1. Wearing a seat belt saves lives; it reduces your chance of death or serious injury by more than half.
2. But it will be the driver’s responsibility to make sure that children under 14 do not ride in the front unless they are wearing a seat belt of some kind.
3. However, you do not have to wear a seat belt if you are reversing your vehicle; or you are making a local delivery or collection using a special vehicle; or if you have a valid medical certificate which excuses you from wearing it.
4. Remember you may be taken to court for not doing so, and you may be fined if you cannot prove to the court that you have been excused from wearing it.
5. Professor Taiju Matsuzawa wanted to find out why otherwise healthy farmers in northern Japan appeared to be losing their ability to think and reason at a relatively early age, and how the process of ageing could he slowed down.
6. With a team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, he set about measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and varying occupations.
7. Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain precise measurements of the volume of the front and side sections of the brain, which relate to intellect (智能) and emotion, and determine the human character.
8. Contraction of front and side parts as cells die off was observed in some subjects in their thirties, but it was still not evident in some sixty and seventy-year-olds.
9. The findings show in general terms that contraction of the brain begins sooner in people in the country than in the towns.
10. White collar workers doing routine work in government offices are, however, as likely to have shrinking brains as the farm worker, bus driver and shop assistant.
11. We know that you have a high opinion of the kind of learning taught in your colleges, and that the costs of living of our young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you.
12. But you must know that different nations have different ways of looking at things, and you will therefore not be offended if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same as yours.
13. We are, however, not the less obliged by your kind offer, though we refuse to accept it; and, to show our grateful sense of it, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take care of their education, teach them in all we know , and make men of them.
14. In what now seems like the prehistoric times of computer history, the earth’s postwar era, there was quite a wide-spread concern that computers would take over the world from man one day.
15. Already today, less than forty years later, as computers are relieving us of more and more of the routine tasks in business and in our personal lives. We are faced with a less dramatic but also less foreseen problem.
16. Obviously, there would be no point in investing in a computer if you had to check all its answers, but people should also rely on their own internal computers and check the machine when they have the feeling that something has gone wrong.
17. Certainly Newton considered some theoretical aspects of it in his writings, but he was reluctant to go to sea to further his work.
18. For most people the sea was remote, and with the exception of early intercontinental travellers or others who earned a living from the sea, there was little reason to ask many questions about it , let alone to ask what lay beneath the surface.
19. The first time that the question “ What is at the bottom of the oceans?” had to be answered with any commercial consequence was when the laying of a telegraph cable from Europe to America was proposed.
20. At the early attempts, the cable failed and when it was taken out for repairs it was found to be covered in living growths, a fact which defied contemporary scientific opinion that there was no life in the deeper parts of the sea.
5、Taiju Matsuzawa 教授想找出为什么日本北部的健康农民在相对年轻的年龄就显得开始失去思考与推理的能力的原因以及怎样才能延缓老化过程。
21. For every course that he follows a student is given a grade, which is recorded, and the record is available for the student to show to prospective employers.
22. All this imposes a constant pressure and strain of work, but in spite of this some students still find time for great activity in student affairs.
23. The effective work of maintaining discipline is usually performed by students who advise the academic authorities.
24. Much family quarrelling ends when husbands and wives realize what these energy cycles mean, and which cycle each member of the family has.
25. Whenever possible, do routine work in the afternoon and save tasks requiring more energy or concentration for your sharper hours.
26. We also value personal qualities and social skills, and we find that mixed-ability teaching contributes to all these aspects of learning.
27. They also learn how to cope with personal problems as well as learning how to think, to make decisions, to analyse and evaluate, and to communicate effectively.
28. The problem is, how to encourage a child to express himself freely and confidently in writing without holding him back with the complexities of spelling?
29. It may have been a sharp criticism of the pupil’s technical abilities in writing, but it was also a sad reflection on the teacher who had omitted to read the essay, which contained some beautiful expressions of the child’s deep feelings.
30. The teacher was not wrong to draw attention to the errors, but if his priorities had centred on the child’s ideas, an expression of his disappointment with the presentation would have given the pupil more motivation to seek improvement.
