

  Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)

  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below:

  1. 近来一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通;

  2. 此措施带来的好处;

  3. 作为市民应如何响应政府的号召。

  The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes)

  Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.

  For questions 1-7,choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).

  For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods

  For thousands of years farmers have used a process of selection and cross breeding to continually improve the quality of crops. Traditional breeding methods are slow, requiring intensive labor: while trying to get a desirable trait in a bred species, undesirable traits will appear and farmers must continue the process over and over again until all the undesirables are bred out. In contrast, organisms acquire one specific gene or a few genes together through genetic modification, without other traits included and within a single generation. However, this technology too is inherently unpredictable and some scientists believe it can produce potentially dangerous results unless better testing methods are developed. Traditional breeding is based on sexual reproduction between like organisms. The transferred genes are similar to genes in the cell they join. They are conveyed in complete groups and in a fixed sequence that harmonizes with the sequence of genes in the partner cell. In contrast, bioengineers isolate a gene from one type of organism and collect it randomly into the DNA of a dissimilar species, disrupting its natural sequence. One of the main differences between conventional and genetically modified crops is that the former involves crosses either within species or between very closely related species. However, GM crops can have genes from closely related species or even from bacteria and viruses. Benefits: one side of the debate Economical? GM supporters tell farmers that they stand to reap enormous profits from growing GM crops. It takes a shorter time to produce the desired product. It is precise and there are no unwanted genes. To produce the GM crops, modern biotechnology is used which requires highly skilled people and sophisticated and expensive equipment. Large companies need considerable investments in laboratories, equipment and human resources, hence the reason why GM crops are more expensive for farmers than traditional crops. Herbicide-resistant crops So what other advantages do GM crops hold for farmers? GM crops can be produced to be herbicide (除草剂) resistant. This means that farmers could spray these crops with herbicide and kill the weeds, without affecting the crop. In effect, the amount of herbicide used in one season would be reduced, with a subsequent reduction in costs for farmers and consumers. Biotechnology companies are even experimenting with crops that can be genetically modified to be drought and salt-tolerant, or less reliant on fertilizer, opening up new areas to be farmed and leading to increased productivity. However, the claims of less herbicide usage with GM crops have till now not been independently supported by facts. Better quality foods Even animals can be genetically modified to be leaner, grow faster, and need less food. They could be modified to have special characteristics, such as greater milk production in cows. These modifications again lead to improved productivity for farmers and finally lower costs for the consumers. Modified crops could perhaps prevent outbreaks such as foot and mouth disease, which has badly influenced many farmers and local economies. No such products have been released to date; however, some are under consideration for release. For example, GM salmon, capable of growing almost 30 times faster than natural salmon, may soon be approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) in the U.S. for release into open waters without a single study on the impact on human health or the environment. Risks: the other side of the debate Environmental damage The problem with GM crops is that there is little known about what effect they will have in, say, 20 years time. The genetic structure of any living organism is complex and GM crop tests focus on short-term effects. Not all the effects of introducing a foreign gene into the complex genetic structure of an organism are tested. Will the pests that a crop was created to resist eventually become resistant to this crop? Then there is always the possibility that we may not be able to destroy GM crops once they spread into the environment. Risk to food web. A further complication is that the pesticide produced in the crop may unintentionally harm creatures. GM crops may also pose a health risk to native animals that eat them. The animals may be poisoned by the built-in pesticides. Tests in the U.S. showed that 44% of caterpillars (毛虫) of the monarch butterfly died when fed large amounts of pollen(花粉)from GM corn. Disease. Another concern is disease. Since some crops are modified using the DNA from viruses and bacteria, will we see new diseases emerge? What about the GM crops that have antibiotic-resistant marker genes? Marker genes are used by scientists to determine whether their genetic modification of a plant was successful. Will these antibiotic-resistant genes be transferred to microorganisms that cause disease? We already have a problem with ineffective antibiotics. How can we develop new drugs to fight these new bugs? Until further studies can show that GM foods and crops do not pose serious threats to human health or the world's ecosystems, the debate over their release will continue. Living organisms are complex and tampering with their genes may have unintended effects. It is in our common interest to support concerned scientists and organizations, such as Friends of the Earth who demand required labeling of these food products and independent testing for safety and environmental impacts.

