Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic of A Few Marks on Competition. You should write at least 120words following the outline given bellow:
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, mark
Y (for YES) if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N (for NO) if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG (for NOT GIVEN) if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
The American Character
When visitors from abroad undertake to describe the American character, the results are frequently puzzling to Americans.
"All Americans are Puritans; that's what's wrong with them," says one.
"They're always thinking about enjoying themselves," says another.
"They spend too much time at work," a distinguished visitor tells us. "They don't know how to play."
"Natural as little beasts. They have no manners, no respect for their elders."
There is, of course, no single pattern of American character any more than there is a single English or Turkish or Chinese character. Personality in America is further complicated by our diverse racial and origins, by successive waves of immigration from all parts of the world, by our regional diversities. It is complicated by several hundred varieties of religious beliefs with their varying impact on the believers. It is further diversified by the generation to which the person belongs-first generation immigrant, second generation child of immigrants, and on down the line.
The temptation is strong to lump all Americans together. Yet those who look a little deeper are puzzled by the seeming contradictions in American life. It is true that Americans as a whole work hard. But they also play hard. They spend more time and money in traveling, camping, hunting, watching sports, drinking, smoking, going to movies, watching television and reading newspapers and magazines than any other people in the world. Yet they also spend more money on churches, social services, hospitals and all kinds of charities. They are always in a hurry, yet they spend more time relaxing.
Success as a Goal
One thing almost everyone is agreed on, including Americans, is that they place a very high valuation upon success. Success does not necessarily mean material rewards, but recognition of some sort-preferably measurable.
In history, there was the richness of opportunity in a land waiting to be settled. There was the lack of a settled society with fixed ranks and classes, so that a man was certain to rise through achievement. So not to strive, not to take advantage of the opportunities in such a world, not to succeed where success was so available-these things naturally became a sort of crime against the state. To develop the resources of a new country required energetic people, bent upon using their energies-not only for the rewards that would result to themselves, but even more important, to the community. Therefore, material success in the United States is not looked upon as selfish. Its results are seen to have commercial value.
A society which values competition so highly is inevitably an aggressive one, even though the laws carefully limit the forms aggression may take. It has a toughness which is good for the development of the economy. Since high respects are given to the successful, the rewards are high. Money is rarely cherished for itself in America; it is rather a symbol and a tool. As a man's status rises, the demands upon him also increase. He is expected to give generously to the hundreds of voluntary associations, which serve the community. Look at the Who's Who entry for any prominent businessman, and you are likely to find him involved in an amazing number of committees and associations organized for the public good.
Since there are no limits of class, there are, in theory, no limits to what he can achieve. As any boy can become President, striving is a moral obligation. Achievement, not class, is the standard by which men are judged. The real test is how far you climb from where you started.
Americans love work. It is meat and drink to them. In recent years they have learned how to play, but they make work of that too. If it's skiing, they throw themselves at it with an effort that would kill a horse. If it's a vacation, they travel at sixty miles an hour, pause only long enough to snap pictures, and then discover what it was they went to see when they get home and look at the photographs.
Americans like to be handy at all things. Nearly everyone knows how to use tools, make simple repairs to plumbing or electrical fixtures, refinish furniture or paint a wall. Far from being thought a disgrace if he performs these "unskilled" tasks, a man is thought ridiculous if he does not know how to perform them.
Along with this urge to be jack-of-all-trades goes a willingness to change from one occupation to another. It surprises no one in America when the banker's son becomes a farmer or vice versa. Or when a college professor shifts into industry, or a young man who starts out with a truck purchased on credit ends up running an enterprise with fleets of trucks spanning several states..
What is an American?
"I can't make you out," Henry James has Mrs. Tristram say to the American, "whether you are very simple or very deep." This is a dilemma, which has often confronted Europeans. Usually they conclude that Americans are childish. But one cannot accurately call one society mature, another immature. Each has its own logic.
What is it then that makes Americans recognizable wherever they go? Free from the social restraints which would make them act very differently at home, they are bent on making the most of this freedom. Americans carry with them an appearance, which is more a result of attitude than of clothing. This attitude combines a lack of class consciousness, a somewhat cheerful optimism and an inquisitiveness(好打听别人的事情) which look to the European like naivety. Also a liking for facts and figures, and above all a desire to be friendly.
To sum up, American characteristics are the product of response to an unusually competitive situation combined with unusual opportunity.
