Part I Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on the topic “College Students Learning Budgeting”. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese:
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Time Off from Work Gains in Importance
American workers are saying they need a break. As their number of hours clocked on the job has crept higher, more time off has become a bigger priority. In the past few years, human resources experts say time off has consistently placed among the top three employee concerns, along with compensation and staffing levels, whereas it used to be farther down the list. In a Salary.com poll taken online in November 2004, 39% of workers said if given the choice, they would choose time off over the equivalent in additional base salary. Of course, most of the 4,600 respondents are still opting for the bigger paycheck, but the desire for time off is up almost 20% from just three years ago when Salary.com conducted a similar poll.
The reasons for this shift are many and varied. Some have to do with the way a new generation is thinking about work, while others are driven by how companies are responding to recent economic pressures.
A New Generation
The results may in part represent the needs of a new breed of workers. The average American is working one month (160 hours) more each year than a generation ago. According to recruiting and human capital management expert John Sumser, younger workers work for meaning first and money second. He goes on to warn employers that these are the people who are the foundation for the next workforce and they may not buy the existing paradigm (范例). A study released in late 2004 by the New York-based Families and Work Institute concludes that the new brand of young workers is rejecting the work-centric style of their parents’ generation. The study, which examines changes in the workforce over the past 25 years, found that younger workers are more likely to be “family-centric” or “dual-centric” (with equal priorities on both career and family) rather than “work-centric” when compared to members of the Boomer Generation..
September 11th and the End of the Roaring Nineties
The impact of the terrorist attacks of September 11th cut across all age groups of the workforce. We collectively entered a new era, reevaluating life’s priorities and making changes in our attitude toward time spent at work versus hobbies and family. “I started looking at things completely differently. I’ve been far less willing to put in the 14-hour days necessary to get noticed and climb the corporate ladder,” said Tony Jackson, a 43-year-old employee of a New York City-based financial services company. “Frankly, I can’t see that changing.”
Even before September 11th, some experts say the slow shift in worker attitudes was already underway due to the end of the roaring 1990’s, when hours were long and significant personal wealth was created. For those who fared well financially, some opted for careers of contract work where they could call more of the shots pertaining to (与……有关的) time off, or new occupations with greater personal rewards. For others, even if their bank accounts were not spilling over from America’s economic heyday (全盛时期), their own energy had been depleted due to unrelenting (毫不松懈的) years of work hours and high stress. They were ready for something less taxing.
Families and Work Institute President and co-founder Ellen Galinsky agrees. She says the Salary.com poll numbers show evidence of an increase in need for time off and a shift in thinking due to the fact that workers have been pushed to their limit in recent years. “This new generation of workers is at the edge of how long they can work. It just feels like too much. They are not slackers (懒虫); they just don’t want more,” says Galinsky.
Monetary Needs Less Intense Due to Dual Income Households
“We’ve decided we prefer to have more time to ourselves,” says Carol Kornhaber, a New England software programmer in her late twenties. Kornhaber and her husband are both working but have sought out jobs where they are not pressed to put in long hours. Instead, they have insisted upon eight-hour days and having enough vacation time to travel, a major interest they share. Financial pressures are eased by both of them working and keeping a careful watch on their expenses. “We are lucky in a lot of ways to have found bosses who understand our needs.”
Trying to squeeze more productivity out of workers may be nothing new, but it has become particularly acute in recent years. This has been due in large measure to recession-induced layoffs and other trends such as the rising cost of healthcare benefits. After a layoff, workers who remain behind are often asked to pick up most or even all the load of the people who were let go, requiring more and more hours at the office. As new corporate initiatives are planned, the inverse is also true. As Sumser observes, “the additional workload, which runs across the economy from the office worker to the manufacturing line, seems to be a function of the cost of benefits. The regulations make it cheaper to add workload for existing employees than to hire new players.” The Families and Work Institute reports that nearly one third of U.S. employees often or very often feel overworked or overwhelmed by how much work they have to do. Nearly three out of four report that they frequently dream about doing something different from their current job..
