Part II Reading Comprehension(35 minutes)
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C)and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Opinion polls are now beginning to show that, whoever is to blame and whatever happens from now on, high unemployment is probably here to say. This means we shall have to find ways of sharing the available employment more widely.
But we need to go further. We must ask some fundamental questions about the future work. Should we continue to treat employment as the norm? Should we not rather encourage many ways for self-respecting people to work? Should we not create conditions in which many of us can work for ourselves, rather than for an employer? Should we not aim to revive the household and the neighborhood, as well as the factory and the office, as centers of production and work?
The industrial age has been the only period of human history in which most people's work has taken the form of jobs. The industrial age may now becoming to an end, and some of the changes in work patterns which it brought may have to be reverseD.This seems a daunting thought. But, in fact, it could offer the prospect of a better future for work. Universal employment, as its history shows, has not meant economic freedom.
Employment became widespread when the enclosures of the 17th and 18th centuries made many people dependent on paid work by depriving them of the use of the land, and thus of the means to provide a living for themselves. Then the factory system destroyed the cottage industries and removed work from people's homes. Later, as transport improved, first by rail and then by road, people commuted longer distances to their places of employment until, eventually, many people's work lost all connection with their home lives and the places in which they live.
Meanwhile, employment put women at a disadvantage. In preindustrial times, men and women had shared the productive work of the household and village community. Now it became customary for the husband to go out to paid employment, leaving the unpaid work of the home and families to his wife. Tax and benefit regulations still assume this norm today, and restrict more flexible sharing of work roles between the sexes.
It was not only women whose work status suffereD.As employment became the dominant form of work, young people and old people were exclude—a problem now, as more teenagers become frustrated at school and more retired people want to live active lives.
All this may now have to change.
The time has certainly come to switch some effort and resources away from the idealist goal creating jobs for all, to the urgent practical task of helping many people to manage without full-time jobs.
1. What is the main idea of the passage?A.Employment became widespread in the 17th and 18th centuries.B.Unemployment will remain a major problem for industrialized nations.C.The industrial age may now be coming to an end.D.Some efforts and resources should be devoted to helping more people cope with the problem of unemployment.
2. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as a factor contributing to the spread of employment?A.The enclosures of the 17th and 18th centuries.B.The development of factories.C.Relief from housework on the part of women.D.Development of modern means of transportation.
3. It can be inferred from the passage that .A.most people who have been polled believe that the problem of unemployment may not be solved within a short period of timeB.many farmers lost their land when new railways and factories were being constructedC.in perindustrial societies housework and community service were mainly carried out by womenD.some of the changes in work pattern that the industrial age brought have been reversed
4. What does the word“daunting" in the third paragraph mean?A.ShockingB.InterestingC.ConfusingD.Stimulating
5. Which of the following is NOT suggested as a possible means to cope with the current situation?A.Create situations in which people work for themselves.B.Treat employment as the norm.C.Endeavor to revive the household and the neighborhood as centers of production.D.Encourage people to work in circumstances other than normal working conditions.
University Physics is intended for students of science and engineering. Primary emphasis is on physical principles and problem-solving; historical background and specialized practical applications have been given a place of secondary importance. Many worked-out examples and an extensive collection of problems are included with each chapter.
In this new edition, the basic philosophy and outline and the balance between depth of treatment and breadth of subject-matter coverage are unchanged from previous editions. We have tried to preserve those features that users of previous editions have found desirable, while incorporating a number of changes that should enhance the book's usefulness.
The textbook is adaptable to a wide variety of course outlines. The entire textbook can be used for an intensive course two or three semesters in length. For a less intensive course, many instructors will want to omit certain chapters or sections to tailor the book to their individual needs. The arrangement of this edition facilitates this kind of flexibility.
Conversely, however, many topics that were regarded a few years ago as of peripheral (外围的)importance and were omitted from introductory courses have now come to the fore again in the life sciences, earth and space sciences, and environmental problems. An instructor who wishes to stress these kinds of applications will find this textbook a useful source for discussion of the appropriate principles.
