Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8 to10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
Using the mind to fight diseases
Psychology has a new application in the field of medicine. Many doctors, together with their
patients, are looking for alternative methods of treatment of physical problems. In large hospitals and research centers, modern methods of therapy seem to focus on the physical disease without considering the patients' mental state. Patients may feel that they are being treated impersonally, like broken machines. Some doctors have recognized this as a problem. They are now using psychological therapy with patients to use their own minds to fight their diseases. Because the patient is working with the medicine and the doctors against the disease, his or her attitude changes. The patient does not wait for the medicine and treatment to cure him or her, but instead the patient joins in the fight.
The doctor knows that a disease affects a patient's body physically. The body of the patient (in this case, a man) changes because of the disease. He is not only physically affected, but as the physician knows, he also has an emotional response to the disease. Because his mind is affected, his attitude and behavior change. The medical treatment might cure the patient's physical problems, but the patient's mind must fight the emotional ones. For example, the studies of one doctor, Carl Simonton, M. D., have shown that a typical cancer patient (in this case, a woman) has predictable attitudes. She typically feels depressed, upset, and angry. Her self-image is poor and she feels self-pity. As a result, her behavior changes. Because of her constant depression, she acts unfriendly toward her family, friends, doctors, and nurses. Such attitudes and behaviors prevent the patient from getting well. Therefore, a doctor's treatment must help the patient change her attitudes. Simonton's method emphasizes treatment of the whole patient by treating both the body and the mind..
The attitude of a cancer patient who is receiving radiation therapy, an X-ray treatment, can become more positive. The physician who is following Simonton's psychological treatment plan suggests that the patient imagine that he or she can see the tumor(肿瘤)in the body. In the mental picture, the patient "sees" a powerful beam of radiation like a million bullets of energy. The patient imagines the beam hitting the tumor cells and causing them to shrink. For another cancer patient, Dr. Simonton might make another suggestion. This patient, with a different kind of cancer, needs to take capsules and pills several times a day. The doctor asks the patient to imagine the medicine going from the stomach into the bloodstream and to the cancer cells. The patient imagines that the medicine is like an army fighting the diseased cells and sees the cancer cells gradually dying. His or her blood carries away the dead cells. Both the medical therapy and the patient's positive attitude fight the disease.
Doctors are not certain why this mental therapy works. However, this use of psychology does help some patients because their attitudes about themselves change. They become more confident because they use the power within their own minds to help stop the disease.
Another application of using the mind to help cure disease is the use of suggestion therapy. Before making the suggestion, the doctor helps the patient to concentrate deeply. The patient (in this case, a man)thinks only about one thing. He becomes so unaware of other things around him that he seems to be asleep. He is said to be in a trance (催眠状态). Then the physician makes "a suggestion" to the patient about the medical problem. The patient's mind responds to the suggestion even after the patient is no longer in the trance.. In this way, the patient uses his mind to help his body respond to treatment.
Suggestion therapy helpful for both adults and children
Doctors have learned that this use of psychology is helpful for both adults and children. For example, physicians have used suggestion to help adults deal with the strong pain of some disease. Furthermore, sometimes the adult patient(in this case, a woman) worries about her illness so much That the anxiety keeps her from getting well. The right suggestions may help the patient to stop being anxious. Such treatment may help the patient with a chronic(慢性的)diseases. Asthma (哮喘)is an example of a chronic disorder. Asthma is a disease that causes the patient to have difficulty in breathing. The patient starts to cough and sometimes has to fight to get the air that he or she needs. Psychology can help relieve the symptoms of this disorder. After suggestion therapy, the asthma patient breathes more easily.
Physicians have learned that the psychological method is very useful in treating children. Children respond quickly to the treatment because they are fascinated by it. For example, Dr. Basil R. Collison has worked with 121 asthmatic children in Sydney, Australia, and had good results. Twenty-five of the children had excellent results. They were able to breathe more easily, and they did not need medication. Another forty-three were also helped. The symptoms of the asthma occurred less frequently, and when they did, they were not as strong. Most of the children also felt better about themselves. Doctors have also used suggestion to change habits like nail-biting, thumb-sucking, and sleep-related problems.
Response from the medical world
Many professional medical groups have accepted the medical use of psychology because they recognize its value. Nobody knows how suggestion works; however, doctors have learned that psychology has important applications in medicine..
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A) How to use the mind against disease.
B) How modern methods of therapy focuses on the physical disease.
C) Response from the medical world.
D) How suggestion therapy benefits to adults and children.
2. How does psychological therapy work?
A) The patient waits for the medicine and treatment to cure him.
B) The doctor uses medical treatment to cure the patient's problems.
C) The doctor, the medicine, and the patient work together to fight disease.
D) The patient uses his minds to cure himself.
3. What can we learn from the studies of Carl Simonton, M. D.?
A) The medical treatment can cure the patient's mental disease.
B)The treatment of a patient by treating the body and the mind is necessary.
C)The mental treatment is more important than medical treatment.
D)Few patients have emotional response to the disease.