31. Given the nature of government and private employers, it seems most likely that discrimination by private employers would be greater.
32. The release of the carbon in these compounds for recycling depends almost entirely on the action of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and certain types of fungi.
33. A spirited discussion springs up between a young girl who says that women have outgrown the jumping-on-a-chair-at-the-sight-of-a mouse era and a major who says that they haven’t.
34. They are trying to find out whether there is something about the way we teach language to children which in fact prevents children from learning sooner.
35. Mathematicians who have tried to use the computers to copy the way the brain works have found that even using the latest electronic equipment they would have to build a computer which weighed over 10,000 kilos.
36. Since different people like to do so many different things in their spare time, we could make a long list of hobbies, taking in everything from collecting matchboxes and raising rare fish, to learning about the stars and making model ships.
37. They know that a seal swimming under the ice will keep a breathing hole open by its warm breath, so they will wait beside the hole and kill it.
38. We may be able to decide whether someone is white only by seeing if they have none of the features that would mark them clearly as a member of another race.
39. Although signs of dishonesty in school , business and government seem much more numerous in years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty?
40. It is not quite a matter of disagreeing with the theory of independence, but of rejecting its implications: that the romances may be taken in any or no particular order, that they have no cumulative effect, and that they are as separate as the works of a modern novelist.
41. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as “ racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition,” can be interpreted as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe.
42. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of and so was crucial in sustaining — the Black heritage of folklore, music, and religious expression from one generation to another, a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences.
43. Even the folk knowledge in social systems on which ordinary life is based in earning, spending, organizing, marrying, taking part in political activities, fighting and so on , is not very dissimilar from the more sophisticated images of the social system derived from the social sciences, even though it is built upon the very imperfect samples of personal experience.
44. There are several steps that can be taken, of which the chief one is to demand of all the organizations that exist with the declared objectives of safeguarding the interests of animals that they should declare clearly where they stand on violence towards people.
45. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types, however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.
46. According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge , and there is some evidence for this view.
47. The result of attrition is that, where the areas of the whole leaves follow a normal distribution, a bimodal distribution is produced, one peak composed mainly of fragmented pieces, the other of the larger remains.
48. The Bible does not tell us how the Roman census takers made out, and as regards our more immediate concern, the reliability of present day economic forecasting, there are considerable difference of opinion.
49. A survey conducted in Britain confirmed that an abnormally high percentage of patients suffering from arthritis of the spine who had been treated with X rays contracted cancer.
50. Yet across the gulf of space, minds that are to our minds as ours are to those of the beasts that perish, intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regarded this earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely drew their plans against us.
51. Even the doctoral degree, long recognized as a required “ union card” in the academic world, has come under severe criticism as the pursuit of learning for its own sake and the accumulation of knowledge without immediate application to a professor’s classroom duties.
52. While a selection of necessary details is involved in both, the officer must remain neutral and clearly try to present a picture of the facts, while the artist usually begins with a preconceived message or attitude which is then transmitted through the use of carefully selected details of action described in words intended to provoke associations and emotional reactions in the reader.
53. Articles in the popular press even criticize the Gross National Production (GNP) because it is not such a complete index of welfare, ignoring, on the one hand, that it was never intended to be, and suggesting, on the other, that with appropriate changes it could be converted into one.
54. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psychoneuaral correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.
55. The Chinese have distributed publications to farmers and other rural residents instructing them in what to watch for their animals so that every household can join in helping to predict earthquakes.
56. Supporters of the Star Wars defense system hope that this would not only protect a nation against an actual nuclear attack, but would be enough of a threat to keep a nuclear war from ever happening.
57. Neither would it prevent cruise missiles or bombers, whose flights are within the Earth’s atmosphere, from hitting their targets.
58. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.
59. During the nineteenth century, she argues, the concept of the “useful” child who contributed to the family economy gave way gradually to the present day notion of the “useless” child who, though producing no income for, and indeed extremely costly to its parents, is yet considered emotionally “priceless”.