Americans are a peculiar people. They work like mad, then give away much of what they earn. They play until they are exhausted, and call this a vacation. They love to think of themselves as tough-minded businessmen, yet they are pushovers(易于征服的人) for any hard luck story. They have the biggest of nearly everything including government, motorcars and debts, yet they are afraid of bigness. They also have the most traffic deaths, the most waste, the most racketeering(敲诈勒索).
There is, of course, no typical American. But if you added them all together and then divided by 226,000,000 they would look something like what this essay has tried to portray.
1. Unlike the English, Turkish, or Chinese, Americans don't have a uniform pattern of character.
2. Americans attach great importance to success though they don't equate success with materials rewards.
3. Generally speaking, Americans don't think there is anything wrong with personal material success.
4. Americans like skiing better than any other physical activity.
5. People in different societies have different patterns of character. There is no way to decide which society is superior.
6. Americans attribute the forming of their characteristics to the influence of different cultures.
7. From the passage, we can come to a conclusion that there is little or no glory attached to being born wealthy or privileged in the United States
8. Americans spend _____________on entertainment than people elsewhere in the world.
9. It is _______________that makes Americans recognizable wherever they go.
10. Besides naïve, Europeans use another word to describe Americans. The word is "___________".
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A, B, C and D, and decided which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
11. A) They forgot all about their departure that morning.
B) They were late by fifteen minutes.
C) They got up late by fifteen minutes.
D) The man's watch slowed down.
12. A) He's unhappy because the progress is slow.
B) He's making steady progress.
C) He's a good swimmer already.
D) He's quite satisfied with his progress.
13. A) He performed better than the secretary.
B) He exaggerated his part
C) He was not dramatic enough.
D) He played his part quite well..
14. A) There's no one willing to work on this committee.
B) No one is willing to work with them.
C) The man knows several people on the committee.
D) The man should be on the committee.
15. A) The man will probably do the woman a favor.
B) It was just half an hour ago that the man met Mr. Smith.
C) The woman forgot to write own the phone number.
D) The woman needed a sheet of paper to put down the number.
16. A) He feels sorry for those students.
B) He thinks it right to punish those students.
C) He thinks those students should be expelled from college.
D) He thinks the punishment is too severe.
17. A) She has to think about it.
B) The fish is safe to eat.
C) The man shouldn't eat the fish.
D) She doesn't like fish.
18. A) Short hair looks fashionable.
B) Short hair is more comfortable.
C) Short hair looks nicer.
D) She doesn't have an air conditioner.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on he conversation you have just heard.
19. A) Proteins.
C) Gene therapy.
D) Genetic disorders.
20. A) Proteins.
21. A) The gene therapy is very essential to human body.
B) The gene therapy is to alter cellular structures.
C) The gene therapy is to correct imperfect genes.
D) The gene therapy is to cure all human diseases.
22. A) The gene therapy has gone through the experimental stage.
B) The gene therapy is still in its trial stage.
C) The gene therapy has proven very successful so far.
D) Many patients have benefited from the gene therapy..
23. A) She bought it at a retailer's.
B) She bought it on sale.
C) She bought via the net.
D) She bought at a department store.
24. A) low price and safety.
B) safety and convenience.
C) safety and efficiency.
D) low price and convenience.
C) Quality of goods.
D) Security about personal information.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26.A) Just before she fastened her seat belt.
B) Ten minutes after she was sitting on board.
C) When the plane was up in the sky.
D) As she was enjoying the beauty of the sky.
27. A) police officers.
B) airline officials.
D) an airline official and a police officer.
28. A) Because a ticking sound came from the suitcase of the woman.
B) Because the woman took an alarm clock with her.
C) Because she continued to smoke despite the warning.
d) Because she was found to be a suspect.
Questions 29 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) books, art , music and handicraft.
B) books, art , handicraft and toys.
C) art, music, handicraft and toys.
D) books, art, music and toys.
30. A) A new method of making toys .
B) A new method of selling toys.
C) A new library service.
D) A new way of advertising..
31.A) A toy library.
B) A science library.
C) An art library.
D) A record library .
32. A) Books to read.
C) A place to receive education.
D) A place to meet and play with other children.
Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
33.A) Because they want to avoid using words like "old" .
B) Because they know the United States is a country.
C) Because old people are looked down upon everywhere.
D) Because they wish that they could be turned younger..
34. A) There is better medical care.
B) There are better living conditions.
C) People are doing more exercises..
D) Old people are being taken good care of by their children.
35. A) Because they don't know any other way of spending money.
B) Because they are happy to accept the fact they are old.
C) Because they know it's worth every penny of it to look young..