4. The use of psychological therapy is helpful to some patients in that .
A) the medical effect is better with psychological therapy than without it
B) the patients can see a powerful beam of radiation hitting their tumor cells
C) the patients' attitudes towards themselves have changed
D) the patients are easy to accept the methods the doctors use to treat them
5. , the patient can use his mind to help his body respond to treatment.
A) In medical treatment
B) In mental therapy
C) In the tumor operation
D) In suggestion therapy
6. It can be learned from the passage that suggestion therapy cannot be used to .
A) help adults deal with the strong pain of some diseases
B) help the patients with chronic diseases
C) help change bad habits like nail-biting, thumb-sucking, and sleep-related problems
D) help patient overcome insomnia.
7. According to the passage, which of the following remains unknown so far?
A) Many doctors have recognized the psychological value
B) Suggestion therapy is helpful for both adults and children
C) Medical researchers have known how suggestion works
D) Doctors have learned that psychology is important in medical treatment
Part III Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A) The man hates to lend his tools to other people.
B) The man hasn't finished working on the bookshelf.
C) The tools have already been returned to the woman.
D) The tools the man borrowed from the woman are missing.
12. A) Save time by using a computer. C) Borrow Martha's computer.
B) Buy her own computer. D) Stay home and complete her paper.
13. A) He has been to Seattle many times. C) He holds a high position in his company.
B) He has chaired a lot of conferences. D) He lived in Seattle for many years.
14. A) Teacher and student. C) Manager and office worker.
B) Doctor and patient. D) Travel agent and customer.
15. A) She knows the guy who will give the lecture.
B) She thinks the lecture might be informative.
C) She wants to add something to her lecture.
D) She'll finish her report this weekend.
16. A) An art museum. C) A college campus.
B) A beautiful park. D) An architectural exhibition.
17. A) The houses for sale are of poor quality.
B) The houses are too expensive for the couple to buy..
C) The housing developers provide free trips for potential buyers.
D) The man is unwilling to take a look at the houses for sale.
18. A) Talking about sports. C) Reading newspapers.
B) Writing up local news. D) Putting up advertisements.
Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A) The benefits of strong business competition.
B) A proposal to lower the cost of production.
C) Complaints about the expense of modernization.
D) Suggestions concerning new business strategies.
20. A) It cost much more than its worth. C) It calls for immediate repairs.
B) It should be brought up-to-date. D) It can still be used for a long time.
21. A) The personnel manager should be fired for inefficiency.
B) A few engineers should be employed to modernize the factory.
C) The entire staff should be retrained.
D) Better-educated employees should be promoted.
22. A) Their competitors have long been advertising on TV.
B) TV commercials are less expensive.
C) Advertising in newspapers alone is not sufficient.
D) TV commercials attract more investments.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
23. A) Searching for reference material. C) Writing a course book.
B) Watching a film of the 1930s'. D) Looking for a job in a movie studio.
24. A) It's too broad to cope with. C) It's controversial.
B) It's a bit outdated. D) It's of little practical value.
25. A) At the end of the online catalogue.
B) At the Reference Desk.
C) In The New York Times .
D) In the Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature .
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre..
注意：此部分试题请在 答题卡 2 上作答。
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A) Synthetic fuel. C) Alcohol.
B) Solar energy. D) Electricity.
27. A) Air traffic conditions. C) Road conditions.
B) Traffic jams on highways. D) New traffic rules.
28. A) Go through a health check. C) Arrive early for boarding.
B) Take little luggage with them. D) Undergo security checks.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A) Beauty. C) Luck.
B) Loyalty. D) Durability.
30. A) He wanted to follow the tradition of his country.
B) He believed that it symbolized an everlasting marriage.
C) It was thought that a blood vessel in that finger led directly to the heart.
D) It was supposed that the diamond on that finger would bring good luck.
31. A) The two people can learn about each other's likes and dislikes.
B) The two people can have time to decide if they are a good match.
C) The two people can have time to shop for their new home.
D) The two people can earn enough money for their wedding.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A) Because there are no signs to direct them.
B) Because no tour guides are available.
C) Because all the buildings in the city look alike.
D) Because the university is everywhere in the city.
33. A) They set their own exams. C) They award their own degrees.
B) They select their own students. D) They organize their own laboratory work.
34. A) Most of them have a long history.
B) Many of them are specialized libraries.
C) They house more books than any other university library.
D) They each have a copy of every book published in Britain..
35. A) Very few of them are engaged in research.
B) They were not awarded degrees until 1948.
C) They have outnumbered male students.
D) They were not treated equally until 1881.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information. For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the fallowing passage.