  1. What is the main difference between conventional breeding and genetic breeding?

  A) The former is based on sexual reproduction between like organisms while the latter can have genes even from bacteria and viruses.

  B) The former is unpredictable while the latter is predictable.

  C) The former is applied by farmers while the latter by scientists.

  D) The former has a long history while the latter a short one.

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  2. Which of the following is the possible benefit of GM crops?

  A) They can be herbicide-resistant. B) They can fertilize the field.

  C) They can produce salt. D) They can be more delicious.

  3. What will probably happen to the genetically modified animals?

  A) They may grow slower. B) They may improve the production.

  C) They may digest more food. D) They may spread disease quickly.

  4. What can we learn from GM salmon according to the passage?

  A) It can grow very slowly. B) It will eat less.

  C) It won't do harm to environment. D) It may cause some disease.

  5. The reason why GM crops will probably lead to environmental damage is that .

  A) GM crop tests do not focus on far-reaching effects

  B) there are no GM crop tests before they are being approved of

  C) there is no single study on the impact of GM crops on the environment

  D) GM crops may bring out foot or mouth disease

  6. This article has mentioned risks about GM crops.

  A) six B) five C) four D) three

  7. The author's attitude towards GM crops is .

  A) objective B) biased C) affirmative D) negative

  8. The native animals that eat GM crops might be poisoned by__________.

  9. Scientists relied on Marker genes to test the results of __________.

  10. Friends of the Earth claim that all GM food should be tested for__________.

  Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  11. A) He doesn't like cheese in the cafeteria. B) He prefers his own cooking.

  C) The man's favorite is the chicken salad. D) He doesn't have any favorite food.

  12. A) In a shop. B) In a bookstore.

  C) In a library. D) In a school.

  13. A) Doctor and patient. B) Nurse and patient.

  C) Teacher and student. D) Father and daughter.

  14. A) Because he was a man.

  B) Because he went to a right section.

  C) Because he was the person the job needed.

  D) Because he was the most outstanding person.

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  15. A) They are talking about clothes. B) They are talking about carpet.

  C) They are talking about curtain. D) They are talking about flowers.

  16. A) Jobs are easier to find in the city. B) Living in the city is not expensive.

  C) Her job is in the city. D) She can go to the cinema every day.

  17. A) His wife deposited some money. B) His wife also opened an account.

  C) His wife also spent some money. D) There is something wrong with the bank.

  18. A) She bought a sweater in the end. B) She bought a blouse finally.

  C) She bought a skirt finally. D) She bought a coat in the end.

  Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  19. A) He wants to buy a house.

  B) He wants to rent several rooms for himself.

  C) He wants to rent a furnished room for himself.

  D) He wants to buy several rooms in the house.

  20. A) A house with no storeys.

  B) A free-standing house with three storeys.

  C) A detached house with three storeys.

  D) A semi-detached house with three storeys.

  21. A) It's a lovely area.

  B) It's an area where there are Chinese people.

  C) It's an area where there are people from different places.

  D) It's a place that is very convenient.

  Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.

  22. A) To see movies. B) To watch birds.

  C) To smell the roses. D) To paint model planes.

  23. A) Play a role in a movie. B) Enjoy the pleasure of life.

  C) Earn more and more money. D) Save money for his children.

  24. A) Stop working. B) See movies in leisure time.

  C) Take full advantage of life like kids. D) Earn money and give it to his children.

  25. A) He has to consider money when he wants to keep his hobby.

  B) The more money he has, the happier he is.

  C) He can't earn more money unless he works more hours a day.

  D) He can appreciate money only when he earns it by himself.

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

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  Passage One

  Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  26. A) Gathering non-relevant materials. B) Stealing another person's idea.