In any case, it should be emphasized that instructors should not feel constrained (受约束的)to work straight through the book from cover to cover. Many chapters are, of course, inherently sequential in nature, but within this general limitation instructors should be encouraged to select among the contents those chapters that fit their needs, omitting material that is not relevant to the objectives of a a particular course.
6. This textbook lays stress on .A.the exposition of physical principles B.the principles of physics and their application C.the development of physics D.the application of physics in different fields
7. Compared with the old one, this new edition .A.has been made more applicable B.is easier to learn C.covers a wider range of subject-matter D.has improved the balance between theory and practice
8. One of the features of this textbook is that .A.some contents are dealt with in terms of philosophy B.it has an outline for each chapter C.it introduces the physical principles in great length D.it can be used for different course arrangements
9. The underlined words“conversely, however”(ParA.4) indicate that .A.many topics can be emphasized though they were not covered in the old edition B.many topics can be emphasized though they were usually omitted by instructors C.many topics have been added to the new edition as they were not covered in the old one D.many topics have been added to the new edition though they can be omitted by the instructors
10. To meet the needs of a particular course, the teacher of this book can omit some of the contents provided that .A.his selection is based on the request of his students B.he does not omit any chapter completely C.his students are particularly intelligent D.he keeps an eye on the internal relations between the chapters
Hamletfish are cautious lovers. Each evening at twilight, many times an evening in fact, a pair of them will leave the safety of their Caribbean reef and rush a few yards off the seafloor. Positioning themselves side-to-side, head-to-tail they hurriedly release their eggs and sperm. Then they turn sharply for home, leaves their gametes to mix in silence.
Ichthyologist Phillip Lobel of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution has found that hamlet fish and many other fish emit“cries of ecstasy" at the appropriate moment.
Biologists have long known that a few fish make sounds. The toadfish, for example, is named for its low call, which can be heard even above water. Underwater, however, human ears don't work well. As a result researchers didn't notice how common fish calls were until Lobel started diving with a video camera and an underwater microphone like the kind the Navy uses to listen for submarines.
Lobel has learned that the fish playing the role of the male-hamletifish switches roles from one tryst to the next-emits a series of short, low sounds. The female responds with a downward, sweeping sound like a slide whistle. The purpose to these calls, says Lobel, is probably to synchronize spawning, so that sperm and egg have a fighting chance of actually meeting in the water.
Then, at the moment of spawning, the female flutters her pectoral fins, contracts her abdominal muscles to squeeze out the eggs, and lets out a soft cry, which in part may simply be the sound of her swim bladder vibrating from all that muscle contraction.“The sound is not a scream, it's only as loud as conversation," says Lobel.
Lobel has since recorded sounds from about two dozen other fish species. He thinks fish calls, like some birdcalls, may be a means by which fish recognize suitable mates, and that fish of the same species may even communicate in regional dialects.“Lots of people sit and watch their little fish in their aquarium," Lobel says,“Well, it's like looking at a birdcage behind sound-proof glass. These things are all making sounds."
11. The primary purpose of this passage is to .A.refute a misconception that fish don't make soundsB.prove a new discoveryC.explain the time when hamletfish make soundsD.demonstrate the fact that fish are romantic as human beings
12. Which of the following is NOT true about fish calls according to this passage?A.Fish calls are commonly regarded as rare.B.Some of sounds produced by fish are not uttered from their mouths.C.Fish calls may be a means by which fish found their mates.D.No sounds can be heard from fish if a person stands on the ground.
13. Which of the following best explains“the appropriate moment" for fish to emit cries of ecstasy mentioned in the first paragraph?A.When Phillip Lobel was under the water with a video camera and a microphone.B.When one fish has a tryst with another.C.When the sperm and egg of the fish have a chance to meet in the water.D.When fish are spawning.
14. Which of the following is a correct inference from the passage?A.Few biologists have the idea fish may produce sounds underwater.B.A person underwater may clearly hear the call of another person's above water.C.Lobel's original intention to do the experiment was to test whether hamletfish would produce mating calls.D.A hamletfish may play the roles of both male and female at different times.
