2012年12月大学英语四级考试常用语法精选(9)

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2012年12月大学英语四级考试常用语法精选(9)

  来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.

  the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors

  用作后置修饰语的过去分词一般都带有修饰语或其他成分, 在意义上相当于关系分句.

  Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.

  句法作用

  作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队, canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区

  分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复, highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品, man-made satellite人造卫星

  作补足语: 可以带过去分词作宾语补足语的动词有:

  see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.

  I saw the students assembled in the hall.

  We found her greatly changed.

  make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:

  I have my hair cut every ten days.

  She got her bad tooth pulled out.

  Please keep us informed of the latest developments.

  like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:

  I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.

  He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.

  过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.

  Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,

  Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.

  过去分词短语也可作状语表示原因, 相当于一个表示原因的状语从句.

  Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.

  有时也可说明动作发生的时间, 相当于一个表示时间的状语从句.

  This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production.

  间或也可表示一个假设的情况, 相当于一个条件从句.

  Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.

  偶尔也可用来代替一个“让步”状语从句.

  Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years.

  独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构, 一般表示一种伴随的动作或情况.

  He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.

  有时可以表示时间:

  Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his institute.

  表示原因:

  Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter.

  条件:

  All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours.

  .
       
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