D) Because they know the government will cover the cost.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Birth, marriage and death: these are the greatest (36)___________ in a human's life. Many things, good and bad, can happen to us in our lives. Yet there are three days which are usually (37) ___________ by some special (38)__________: the day we are born, the day we get married and the day we die. These are the three main things in life. We only have a choice in the second of these: we can choose whether or not to marry. But we have no choice in birth and death. All human beings are (39)__________ by these three things. The only thing that (40)___________ in each society is the way in which these are (41)__________. Yet all societies(42) ___________ common (43) ___________. Birth is a time of joy. (44)______________________________________________. Marriage is also a time of joy. (45)_________________________________________. Death is a time of sorrow and is marked by a special ceremony and mourning. (46)___________________________________________.
Part IV Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choice. Each choice in bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
If the technological revolution continues to have its (47) __________, there will be fewer jobs, (48) _________ to school-leavers. Two people will therefore work only twenty hours each instead of the forty they are currently accustomed to. It is a well-known fact that those who (49)__________ from stress at work are often not high-powered executives but unskilled workers doing boring, (50) __________ jobs on production lines. Unemployment often has a similar effect on its (51)__________.
Many have already turned to pills and tablets to combat sleeplessness and anxiety, two of the symptoms of long-term stress and depression. In America, we spend $ 650 million a year on different kinds of medicines. We swallow a (52)____________ three million sleeping tablets every night. Although these "drugs of the mind" can be extremely useful in cases of crisis, the (53) ___________ of patients would be better off without them.
The boredom and frustration of unemployment are not the only causes of stress: poor housing, family problems, overcrowding and (54) ___________ worry are all significant factors. (55) ____________, doctors believe that if people learnt to breathe properly, took more exercise, used their leisure time more actively and expressed their anger instead of bottling it up, they would not depend so much on drugs, which (56) __________ only the symptoms and not the cause of the stress..
A) Nevertheless I) Therefore
B) staggering J) majority
C) repetitive K) treat
D) number L) suffer
E) diagnose M) effects
F) financial N) results
G) victims O) particularly
Directions: There are 2 passage in this section .Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C, and D .You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Personality is to a large extent inherent-A-type parents usually bring about A-type off-spring. But the environment must also have a profound effect, since if competition is important to the parents, it is likely to become a major factor in the lives of their children.
School is, by its very nature, a highly competitive institution. Too many schools adopt the "win at all costs" moral standard and measure their success by academic achievements. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A types seem in some way better than their B-type fellows. Being too keen to win can have dangerous consequences.
By far the worst form of competition in schools is the disproportionate emphasis on examinations. Obviously, it is neither practical nor desirable that all A youngsters change into B's. Schools should allow pupils to concentrate on those things they do well. The world needs types, and schools have an important duty to try to fit a child's personality to his possible future employment. It is top management.
If the preoccupation of schools with academic work was lessened, more time might be spent teaching children surer values. Perhaps selection for the caring professions, especially medicine, could be made less by good grades in chemistry and more by such considerations as sensitivity and sympathy. It is surely a mistake to choose our doctors exclusively from A-type stock. B's are important and should be encouraged.
57.According to the passage, A-type individuals are usually __________.
A) impatient B) considerate
C) aggressive D) agreeable
58.Why is the author strongly opposed to the practice of examinations at schools?
A) The pressure is too great on the students
B) Failure rates are too high.
C) The priority of a school is to let pupils get prepared for their future careers.
D) The results of examinations are doubtful.
59.The selection of medical professionals are currently based on ______________.
A) candidates' sensitivity B) academic achievements
C) competitive spirit D) surer values
60.From the passage we can draw the conclusion that__________.
A) B-type persons can find no place in a competitive society.
B) The personality of a child is well established at birth.
C) Schools dominate the shaping of one's personality.
D) The development of one's personality is due to many factors.
61.What does the word "disproportionate" ( Para. 3)mean?
A) inappropriate B) unimportant
C) out of proportion D) improper.
Consumers are frequently unaware that about 30 percent of nation wide department stores are franchised(给予经销权) with numerous outlets. Chain stores are a group of retail stores that are supervised or coordinated by centralized management. From a business perspective, chain stores have numerous advantages over independent stores, one of which is that the parent company almost always has the credit to purchase large quantities of goods to supply to its outlets and to receive a discount for placing such an order. Through the centralized system of distribution, chain stores can absorb the cost and price differential and attract consumers with various physical and psychological needs. They can also distribute their operating costs for accounting, advertising, marketing, merchandising, and transportation.