Show Me the Money
Overworked or not, the majority in the Salary.com poll still chose to fatten their paycheck if given the choice. For many, it was a practical matter. Says Peggy Jones, an accountant in a Boston area business services company, “I already get three weeks a year that I can’t use up because I’m so busy. I’d definitely go for the extra money to pay some bills or make a big purchase I’ve been holding off on.” For Jones, the realities of running a household and saving up for college for her children simply need to take precedence over extra free time.
Companies Are Already Responding
To many human resources experts it is inevitable that, given the growing health of the economy and the upcoming population-driven labor shortages as the Boomer Generation moves into retirement, the pendulum of control in the employee-employer relationship will swing back to the employee side. That is expected to begin in just a few years. According to human resources expert, Larry Schumer, at Salary.com, “since most companies succeed based on a motivated and capable workforce, they have offered and will continue to offer more paid flexibility, whether it be through tried and tested time-off programs or the next great idea.” Where will that new balance of employer versus employee needs lie? Time, or perhaps time off, surely will tell.
1. Which of the following has been rising in importance in the past few years?
A) Compensation. B) Time off. C) Right to vote. D) Staffing levels.
2. According to the passage, we know that the Boomer Generation is concerned ________.
A) about family and work equally B) more about work
C) more about family D) about neither work nor family
3. What can be inferred about Tony Jackson?
A) He is 43 years old. B) He works in a financial services company.
C) He has changed his life and work attitude. D) He spends 14 hours a day on his work.
4. When did American workers gradually begin to change their attitudes towards work?
A) After September 11. B) In November 2004.
C) In late 2004. D) At the end of the roaring 1990’s.
5. According to Ellen Galinsky, why did workers change their mind about work?
A) They have been pushed to the limit of their working hours.
B) They increased their need to enjoy life.
C) They have more rights than before.
D) They don’t want to work for a living..
6. Carol Kornhaber and her husband don’t have too much financial pressure because ___________.
A) they have parents who are rich B) they don’t have children to feed
C) they both have a high salary D) they both have work and they are thrifty
7. After a layoff, the employees who keep their jobs usually have to ___________.
A) find another job in case they are fired B) do what their bosses tell them to
C) work longer hours to avoid being fired D) do the work left by the laid-off workers
8. According to Salary.com, compared with three years ago, the desire for time off is up almost ________.
9. According to the poll from Salary.com, the majority of employees preferred to ________ if they had the choice.
10. Larry Schumer said that most companies succeeded based on a motivated and capable __________.
Part III Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
■ Section A
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 11 to 20 are based on the following passage.
A pioneering study into the effects of a mother’s fat intake during pregnancy on her child’s health when he or she grows up is being launched at the University of Southampton.
The research will investigate whether the type and amount of fat a mother eats during pregnancy 11 the risk of heart disease, 12 high blood pressure, in her child when he or she reaches adulthood.
Although the link between high fat diets and high blood pressure is well known, there has been 13 research into the connection between a woman’s diet and her child’s risk of hypertension (高血压).
The study, which is 14 by the British Heart Foundation, is led by Dr Graham Burdge, British Heart Foundation Professor of Cardiovascular Science..
The award of this 15 grant is part of a ￡3.5 million boost for heart research in the UK by the British Heart Foundation. The charity’s special grants are made to fund research into the causes, prevention, 16 and treatment of heart disease, the UK’s biggest killer.
Dr Burdge says, “The type and amount of fat in our diet has 17 during the past 50 years. Pregnant women 18 the same diet as the rest of us, but we know very little about the 19 of these changes in dietary (饮食的) fat on the development and future health of their children. We hope that the 20 of this study will help to develop recommendations for pregnant women about how much fat they should eat and what types of fat they should avoid.”
A) funded I) consume
B) diagnosis J) covering
C) including K) influences
D) founded L) notorious
E) changed M) effects
F) enough N) affects
G) findings O) prestigious
■ Section B
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished sentences. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
During the past seven or eight years, researchers have made some new and exciting discoveries about osteoarthritis (骨关节炎), a common and debilitating problem. No longer considered an inevitable consequence of the wear and tear associated with aging, osteoarthritis is now understood to be an active process that progressively damages cartilage (软骨) , the normally resilient (有弹性的) connective tissue cushioning every joint in the body. Osteoarthritis is caused by damaged cartilage that the body cannot properly repair. As we age, our cartilage becomes more prone to damage. When this damage occurs, cells within the cartilage may release mediators (substances that cause local inflammation), along with other cartilage-destroying chemicals. This process of damage upon more damage results in osteoarthritis.