60. Well established among segments of the middle and upper classes by the mid-1800’s, this new view of childhood spread throughout society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as reformers introduced child labor regulations and compulsory education laws predicted in part on the assumption that a child’s emotional value made child labor taboo.
61. Of course, it would be as dangerous to overreact to history by concluding that the majority must now be wrong about expansion as it would be to re-enact the response that greeted the suggestion that the continents had drifted.
62. While the fact of this consumer revolution is hardly in doubt, three key questions remain: who were the consumers? What were their motives? And what were the effect of the new demand for luxuries?
63. Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufacturers and servicing trades thought their customers wanted, only a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what.
64. With respect to their reasons for immigrating, Grassy does not deny their frequently noted fact that some of the immigrants of the 1630’s, most notably the organizers and clergy, advanced religious explanations for departure, but he finds that such explanations usually assumed primacy only in retrospect.
65. If we take the age-and sex-specific unemployment rates that existed in 1956 (when the overall unemployment rate was 4.1 percent) and weight them by the age- and sex-specific shares of the labor force that prevail currently, the overall unemployment rate becomes 5 percent.
66. He was puzzled that I did not want what was obviously a “ step up” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power.
67. Unless productivity growth is unexpectedly large, however, the expansion of real output must eventually begin to slow down to the economy’s larger run growth potential if generalized demand pressures on prices are to be avoided.
68. However, when investment flows primarily in one direction, as it generally does from industrial to developing countries, the seemingly reciprocal source-based restrictions produce revenue sacrifices primarily by the state receiving most of the foreign investment and producing most of the income—namely ,the developing country partner.
69. The pursuit of private interests with as little interference as possible from government was seen as the road to human happiness and progress rather than the public obligation and involvement in the collective community that emphasized by the Greeks.
70. The defense lawyer relied on long-standing principles governing the conduct of prosecuting attorneys: as quasi-judicial officers of the court they are under a duty not to prejudice a party’s case through overzealous prosecution or to detract from the impartiality of courtroom atmosphere.
71. No prudent person dared to act on the assumption that, when the continent was settled, one government could include the whole; and when the vast expense broke up, as seemed inevitable, into a collection of separate nations, only discord, antagonism, and wars could be expected.
72. If they were right in thinking that the next necessity in human progress was to lift the average person upon an intellectual and social level with the most favored, they stood at least three generations nearer than Europe to that goal.
73. Somehow he knows that if our huckstering civilization did not at every moment violate the eternal fitness of things, the poet’s song would have been given to the world, and the poet would have been cared for by the whole human brotherhood, as any man should be who does the duty that every man owes it.
74. The instinctive sense of the dishonor which money-purchase does to art is so strong that sometimes a man of letters who can pay his way otherwise refuses pay for his work, as Lord Byron did, for a while, from a noble pride, and as Count Tolstoy has tried to do, from a noble conscience.
75. Perhaps he believed that he could not criticize American foreign policy without endangering the support for civil rights that he had won from the federal government.
76. Abraham Lincoln, who presided in his stone temple on August 28, 1963 above the children of the slaves he emancipated (解放), may have used just the right words to sum up the general reaction to the Negroes’ massive march on Washington.
77. In the Warren Court era, voters asked the Court to pass on issues concerning the size and shape of electoral districts, partly out of desperation because no other branch of government offered relief, and partly out of hope that the Court would reexamine old decisions in this area as it had in others, looking at basic constitutional principles in the light of modern living conditions.
78. Some even argue plausibly that this weakness may be irremediable : in any society that, like a capitalist society, seeks to become ever wealthier in material terms disproportionate rewards are bound to flow to the people who are instrumental in producing the increase in its wealth.
79. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination, for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored, most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations, sexual discrimination in particular, are “suspect” and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts.
80. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to have more room for creative accident.
74、金钱购买给艺术的本能耻辱感如此强烈，以致可有时文人可以获得报酬却拒绝为其作品给予的报酬，Lord Byron有时因为尊贵的自豪而这么做，而Count Tolstoy则出于贵族的良知而尽力这么做。
81. Both novelists use a storytelling method that emphasizes ironic disjunctions between different perspectives on the same events as well as ironic tensions that inhere in the relationship between surface drama and concealed authorical intention, a method I call an evidentiary narrative technique.