In general, approximately 50 percent of gross product cost results from the associated marketing research and distribution. While research focuses on the probable market segments, it strongly considers consumer behavior and cognitive motives rather than the actual prices of goods. Similarly, the cost increase in the multiple channels of distribution accounts for about 23 percent of the unit price. By combining their marketing resources and distribution and networks, franchise outlets can avoid performing whole stages of marketing studies and layers of distribution networks to reduce unit prices. It is the central company that conducts marketing and communicates with manufacturers, thus controlling production decisions and the pricing policy. Franchises operate according to their contracts with the parent company and pay it a fraction of their net gains. They symbolize a brand name and identify their goods with a particular range of quality that sets it apart from other similar products. Essentially, chain stores convert consumer brand name loyalty into profit; this factor determines franchise proliferation and results in a relatively low degree of failure.
62.What is the passage mainly about?
A) The Marketing of Chain Store Products
B) Marketing Studies and Distribution Networks
C) The Mechanism of Chain Stores
D) Pricing and Distribution
63.It can be inferred from the passage that chain stores____________.
A) are more profitable than department stores
B) can reduce their operating costs by the centralized management system
C) enjoy more freedom in pricing.
D) have a greater appeal than the parent company
64.Who is responsible for the marketing and communicating with the manufacturers according to the passage?
A) The parent company
C) Chain stores
D) Independent outlets
65.What does " a fraction of their net gains"(Para.2) mean?
A) a certain amount of their net profit
B) a small amount of their net profit
C) part of their net profit
D) a large amount of their net profit
66.It can be inferred from the passage that the parent company probably dictates__________.
A) what sales personnel are employed
B) what profit an outlet makes
C) how products are sold
D) how goods are advised.
Part V Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
What makes a home? Love and sympathy and confidence. It is a place 67 kindly affections 68 among all the members of the family. The parents take good care of their children, and the children are interested in the 69 of their parents. Thus all of them are 70 together by affection, and they find their home to be the 71 place in the world.
A home without love is no more a home72 a body without a 73 is a man. A man may 74 a successful and prosperous life, but prosperity alone can 75 76 happiness. Many great personages in the world history had 77 affections for their homes.
Your home may be poor and 78, but your duty lies there. You should try to make it cheerful and comfortable. The 79 the difficulties, the richer will be your 80.
A home is more than a family dwelling. It is a school in which people are trained for 81. A man will not 82 good service to his country if he can do nothing good for his home; for in 83 as he loves his home, will he love his country. The home is the 84 of true patriotism. It is the secret of social 85 and national greatness. It is the basis and 86 of civilization.
67.A)that B)which C)as D)where
68.A)exist B)prevail C)occur D)stand
69.A)ideas B)actions C)words D)activities
70.A)fastened B)bound C)wrapped D) strapped
71.A)cheeriest B)best C)most comfortable D)dearest
72.A)as B)for C)like D)than
73.A)heart B)mind C)soul D)brain
74.A)make B)do C)lead D)live
75.A)by no means B)by all means
76.A)assure B)insure C)promise D)reassure
77.A)deep B)intense C)strong D)profound
78.A)penniless B)simple C)humble D)plain
79.A)great B)greater C)greatest D)large
80.A)consequence B)benefit C)triumph D)reward
81.A)rights B)obligations C)membership D)citizenship
82.A)render B)give C)provide D)offer
83.A)contrast B)proportion C)reply D)time
84.A)breeding ground B)nourishment
85.A)welfare B)interest C)advantages D)success
86.A)foundation B)origin C)establishment D)ground
Part VI Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
87. From that day on, ____________. (我的生活才过得有意义)
88. It is high time that __________________. (杜绝这种错误)
89. It is not that he is not clever enough, _________. (而是他已沉迷网络很久了)
90. It is no good______________. (再继续和他争吵)
91. No one could account for_____________. (他一夜之间成了百万富翁).
Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Competitions and Personal Development
Nowadays, competition has almost become a natural part in every aspect of our life. On the sports ground, for example, sportsmen do their best to win the champion. In the business field, businessmen try every means to gain more profits; in school, students exert all their efforts in a race against their classmates for good marks.
Competition is cruel, but does play an important part in one's personal development. Firstly, competition stimulate us to work harder. As we know we may fail if we fall behind the others, we will devote more efforts to work, which will inevitably help to improve our abilities. Secondly, competition can make us psychologically strong. Since only the fittest survive, we'll have to become strong to adapt to the cold competitions. Thirdly, competition strengthens the idea of equality of opportunity, so that each person has chances to display his ability. In a word, it's competition that helps to bring our ability into full play.