15. The author mentioned birdcalls in the last paragraph in order .A.to demonstrate that birds can be classified into certain fish speciesB.to illustrate that birds, just like fish, produce calls to find their matesC.to prove birdcalls are more common than fishcallsD.to further explain that fish is a kind of animal that may also make sounds when necessary
With human footprints on the moon, radio telescopes listening for messages from alien creatures (who may or may not exist), technicians looking for celestial (天体的)and planetary sources of energy to support our civilization, orbiting telescopes' data hinting at planetary systems around other stars, and political groups trying to figure out how to save humanity from nuclear warfare that would damage life and elimate on a planet-wide scale, an astronomy book published today enters a world different from the one that greeted books a generation ago. Astronomy has broadened to involve our basic circumstances and our mysterious future in the universe. With eclipese and space missions broadcast live, and with NASA(［美国］国家航空和宇宙航行局)，Europe, and the USSR (苏联)planning and building permanent space stations, astronomy offers adventure for all people, an outward exploratory thrust that may one day be seen as an alternative to mindless consumerism, ideological bickering (争吵)，and wars to control dwinding resources on a closed, finite Earth.
Today's astronomy students not only seek an up-to-date summary of astronomical facts: they ask, as people have asked for ages, about our basic relations to the rest of the universe. They may study astronomy partly to seek points of contact between science and other human endeavors: philosophy, history, politics, environmental action, even the arts and religion.
Science fiction writers and special effect artists on recent films help today's students realize that unseen worlds of space are real places—not abstract concepts. Today's students are citizens of a more real, more vast cosmos than conceptualized by students of a decade ago.
In designing this edition, the Wadsworh editors and I have tried to respond to these developments. Rather than jumping at the start into murky waters of cosmology (宇宙论)，I have begun with the viewpoint of ancient people on Earth and worked outward across the universe. This method of organization automatically (if loosely) reflects the order of humanity's discoveries about astronomy and provides a unifying theme of increasing distance and scale.
16. This passage is most probably taken from .A.an article of popular scienceB.the introduction of a book of astronomy C.a lecture given by the author to astronomy students D.the preface of a piece of science fiction
17. The author's purpose in presenting the first paragraph is .A.to explain the background and new features of today's astronomyB.to discuss in detail the most recent achievements in space researchC.to introduce some newly established space stations D.to illustrate that the world today is different in many aspects from that of a generations ago
18. The author thinks that the growing interest in space exploration among people on Earth will probably lead to .A.all people having chances of travelling in spaceB.the realization of permanent settlement on other planetsC.more disturbance not only on Earth but also in outer spaceD.orders, harmony and peace on our planet Earth
19. The author believes that today's astronomy students .A.are much brighter than students of a generation agoB.no longer care about astronomical factsC.are better-informed about the unseen worlds of spaceD.may learn more about man and his research in various fields through the study of astronomy
20. In the last paragraph, the underlined expression“these developments”refers to all of the following EXCEPT .A.the development of science fiction and special effects of filmsB.the new concepts about the universe acquired by today's astronomy students C.the world-wide involvement in space explorationD.humanity's new achievements in the field of astronomy
Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)
Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C)and D). Choose the ONE that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
21. To call the music of another music- culture“primitive" is one's own standards on a group that doesn't recognize them.A.puttingB.forcingC.emphasizingD.imposing
22. By computation, he estimated that the repairs on the house would cost him a thousand dollars.A.coarseB.roughC.crudeD.rude
23. Dogs are praised for their : they almost never abandon their master.A.faithB.loyaltyC.trustD.confidence
24. No one can achieve great success by relying on enthusiasm.A.momentB.timelyC.momentaryD.momentary
25. I was by their kindness and moved to tears.A.preoccupiedB.embarrassedC.overwhelmedD.counseled
26. In the past, Most Pilots have been men, but today, the number of women this field is climbing.A.pursuingB.devotingC.registeringD.furthering
27. We looked for a table to sit down, but they were all .A.reserved forB.engaged inC.used upD.taken up
28. After the jazz concert, the clean-up crew found the campus with candy wrappers, bottles and cans.A.litteredB.coveredC.scatteredD.dispersed
29. I could see that my wife was having that fur coat, whether I approved of it or not.A.intent onB.adequate forC.short ofD.deficient in
30. As an excellent shooter, Peter praised aiming at both targets and moving targets.A.stableB.standingC.stillD.stationary
31. To obtain a satisfactory result, you must apply two of paint on a clean surface.A.coatsB.levelsC.timesD.courses
32. Tony was a shy boy, so he tried to answering questions in the class.A.preventB.avoidC.escapeD.hesitate
33. It is now possible to record the existence of many stars which are invisible.A.repeatedlyB.heavilyC.permanentlyD.remarkably
34. People of all countries are expected to the principles of the United Nations.A.inspectB.hold upC.upholdD.hold off
35. Although the pay is not good, people usually find social work in other ways.A.payableB.respectfulC.gratefulD.rewarding
36. Mr. John had given no that he was intending to resign. So we were surprised to find his office empty.A.directionB.symptomC.informationD.indication
37. She never to read the news but turned at once to the crossword on the last page.A.indulgedB.troubledC.exertedD.frustrated
38. A man should be innocent of a crime until he is proved guilty.A.resumedB.referredC.regardedD.presumed
39. They had either to fight or to surrender and had no other .A.hopeB.alternativeC.approachD.resource
40. Although the hazards of space travel are many, the rewards made it a worthwhile .A.endeavorB.expenditureC.executionD.expedition
41. He stubbornly her relationship with other people.A.prevailedB.prohibitedC.hinderedD.forbade
42. While both plans were perfectly sensible, only one seemed in China's particular situation.A.usefulB.availableC.feasibleD.desirable
43. Jones and Edwards are, the producer and direct or of the famous movie.A.alternativelyB.respectivelyC.respectfullyD.respectably
44. Experiments enable young scientists to judge what must be accepted and what must be viewed with .A.beliefB.curiosityC.suspicionD.doubt
45. From ancient times, the valley of the Nile has been made by the river floods.A.famousB.desertedC.attractiveD.fertile
46. People view the public school system, as an educational ladder, from elementary school to high school and finally college undergraduate and graduate programs.A.arisingB.raisingC.originatingD.initiating
47. The audience disliked the film thoroughly and were by whistling and stamping the feet.A.protectingB.protestingC.refusingD.proposing
48. She prefers to have her left photographed, she says that's her better side.A.veilB.profileC.fringeD.view
49. The magician picked several persons from the audience and asked them to help him with the performance.A.by accidentB.at randomC.on occasionD.on average