  C) Sharing notes with someone else. D) Handing in assignments late.

  27. A) In the student's own words. B) In direct quotations.

  C) In short phrases. D) In shorthand.

  28. A) It should be assimilated thoroughly. B) It should be enclosed in quotation marks.

  C) It should be paraphrased by the student. D) It should be authorized by the author.

  Passage Two

  Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  29. A) They read poetry aloud.

  B) They delivered a speech.

  C) They took objective tests.

  D) They discussed questions with expert in a particular field.

  30. A) There are more candidates than before.

  B) The modern industry is developing slowly.

  C) The written examinations are much easier than before.

  D) The written examinations are more objective than the spoken ones.

  31. A) The objective test always deals with the personal opinions.

  B) The objective test is timed exactly by electric clocks.

  C) The question of the objective test has only one correct answer.

  D) The objective test resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory.

  Passage Three

  Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.

  32. A) The history of Benjamin Franklin.

  B) The history of the U.S.mail.

  C) The changes of writing letters.

  D) The history of the U.S..

  33. A) To deliver the mail from Boston on horseback to its destination.

  B) To take charge of the mail for all the colonies in North America.

  C) To introduce the use of stagecoaches to carry mail.

  D) To deliver mail to the communities from railways by horse and wagon.

  34. A) The British government.

  B) The American government.

  C) Benjamin Franklin.

  D) George Washington.

  35. A) He established a government service.

  B) He developed a system called "star routes".

  C) He built a lot of post offices.

  D) He established the postal system.

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  Section C

  Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.

  American cities are similar to other cities around the world. In every country, cities reflect the (36)_______ of the culture. Cities contain the very best aspects of a society: (37) _______ for education, employment, and entertainment. They also contain the very worst parts of a society: violent crime, racial conflict, and (38) _______. American cities are changing, just as American society is changing. After World WarⅡ, city residents became wealthier, more prosperous. They had more children. They needed more (39). _______. They moved out of their apartments in the city to buy their own homes. They bought houses in the (40) _______ areas near a city where people live. These are (41) _______ without many offices or factories. During the 1950s the American "dream" was to have a house in the suburbs. Now things are changing. The children of the people who left the cities in the 1950s are now (42). _______. They, unlike their parents, want to live in the cities. Many young professionals, doctors, lawyers, and (43) _______ are moving back to the city. (44) _______. They prefer the city to the suburbs because their jobs are there; they are afraid of the fuel shortage; (45) _______. A new class is moving into the city-a wealthier, more mobile class. (46) _______. Some city residents now see a bright, new future. Others see only problems and conflicts. One thing is sure: Many dying cities are alive again.

  Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)(25 minutes)

  Section A

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.

  Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  More than forty women have been killed in the war in Iraq. Hundreds of others have been ___ 47___.The war began in March of 2003.Two___ 48___published books tell two different stories of women who served in Iraq. One is by Janis Karpinski. She was the Army general who ___ 49___military police at prisons in Iraq. These included the Army Reserve soldiers who ___ 50___ the Abu Ghraib Prison near Baghdad. Some have received prison ___51_for mistreating prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Miz Karpinski became the highest-level officer to be punished in connection with the ___ 52___.She left the service in July after being reduced from a brigadier general(准将) to a colonel(上校).Her book is called "One Woman's Army: The Commanding General of Abu Ghraib Tells Her Story." Miz Karpinski says she was unfairly blamed for conditions beyond her control. She also tells of her difficulties as a rising woman ___ 53___in the Army. Another former member of the Army, Kayla Williams, wrote a book called "Love My Rifle More Than You." The name is taken from a ___ 54___ song. Miz Williams was an Arabic translator in Iraq. She says her book describes what it is like to be young and ___ 55__ in the Army. One famous 56 called it "a frank, hocking and honest look at life in the military."