In my opinion, competition is a double-edged sword, It can sharpen one's skills and capabilities on the one hand; on the other hand it can also weigh down a person with unbearable pressure. So it's important to for an individual to view competition in a constructive way, so that we can use it dynamically rather than destructively for personal development.
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
1.答案为 N. 考生在文中可以找到"There is, of course, no single pattern of American character any more than there is a single English or Turkish or Chinese character."句子的意思是"当然，正如英国人、土耳其人、中国人都不是只有一种性格模式一样，美国人的性格也不是单一的。"题目的意思是"和英国人、土耳其人、中国人不同的是，美国人的性格不是完全一样的。"本题与原句表述不一致。
2.答案为 Y. 从题目中确定题眼attach great importance to success和don't equate success with material rewards。这两处分别对应原文的place a very high valuation upon success 和success does not necessarily mean material rewards。
3.答案为 Y. 逻辑判断题。原文中提到"Therefore, material success in the United States is not looked upon as selfish." "not selfish" 就是"not anything wrong" 的意思。
4.答案为 NG. 逻辑判断题。文章以滑雪为例，表明美国人已经学会玩，而且很投入，但这并不能说明美国人最喜欢滑雪运动。
5.答案为 Y. 这是对原文"But one cannot accurately call one society mature, another immature. Each has its own logic."所做的paraphrase。题目和原句表述一致。
6. 答案为 N. 细节题。从原文"American characteristics are the product of response to an unusually competitive situation combined with unusual opportunity."一句，可以知道美国人的性格是由于特殊的竞争环境和特殊的机会而形成的。
7.答案为 Y. 逻辑判断题。从文中的"no limits of class" 和 "any boy can become President", 可以得出题目中的结论。
8.答案为more time and money. 细节题。从文章中可以找到"They spend more time and money in traveling, camping, hunting, watching sports, drinking, smoking, going to movies, watching television and reading newspapers and magazines than any other people in the world."题中的entertainment是对美国人喜欢的娱乐活动的概括。
9.答案为their/the freedom. 细节题。从原文中"What is it then that makes Americans recognizable wherever they go? Free from the social restraints which would make them act very differently at home, they are bent on making the most of this freedom."可以找到相关信息。
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
11. Woman: If you had got up earlier by fifteen minutes, we would have been able to catch the train.
Man: Yes, if my watch didn't' betray me.
Question: Why did they miss the train?
12. Woman: Ed, how is your swimming class going? I think you are learning well.
Man: Slowly but surely.
Question: What does the man mean?
解析：从男士的回答中，我们知道他对自己的进步基本满意，所以我们应该选择一个满意度中等的选项，而排除A, B, D这些极端的说法。
13. Man: How did you like yesterday's play?
Woman: Generally speaking, it was quite good.
The part of secretary was played wonderfully, but I think the man who played the boss was too dramatic to be realistic.
Question: How does the woman feel about the man's acting in the play?
解析：女士谈对这部戏的观点时，认为秘书扮演的很好;但老板一角色过分戏剧化，不够真实，考生要熟悉too... to结构，也要知道dramatic 和 realistic这两个词的含义。
14.Man: I wonder who would be willing to work on this committee.
Woman: Well, you know more about it than anyone.
Question: What does the woman mean?
解析: 从女士的对话中，可以判定她认为这位男士是最了解该委员会情况的，因此他是最佳人选。more than anyone 这个比较级表示的是最高级的含义。
15. Woman: What a memory I have! I did write down the number on a sheet of paper when I answered the phone this morning. But now the paper has disappeared without any trace.
Man: Don't worry. I'll be seeing Mr. Smith in half an hour.
Question: What do we know from the conversation?
解析：B、C、D都是与对话不符的错误信息。既然对话中的男士半个小时后会见到Mr. Smith且劝女士不要着急, 那就表明他愿意帮忙。
16.Woman: Professor Davis caught five students cheating on the final exam and failed them.
Man: Serve them right.
Question: What does the man mean?
解析：本题考查学生对短语serve sb. right的掌握，该短语表示"活该，罪有应得", 所以B是正确选项。
17. Man: I bought this fish to cook for dinner tonight, but it doesn't look all that fresh now. Would you say it's still all right to eat?
Woman: Let me have a look... Oh, if I were you, I wouldn't even think of it.
Question: What does the woman imply?
18. Man: I think that short hair is fashionable these
days, but you looked so much nicer with long hair.
Woman: Long hair may look nice, but during the summer it's uncomfortable. Even after I bought an air conditioner, my hair still bothered me.
Question: What is the woman's reason for cutting her hair?