Have you ever known anyone famous? If so, you may have found that they are remarkably similar to the rest of us. You may have even heard them __47__ to people saying there is anything different about them. “I’m really just a normal guy,” __48__ an actor who has recently rocketed into the spotlight. There is, of course, usually a brief period when they actually start to believe they are as great as their __49__ fans suggest. They start to wear __50__ clothes and talk as if everyone should hear what they have to say. This period, however, does not often last long. They fall back to reality as fast as they had __51__ risen above it all. What will it feel like to soar to such __52__ and look down like an eagle from up high on everyone else? And what will it feel like to have flown so high only to __53__ from your dream and realize you; are only human? Some only see the __54__ in losing something they had gained. They often make __55__ attempts to regain what they lost. Often these efforts result in even greater pain. Some become __56__ financially and emotionally. The only real winners are those who are happy to be back on the ground with the rest of us..
H) similarly I) wake
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
A detailed and thorough research project undertaken by the Open University recently reported that their evidence appears to show that competition between nearby schools does not significantly improve academic standards. Indeed, their report inclines to the opposite outcome; the exam results may actually decline where competition is fiercest.
When the further education sector was " privatized" a few years ago, competition between colleges became truly fierce, at least in urban areas where potential students could choose between several of them. Colleges appointed highly paid marketing directors and gave them large budgets; some even "bribed" interested students with promises of hundreds of pounds if they completed certain courses satisfactorily.
Fully competitive markets being a philosophical foundation of Britain's recent governments, it was no surprise to hear claims that many educational developments of the 1990s would move us towards a free market in secondary education---giving youngsters and their parents a free choice of where to study. However, the secondary sector did not become particularly competitive while, admittedly, the consumers have been given more information, which is one aspect of a truly free market. It is very rare that two nearby schools with at least some empty places are similar enough to be comparable yet different enough to be rankable; only where that occurs can there be true competition..
The Open University research was probably not flawed---but its conclusions are. This is because the team did not really compare areas having true competition (as just defined) with areas that do not.
But, let us all breathe a sigh of relief. Secondary schools had started of late to move in the marketing direction----considering allocating scarce resources of staff and money to persuading the pupils that their schools are the best in the area. No schools could afford to do that properly, so it is a relief to realize this research tells us we don't have to.
Competition? We haven't got time for it! Let's spend our small budget in teaching and learning, not in competing and marketing.
57. It is indicated in the passage that competition between schools results in .
A) higher enrollment rate
B) lower academic standard
C) higher marketing expenses
D) privatization of further education
58. Real competition can happen only when .
A) academic standard is improved
B) there are comparable schools with different educational qualities
C) students have different interests
D) schools of all areas have sufficient budget for their development
59. According to the passage, the free market in secondary education .
A) only provides consumers with more information
B) is more competitive than the higher education market
C) means there will be more intensive competition than in colleges
D) is a real surprise to Britain's recent government
60. The author of the passage feels relieved that .
A) secondary schools have to market themselves
B) most secondary schools have scarce resources of staff and money
C) the research by Open University proves that most secondary schools are the best in its area
D) schools needn't prove that they are the best
61. What might be the author's attitude towards competitions between nearby schools?
A) The author is in favor of various kinds of competition.
B) The author is indifferent to any competition and its result.
C) The author is not certain of the effect of competitions.
D) The author is against inter-collegiate competitions..
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
Going online is a favorite recreation for millions of American children. Almost10 million (14 percent) of America's 69 million children are online. The Internet both entertains and educates children, however, there are some possible negative consequences for children who access kid-based Web sites. Advertising on kid-based Web sites has become both a rapidly growing market for consumer companies and a concern for parents. With a click on an icon, children can link to advertisers and be granted tremendous spending power. Children are an important target group for consumer companies. Children under age 12 spent $14 billion, teenagers another $67 billion, and together they influenced $160 billion of their parents' income.
Many critics question the appropriateness of targeting children in Internet advertising and press to require that children be treated as a "special case" by advertisers. Because children lack the analytical abilities and judgment of adults, they may be unable to evaluate the accuracy of information they view, or understand that the information they provide to advertisers is really just data collected by an advertiser. Children generally lack the ability to reject the release of personal Information to an advertiser, an even greater problem for children when they are offered incentives (刺激)for providing personal information, or when personal information is required before they are allowed to register for various services. Children may not realize that in many cases these characters provide hotlinks directly to advertising sites.
The Internet does present some challenges for advertisers who want to be ethical in their
marketing practices. Many advertisers argue that we underestimate(低估)the levels of media
awareness shown by children. By the age of seven or eight most children can recognize an advertisement and know that its purpose is to sell something and are able to make judgments about the products shown in advertisements. However, this somewhat optimistic and decidedly libertarian view of children runs aground when we realize that they are (like a surprising number of adults) unable to judge accurately between entertainment and advertising. Adults can fend for themselves but, as marketers, we should be explicit(明确的) about our purpose when advertising to children on the Internet.
62. According to the first paragraph, children as an Internet market .
A) are becoming increasingly rational
B) are using Internet at an earlier and earlier age
C) have created a growing advertising market
D) are overtaking the adult market due to their spending power
63. Targeting children for advertising is controversial because children .
A) are unable to analyze and judge advertisements
B) are unable to cooperate since they are too young
C) often give off information that may be dangerous to them.
D)are not ready to evaluate advertisements or information requests.