  A) abused F) case K) marching

  B) female G) commanded L) simply

  C) wounded H) soldier M) guarded

  D) officer I) reviewer N) beautiful

  E) treatments J) recently O) sentences

  Section

  Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  Iron production was revolutionized in the early eighteenth century when coke was first used instead of charcoal (木炭) for refining iron ore. Previously the poor quality of the iron had restricted its use in architecture to items such as chains and tie bars for supporting arches, vaults (拱顶),and walls. With the improvement in refining ore, it was now possible to make cast-iron beams and columns. During the nineteenth century further advances were made, notably Bessemer's process for converting iron into steel, which made the material more commercially feasible.

  Iron was rapidly adopted for the construction of bridges, because its strength was far greater than that of stone or timber, but its use in the architecture of buildings developed more slowly. By 1800 a complete internal iron skeleton for buildings had been developed in industrial architecture replacing traditional timber beams, but it generally remained concealed. Apart from its low cost, the appeal of iron as a building material lay in its strength, its resistance to fire, and its potential to span vast areas. As a result, iron became increasingly popular as a structural material for more traditional styles of architecture during the nineteenth century, but it was invariably concealed.

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  Significantly, the use of exposed iron occurred mainly in the new building types produced by the Industrial Revolution: in factories, warehouses, commercial offices, exhibition halls, and railroad stations, where its practical advantages far outweighed its lack of status. Designers of the railroad stations of the new age explored the potential of iron, covering huge areas with spans that surpassed the great vaults of medieval churches and cathedrals. Paxton's Crystal Palace, designed to house the Great Exhibition of 1851,covered an area of 1848 feet by 408 feet in assembled units of glass set in iron frames. The Paris Exhibition of 1889 included both the widest span and the greatest height achieved so far with the Halle des Machines, spanning 362 feet, and the Eiffel Tower 1,000 feet high. However, these achievements were mocked by the artists of Paris as expensive and ugly foolishness. Iron, despite its structural advantages, had little aesthetic (审美的) status. The use of an exposed iron structure in the more traditional styles of architecture was slower to develop.

  52. What does the passage mainly discuss?

  A) Advances in iron processing in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

  B) The effects of the Industrial Revolution on traditional architectural styles.

  C) Advantages of stone and timber over steel as building materials.

  D) The evolution of the use of iron in architecture.

  53. Iron replaced stone and timber in the building of bridges because iron was considered_________.

  A) more beautiful

  B) new and modern

  C) much stronger

  D) easier to transport

  54. According to Paragraph 3,the architectural significance of the Halle des Machines was its ________.

  A) wide span

  B) great height

  C) unequaled beauty

  D) assembled units of glass

  55. How did the artists react to the buildings at the Paris Exhibition?

  A) They tried to copy them.

  B) They laughed at them.

  C) They praised them.

  D) They refused to pay to see them.

  56. It can be inferred that the delayed use of exposed iron structures in traditional styles of architecture is best explained by________.

  A) the impracticality of using iron for small, noncommercial buildings

  B) the association of iron architecture with the problems of the Industrial Revolution

  C) the general belief that iron offered less resistance to fire and harsh weather than traditional materials

  D) the general perception that iron structures were not beautiful in appearance

  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Four months before Crown Prince Felipe says "si" ( "yes" in Spanish) to television journalist Letizia Ortiz,royal wedding fever is gripping Spain.

  Shops are offering the biggest variety of wedding souvenirs (纪念品),from plates and bottle-openers to copies of the couple's engagement ring.

  The couple have made only a few carefully staged public appearances to reduce the scrutiny (仔细检查).

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  Spanish people waited for more than a decade for the 36-year-old son of King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia to find a suitable bride. And more important, the May 22 wedding will be a landmark event in other ways.

  Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano,31,is the daughter of a nurse and a journalist. So, she will be the first commoner on a throne once occupied by Queen Isabella, who sent Christopher Columbus to the Americas.

  The pretty, elegant former news anchor (主持人)will also become Spain's first home-grown queen in more than a century. The lively and professionally accomplished Letizia has been welcomed by Spanish people as a new type of queen for a modern monarchy.