82. When black poets are discussed separately as a group, for instance, the extent to which their work reflects the development of poetry in general should not be forgotten, or a distortion of literacy history may result.
83. These differences include the bolder and more forthright speech of the later generation and its technical inventiveness.
84. But black poets were not battling over old or new rather, one accomplished Black poet was ready to welcome another, whatever his or her style, for what mattered was racial pride.
85. Tolstoy reversed all preconceptions and in every reversal he overthrew the “ system”, the “ machine”, the externally ordained belief, the conventional behaviour in favor of unsystematic, impulsive life, of inward motivation and the solutions of independent thought.
86. It was better covered by television and press than any event here since President Kennedy’s inauguration (就职) , and , since indifferent is almost as great a problem to the Negro as hostility, this was a plus.
87. But do not the challenge and the excitement of the critical problem as such lie in that ambivalence of attitude which allows us to recognize the intelligence and even the splendor of Meredith’s work, while, at the same time, we experience a lack of sympathy, a failure of any enthusiasm of response?
88. In this respect she resembled one of her favourite contemporaries, Mary Brunton, who would rather have “ glided through the world unknown” than been suspected of literary airs—to be shunned, as literary women are, by the more pretending of their own sex, and abhorred, as literary women are, by the more pretending of the other!
89. From those sounds which we hear on small or on coarse occasions, we do not easily receive strong impressions, or delightful images; and words to which we are nearly strangers, whenever they occur, draw that attention on themselves which they should transmit to things.
90. To proceed thus is to set up a fivefold hypothesis that enables you to gather from the innumerable items cast up by the sea of experience upon the shores of your observation only the limited number of relevant data—relevant, that is, to one or more of the five factors of your hypothesis.
91. As an author, I am naturally concerned that a surprisingly large percentage of the population of the United States is functionally illiterate; if they can’t read or cannot understand what they read, they won’t buy books, or this magazine.
92. They do not know those parts of the doctrine which explain and justify the remainder ; the considerations which show that a fact which seemingly conflicts with another is reconcilable with it, or that, of two apparently strong reasons, one and not the other ought to be preferred.
93. Quite apart from the logistic problems, there existed a well-established tradition in Britain which refused to repatriate against their will people who found themselves in British hands and the nature of whose reception by their own government was, to say the least, dubious.
94. An obsession with the exact privileges of a colonial legislature and the precise extent of Britain’s imperial power, the specifics of a state constitution and the absolute necessity of a federal one, all expressed this urge for a careful articulation as proof that the right relationship with external powers did indeed prevail.
95. One encyclopaedia tells us that intelligence is related to the ability to learn, to the speed with which things are learned, to how well and how long ideas are remembered, to the ability to understand those ideas and use them in problem-solving, and to creativity.
96. The event marked the end of an extended effort by William Barton Rogers, M.I.T. ‘s founder and first president, to create a new kind of educational institution relevant to the times and to the contrary’s need, where young men and women would be educated in the application as well as the acquisition of knowledge.
97. Each departmental program consists, in part, of a grouping of subjects in the department’s areas of professional interest and, in part, of additional opportunities for students of their choice.
98. Alternatively, a student may use elective time to prepare for advanced study in some professional field, such as medicine or law, for graduate study in some area in which M. I. T. gives no undergraduate degree, such as meteorology or psychology, or for advanced study in an interdisciplinary field, such as astrophysics, communication science, or energy.
99. While the undergraduate curriculum for an open Bachelor of Science degree, as listed by a department, may have its own unique features, each program must be laid out in consultation with a departmental representative to assure that it is meaningful in structure and challenging in content.
100. Where previously it had concentrated on the big infrastructure projects such as dams, roads and bridges, it began to switch to projects which directly improved the basic services of a country.
96、这事件标志着由William Barfon Rogers的长期的努力的结束。William是MIT的一创立者兼第一任主席，他努力要开创一种新型和时代、国家需要相关的教育机构，在那里青年人可以获得知识性和实用性的教育。