Researchers have been able to identify what puts people at risk of developing osteoarthritis. Age is not necessarily an issue, although the disease is certainly more common in the elderly. Obesity is an overwhelmingly strong risk factor. For those already diagnosed, losing weight has been shown to slow the disease’s progression and substantially ease joint pain. Injury to a bone or joint may make that area more prone to arthritis in the future. For example, ankle fractures and knee surgery are linked to osteoarthritis, as are injuries due to some vigorous contact sports. Repetitive activities such as the movements involved in certain fields of work can contribute to osteoarthritis..
A number of recent studies have emphasized the importance of exercise in reducing pain and maintaining function in people with osteoarthritis. Weight reduction is another key component of treatment. Shoe inserts and knee braces can also relieve knee pain caused by osteoarthritis. Although basic pain medications can help, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (布洛芬，一种抗炎、镇痛药) are more effective in relieving pain. However, these drugs carry the risk of kidney damage, high blood pressure, fluid retention and stomach bleeding. Glucosamine sulfate (氨基葡萄糖硫酸盐) is a component of normal joint cartilage. Recent studies have shown that 1,500 mg per day of this medication, available without a prescription, can decrease pain and improve function for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
21. According to the passage, osteoarthritis ________.
A) is inevitably caused by wear and tear due to aging
B) is an active process in which cartilage is damaged abruptly
C) is caused by damaged cartilage that the body cannot properly repair
D) is caused by cells within the cartilage that may release mediators
22. According to this passage, which of the following won’t lead to osteoarthritis?
A) Vigorous contact sports. B) Repetitive activities.
C) Going on a diet. D) Injury to a joint.
23. According to this passage, which of the following is NOT a possible supplementary treatment for osteoarthritis?
A) Losing weight. B) Doing exercise.
C) Using shoe inserts. D) Taking surgeries.
24. Which of the following is the best title for this passage?
A) A New Insight into Osteoarthritis
B) A New Symptom of Osteoarthritis
C) Mysterious Effects of Exercise on Osteoarthritis
D) New Categories of Osteoarthritis.
25. What kind of article does this passage NOT belong to?
A) An advertisement for medicine.
B) An introduction to osteoarthritis.
C) A science report from a health agency.
D) A research paper of a professor.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
The IEA’s World Energy Outlook report says increasing demand and use of energy is unsustainable and has to be curbed (控制).
The switch to more low-carbon energy will require an extra investment of ￡2.7 trillion — equivalent to 0.2 per cent of GDP — the IEA report said, with an average ￡11 spent per head worldwide on more efficient cars, appliances and buildings. The improved energy efficiency would deliver fuel-cost savings of almost ￡4.5 trillion.
Three-quarters of the projected rise in energy-related CO2 emissions will be accounted for by some developing countries.
IEA executive director Nobuo Tanaka said, “Current trends in energy supply and consumption are apparently unsustainable.”
The report says that, assuming no new government policies, the world energy demand will grow by 1.6 per cent per year on average between 2006 and 2030. This figure is lower than projected last year because the economic slowdown has reduced demand.
Demand for oil will rise from the current 85m barrels per day to 106m barrels by 2030. Demand for coal will rise more than any other fuel — despite the environmental damage it causes — accounting for more than a third of the increase in energy use.
The report claims oil will remain the world’s main source of energy for many years to come even with the rapid development of alternative renewable energy technology but the amount of oil remaining, production costs and consumer price will remain unpredictable.
Mr. Tanaka said big international oil and gas companies would in the future have limited scope to increase reserves and production while in contrast national companies are projected to account for about 80 per cent of the increase of both oil and gas production to 2030.
The report says measures to curb CO2 emissions will improve energy security by reducing global fossil-fuel energy use but this would not alarm the world’s major oil producers.
“OPEC production will need to be 12m barrels higher per day in 2030 than today. It is clear that the energy sectors will have to play the central role in tackling climate change,” said Mr. Tanaka..