  Spanish people were accustomed to seeing her in television news broadcasts and she arouses tremendous curiosity. Journalists are investigating even the most ordinary aspects of her past which resembles that of so many other young Spanish professional women.

  Spanish people have also taken note that she tried to interrupt the prince when they talked to the press after getting engaged in November. "Let me talk," she told the heir to the Bourbon throne.

  Such behavior is regarded as understandable in a woman who went to Mexico by herself at age 23 and later reported on the September 11 terrorist attacks and the Iraq war for state television TVE.

  Her strong character, frankness and critical mind could also be disadvantages for a royal who is rarely expected to speak her mind, reporters have said.

  The palace has struggled to protect her from scrutiny and to give her time to adapt to her new role.

  57. By saying "royal wedding fever" (Line 2,Para.1), the author means "_________".

  A) a lot of royal weddings follow

  B) the Spanish people are surprised at the royal wedding

  C) the royal wedding makes a stir in the whole country

  D) the royal wedding becomes a fashion

  58. The most important reason why royal wedding causes such a great interest is that_________ .

  A) a commoner is married into a royal family

  B) the prince finally finds his bride

  C) a famous TV journalist gets married

  D) the wedding is expensive

  59. Letizia used to be a news anchor who was _________.

  A) world-famous

  B) frank

  C) serious

  D) capable

  60. Letizia's interruption of the prince when they talked to the press was most probably prompted by her_________ .

  A) curiosity

  B) innocence

  C) outspokenness

  D) rudeness

  61. The difficulty for Letizia to fit in the royal life may lie in _________.

  A) how to meet the requirements of the Queen

  B) how to change her character to fit in the royal family

  C) how to continue her career after marriage

  D) how to face her former audience as a princess

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  Part Ⅴ Cloze (15 minutes)

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  Acupuncture (针灸) is quite mysterious. People see the most is a person with needles sticking out of the flesh. Understandably being wary ___62___ sharp pointed objects, patients often needs to__63___this obstacle. The best way to do this is becoming educated about how acupuncture is __64___, and where it came from. The earliest __65___ of the use of acupuncture go back to 2,000 years ago. The __66___dates back to as early as the Stone Age. When you experience pain it is an instinctive __67___ to apply pressure to that location. Also the body may experience pain __68___ the infection is not localized. Your body __69___ sends you warning signals. The Ancient Chinese utilized these warnings, and developed an intricate system of these points__70___ observation. It is easy to infer that applying pressure to __71___ pain with your hands evolved __72___ the use of needles instead. Tortoise _73___ have been found recording the use of acupuncture. The first actual written text__74___ the use of acupuncture is called Nei Ching Su Wen. This book basically __75___ all the different points, but it is mostly a book on theory and concept. The Nei Ching Su Wen __76__the basic rules of philosophy on health. These philosophies branched from two mainstream_77__ during the Warring States period. The first is Confucianism. The teachings of this stress that human body is sacred and is __78___ dissection or surgery. This makes acupuncture a perfect means of __79___ illness because applying pressure to the __80__ body, you can relieve internal disease. The other major __81__of thought is called Taoism. Maintaining harmony is the stressed idea; you must have a balance between Yin and Yang.

  62. A) with B) for

  C) of D) about

  63. A) overcome B) succeed

  C) defeat D) fail

  64. A) practiced B) executed

  C) accomplished D) performed

  65. A) recordings B) scripts

  C) handwritings D) copies

  66. A) reason B) origin

  C) source D) root

  67. A) incentive B) reaction

  C) stimulus D) reflection

  68. A) which B) what

  C) when D) where

  69. A) incidentally B) especially

  C) naturally D) definitely

  70. A) through B) with

  C) by D) in

  71. A) control B) suffer

  C) relive D) inflict

  72. A) from B) into

  C) out D) as

  73. A) claws B) bones

  C) shells D) feet

  74. A) exclaimed B) acclaimed

  C) reclaimed D) claimed

  75. A) lays out B) lays about

  C) lays aside D) lays down

  76. A) observes B) proves

  C) sets D) violates

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  77. A) structures B) religions

  C) schools D) conceptions

  78. A) from B) for

  C) against D) versus

  79. A) preserving B) curing

  C) recovering D) restoring

  80. A) terminal B) personal

  C) marginal D) external

  81. A) series B) train

  C) chain D) succession

  Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)

  Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. Please write your translation on Answer Sheet 2.

  82. If you take this kind of medicine three times a day, it________________________ (可以治愈你的胃病).

  83. Instead of waiting to be asked, you should ________________________ (主动开始谈话).

  84. The police ________________________ (正在搜寻一个蓄着胡子的年轻人),but they haven't found him till now.

  85. These courses ________________________ (使我具备了必要的知识)for more advanced studies in Chemistry.

  86. My brother is seriously ill, so I beg to________________________ (请一周的假).

  Key

  PartⅠWriting

  【审题与构思】① 审题及布局。这篇作文根据提纲,可以分为三个段落写作。可以根据自己对这三个方面的了解程度决定详写和略写的段落。第一段说明一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通的情况,如果要把这一段作为详写的段落,可以列举城市政府采取的一些具体的措施。第二段写发展公共交通带来的好处,可以写人们的交通费用降低,同时也可以叙述随着越来越多的人出门乘坐公共交通工具,降低了私家车的出行频率,从而能缓解交通和环境问题。第三段写如何响应政府的号召,最好的方法就是尽量在出行时,使用公共交通工具。②语言。注意段落之间、句子之间的衔接,从而使其成为一个表达清晰,符合逻辑的整体。

  范文点评

  The Decrease of Public Transportation Ticket Fare

  Recently, ① some municipal governments have taken a series of measures to develop public transportation including decreasing public transportation ticket fare. ② On the one hand, they strengthen financial support to public transportation companies. On the other hand, IC cards are issued to offer discount of subway and bus ticket fare.

  The benefits can be seen obviously. ③ One advantage is that the daily transportation expense is reduced. Due to the low prices, more and more people are willing to go out by public vehicles with less cars streaming in the street, ④ the street is clearer and the air is cleaner.

  ⑤ To my mind, traveling via public vehicles is the best way to respond to governments' appeal. Besides, trying to make every trip efficient and reducing the frequency of vehicles is also a good answer.

  ①开门见山,说明一些城市政府实施多项举措降低公共交通票价,大力发展公共交通。municipal"城市的"为高分词。

  ②用On the one hand 和On the other hand,清晰地表明一些城市政府采取的具体措施。

  ③这段阐述发展公共交通带来的好处,采用了因果法。发展公共交通导致交通费降低,而它又使更多人选择公共交通,而其又能缓解交通,改善环境。环环相扣,逻辑严密。

  ④分别用了clear "无堵塞的"和clean"清洁的",用词简单而生动,说明政府的举措有利于解决交通问题和污染问题。

  ⑤表达个人观点,提出了两个建议。

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  Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)

  本文首先比较传统的作物培育方法和转基因培育作物的方法,然后讨论转基因作物及食物给人类以及自然带来的利弊,最后指出人类必须密切关注转基因技术的发展及其影响。

  1. A)。[定位]由题干中的conventional breeding和main difference定位到本文第四段。

  [精析]段首设题。这段明确指出,传统种植过程是在物种之间或者非常相近的物种间进行杂交;GM crops的基因可以取自非常相近的物种,甚至是细菌和病毒。A)项为正确答案。B)项认为传统种植不可预测,而基因培植可以预测,由原文第二段...organisms...through genetic modification.... However, this technology too is inherently unpredictable知该项陈述错误;C)项认为农民用传统种植法,科学家用基因培植法,这与科学家致力于推广该技术的表述不符;D)项认为传统种植法时间长,但基因法短暂,这不是主要的区别。

  2. A)。[定位]由选项的herbicide-resistant,drought-tolerant和salt-tolerant定位到Herbicide-resistant crops这一部分。

  [精析]段落中设题。由该部分下前两句 "So what other advantages do GM crops hold for farmers? GM crops can be produced to be herbicide-resistant."知A)选项正确;第二段首句"Biotechnology companies are even experimenting with crops that can be genetically modified to be drought and salt-tolerant."知C)项陈述错误。B)、D)两项文中没有提及。

  3. B)。[定位]由题干中的genetically modified animals定位到Better Quality Foods这一部分的第一段。

  [精析]段首设题。由首句"Even animals can be genetically modified to be leaner, grow faster, and need less food."知A)、C)两项的陈述与原文陈述相悖,由本段最后一句"Modified crops could perhaps prevent outbreaks such as foot and mouth disease..."知D)项陈述专指转基因食物可以防止口蹄疫,D)项陈述也不符合原文;B)项认为这类动物可以提高产量,即本段第三句"These modifications again lead to improved productivity for farmers",故B)项为正确答案。

  4. D)。[定位]由题干中的GM salmon定位到Better Quality Foods小标题下的第二段第二句。

  [精析]举例处设题。由"GM salmon, capable of growing almost 30 times faster than natural salmon"知A)项陈述不正确;由...without a single study on the impact on human health or the environment"知转基因鲑鱼有可能会对环境和健康造成威胁,C)项陈述不正确、D)项陈述正确。B)项在本段没有提及。

  5. A)。[定位]由题干中的environmental damage定位到Environmental damage这一部分。

  [精析]段首设题。由该部分下第一段的前两句"The problem with GM crops is that there is little known about what effect they will have in, say, 20 years time....GM crop tests focus on short-term effects."可知主要原因是目前的转基因作物的试验着眼于短期影响,无法预知长远的影响。B)、C)项的表述与原文不符;D)项陈述的是可能的结果不是原因,而且与环境没有直接的关系。故A)为正确答案。

  6. D)。[定位]由题干中risks和GM crops定位到Risks: the other side of the debate这一部分。

  [精析]标题处设题。该部分下设三个小标题,分别为:Environmental damage,Risk to food web和Disease。故文章共提到3个潜在危险。D)项为正确答案。

  7. A)。[定位]需要迅速浏览全文,注意标题和小标题。

  [精析]作者态度题。该文的标题为The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods,同时陈述时有两方对立的观点,即Benefits: one side of the debate和Risks: the other side of the debate。由此可知作者在转基因食品的问题上是比较客观的,A)项为正确答案。

  8. built-in pesticides

  [定位]由题干中的eat GM crops和poisoned定位到Risk to food web小标题下的第二句GM crops may also pose a health risk to native animals that eat them. 和第三句The animals may be poisoned by the built-in pesticides.

  [精析]此处需填名词性成分或者动名词。题干将第二和第三个句子重新改写,第二句话中的主语GM crops放到第三句话中充当the animals 的定语,所以此处应该填写名词性成分built-in pesticides。

  9. their genetic modification of a plant

  [定位]由题干中的Marker genes定位到Disease小标题下的第四句Marker genes are used by scientists to determine whether their genetic modification of a plant was successful.

  [精析]此处需填名词性成分。题干将原文的被动句Marker genes are used by scientist改写成主动句Scientists relied on...,并且把原文中的use, determine分别用同义词rely on,test代替;空前给出一个介词of,故可推断空格处应填名词形式,结合原文可知应填写their genetic modification of a plant。

  10.safety and environmental impacts

  [定位]由题干中的Friends of the Earth定位到文章末段末句...Friends of the Earth who demand required labeling of these food products and independent testing for safety and environmental impacts.

  [精析]此处需填名词。题干将原文中定语从句改写成一个that引导的宾语从句;题干中的claim和原文的demand对应;空格前给出一个介词for,故可推断后面是名词形式,结合原文可知应填写safety and environmental impacts。

  .
       
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