50. So many people turned out for the meeting that there were not enough seats to them all.A.countB.accountC.accommodateD.delegate
3.分析与解答：根据第三段第二句话“The industrial age nay mow becoming to an end, and some of the changes in work patterns which it brought may have to be reversed。”可排除选项D；根据第四段可知两个结果发生在不同时期，所以可以排除C；根据第五段第二句话可以排除B；根据第一段内容可推出选项应为A。
6.分析与解答：答案为B，细节题。第一段作者明确指出：“Primary emphasis is on physical principles and problem-solving; historical background and specialized practical applications have been given a place of secondary importance”，可见B)为正确答案。而A)和D)不全面；C)只是书中的内容而不是重点
7.分析与解答：答案为A，细节题。第二段指出：新版有“a number of changes that should enhance the book's usefulness”，由此可见A)为正确答案。而B)未提及；C)和D)与原文第二段第一句相矛盾。
8.分析与解答：答案为D，细节题。A)，B)和C)均未在文中提及。根据第三段第一句话“The textbook is adaptable to a wide variety of course outlines”，我们可以看出D)为正确答案。
9.分析与解答：答案为B，推理题。在文中第三段第三句，作者谈到导师对本书的某些章节可根据个人需要而省略，在第四段中作者又说“... many topics that were regarded a few years ago as of peripheral importance and were omitted from introductory courses have now come to the fore again in the life sciences, earth and space sciences, and environmental problems”，作者很显然在暗示某些导师习惯省略的话题现在又变得重要了，可以重新强调了，可见B)为正确答案。
10.分析与解答：答案为D，细读最后一段“Many chapters are, of course, inherently sequential in nature, but within this general limitation instructors should be encouraged to select among the contents those chapters that fit their needs, omitting material that is not relevant for the objectives of a particular course”，可知D)为正确答案。而A)，B)和C)在文中均未提及。
12.分析与解答：第三段第二句话提到“The toadfish......for its low call, which can be heard even above water.”所以应选D。
14.分析与解答：文章第四段第一句话提到“hamletfish switches roles from one tryst(约会)to the next。”故答案为D。
15.分析与解答：文章末段第二句写的是“like some birdcalls.”，目的是以鸟叫说鱼叫，所以答案应选D。
16.分析与解答：答案为B，推理题。综观全文，尤其是从最后一段第一句中的“In designing this edition, the Wadsworh editors and I have tried to respond to these developments…”可推知，本文是某部天文学著作的导言部分，故选B)，而A)，C)及D)与原文内容不符。
17.分析与解答：答案为A，推理题。根据第一段倒数第二“Astronomy has broadened to involve our basic circumstances and our mysterious futere in the universe”可推知，第一段的作用在于提供天文学发展的历史背景和现在发展的新特点，故选A)。而B)与原文明显不符；C)原文未提及；D)中的论述虽然与原文第一段第一句的后半部分“an astronomy book published today enters a worl different from the one that greeted books a generation ago”相符，但这仅是文中的细节，而不能概括整段的意思。
18.分析与解答：答案为D，细节题。根据第一段最后一句“…an outward exploratory thrust that may one day be seen as an alternative to mindless consumerism, ideological bickering, and wars to control dwindling resources on a closed, finite Earth”，可以看出正确答案为D)。其他选项与原文明显不符。
19.分析与解答：答案为D，根据第二段“Today's astronomy students not only seek an up-to-date summary of astronomical facts:they ask, as people have asked for ages, about our basic relations to the rest of the universe. They may study astronomy partly to seek points of contact between science and other human endeavors: philosophy, history, politics, environmental action, even the arts and religion”，可以看出正确答案为D)。其他选项与原文明显不符。
20.分析与解答：答案为A，细节题。选项B)与第三段第二句“Today's students are citizens of a more real, more vast cosmos than conceptualized by students of a decade ago”相符；C)与第一段最后一句中的“…astronomy offers adventure for all people, an outward exploratory thrust that may one day be seen as an alternative…”相符；而D)与第二段第一句“Today's asfronomy students not only seek an up-to-date summary of astronomical facts”明显相符。而A)原文未提及，故选A。
25.分析与解答：这是一道因果参照题，“moved to tears”的原因是“over whelmed by their kindness”被他们的善良所感动，而A迷住，B尴尬。D建议，都不恰当，所以应选C。
27.分析与解答：这是一道转折参照型题。句意为我们想找个桌子坐下来，可桌子都被占着，D take up有占据、占用的意思，所以应选D。
28.分析与解答：句意是：爵士音乐会后，清洁工发现校园里零乱地堆满糖纸、瓶罐。litter sth with sth是固定词组，意思是使零乱，乱丢杂物，所以应选A。
29.分析与解答：be intent, on是固定词组，意思为热衷的，根据语境，应选A。
30.分析与解答：这是一道反义参照型题。根据句意，与“moving targets”移动句式相对应的应该是“stationary targets”固定靶。stationary有固定的、非移动的含义，所以答案为D。
35.分析与解答：这是一道转折参照题，空格处含义应为“the pay is not good”意思相反，所以答案为D rewarding.其他选项词义为A应付的，可付的，B敬重的，C感激的。
46.分析与解答：这是一道同现题，只要找出与“as an educational ladder”同意的词即可，所以答案选A。
47.分析与解答：这是一道释义参照题，空格处的词应与dislike一致，而且是by whistling and stamping the feet的概括，所以选B，抗议。