26. The switch to more low-carbon energy will ________.
A) need an additional $2.7 trillion investment
B) consume 2 per cent of the U.K.’s GDP
C) cost each person in the U.K. $11 on average
D) save about ￡4.5 trillion in fuel costs
27. What does the underlined sentence mean in the third paragraph?
A) 75% of the investment on energy efficiency projects will come from some developing countries.
B) Some developing countries will raise their energy-related CO2 emissions by 75%.
C) 75% of the projected energy-related CO2 emissions increase will come from some developing countries.
D) Some developing countries will cut their energy- related CO2 emissions by 75%.
28. Which of the following will be the major energy source in the next few years?
A) Oil. B) Coal. C) Gas. D) Bio-fuel.
29. According to Mr. Tanaka, who will play the key role in coping with climate change?
A) The oil producers. B) The energy sectors. C) The oil consumers. D) The policy makers.
30. What’s the passage mainly talking about?
A) National companies in the U.K. should produce more oil and gas.
B) The increasing demand and use of energy should be controlled.
C) New efficient energy methods should be investigated and widely used.
D) China, India and the Middle East should do more to protect the environment.
Part IV Cloze (15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage.
Schools have been vilified (中伤) for giving kids access to soda in vending machines. 31 new data suggests that school soft drink sales may not be an important 32 in how much soda kids drink..
33 compared soda consumption among nearly 500 students in Maine 34 attended seven schools over two school years. Four of the schools cut back on soft drink availability at the schools, while three of the schools made no 35 .
Notably, all the students were drinking less soda 36 the end of the study period, but there were no 37 differences in overall soft drink 38 among the different schools. The data suggests that curbing soft drink availability at school doesn’t 39 in significant changes in beverage consumption patterns. While there were no changes in overall soda consumption, there was a notable shift in diet soda drinking among girls. If the school 40 soda availability, girls were 41 likely to drink diet soda, 42 to girls in schools that made no changes.
The data is the latest to suggest that schools may not 43 as big a role in kids’ poor eating habits 44 widely believed. Last year, The American Journal of Public Health published a provocative (发人深思的) study 45 that childhood weight problems often get 46 in the summer, when kids are out of school.
Data from kindergarteners and first graders 47 that body mass index increased two to three times as fast in summer as 48 the regular school year.
Notably, even children who were too thin and needed to gain weight appeared 49 better eating habits during the school year. They 50 gained more weight while in school and less in the summer.
31. A) While B) And C) For D) But
32. A) factor B) part C) place D) indicator
33. A) Teachers B) Students C) Researchers D) Doctors
34. A) which B) why C) where D) who
35. A) efforts B) progress C) changes D) contributions
36. A) by B) in C) for D) on
37. A) helpful B) meaningful C) helpless D) meaningless
38. A) consumption B) consumer C) assurance D) assurer
39. A) lead B) cause C) result D) believe
40. A) set back B) cut off C) cut up D) set out
41. A) less B) more C) least D) most
42. A) comparing B) compare C) compared D) comparison
43. A) take B) use C) act D) play.
44. A) as B) so C) for D) since
45. A) described B) describing C) showed D) showing
46. A) better B) worse C) best D) worst
47. A) found B) find C) discovered D) discover
48. A) over B) during C) with D) among
49. A) being B) to be C) having D) to have
50. A) really B) truly C) actually D) partially
Part V Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentences by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
51. Some people laughed at her, but after a while _______________ (他们开始认真对待她了).
52. He thought that life was just _____________________ (一连串无休止的聚会).
53. She was so tired that _______________________ (她不能将注意力集中在工作上).
54. He has worked in the company for ten years, and _____ ____________(为公司的发展做出了重要贡献).
55. _______________ (在经济危机的压力之下) , many companies began to dismiss employees.
Part I Writing
One possible version:
College Students Learning Budgeting
It seems that today, many college students lack enough money to deal with their daily expenses.
The reasons for this are various. First of all, the increasing cost of living makes them spend a large part of their living allowances that their parents give them. Secondly, they also have to pay for their studies. For example, they have to buy dictionaries, books, etc. Lastly, they also spend money on their free time activities. However, most of the time, they don’t manage the money wisely.
It is important for college students to learn how to budget. They can take notes of their monthly expenses. If they spend too much on entertainment, for instance, they have to control their spending the next month. They should learn to keep their money in the bank. Only when they need money should they withdraw a small amount..