来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置修饰语, 能作这样用的仅限于下面几个词, 仅表示完成意义, 不表示被动意义.
the risen sun, fallen leaves, faded/withered flowers, returned students, retired workers, departed friends, escaped prisoners, the vanished jewels, newly-arrived visitors
Most of the people invited to the reception were old friends.
作定语: distinguished guest 贵宾, unknown heroes 无名英雄, armed forces武装部队, canned food罐头食品, boiled water开水, steamed bread馒头, stricken area灾区
分词还可构成合成词作定语: simply-furnished room陈设简单的房间, clear-cut answer明确的答复, highly-developed industry高度发展的工业, heartfelt thanks衷心的感谢, hand-made goods手工制品, man-made satellite人造卫星
see, hear, feel, find, think等表示感觉和心理状态的动词.
I saw the students assembled in the hall.
We found her greatly changed.
make, get, have, keep等表示”致使”意义的动词:
I have my hair cut every ten days.
She got her bad tooth pulled out.
Please keep us informed of the latest developments.
like, want, wish, order等表示希望, 要求, 命令等意义的动词:
I don’t want any of you (to be) involved in the scandal.
He won’t like such questions (to be) discussed at the meeting.
过去分词短语常用作状语, 修饰谓语, 很多都说明动作发生的背景或情况.
Guided by these principles, they went on with the work,
Delighted with her work, they made her the general manager.
Influenced by his example, they performed countless good deeds.
This method, tried in areas near Shanghai, resulted in a marked rise in total production.
Given closer analysis, we can see this is totally wrong.
Picked 20 years a year, it grows tired only after 40 or 50 years.
独立结构: 在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一.致. 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为独立结构, 一般表示一种伴随的动作或情况.
He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat.
Late that autumn, his work finished, he prepared to return to his institute.
Her eyes dimmed with tears, she did not see him enter.
All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours..