Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Directions: There is an old saying that “Clothes make the man.” How do you understand the saying ? You are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on this topic. You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.
How to Create a Home Library
“I cannot live without books,” declared U.S. President Thomas Jefferson to his friend John Adams. Indeed, Jefferson was an obsessive book collector from a young age, amassing (收集) three separate home libraries in his lifetime. Jefferson’s library was considered the finest in the country, and his collection doubled the holdings of the Library of Congress. Still, Jefferson didn't let the shelves at Monticello sit empty. By the time he died 11 years later, he had more than 2 000 volumes in his library.
Jefferson’s library might fit your conception of an old-fashioned home library with leather-bound books, wood paneling and uncomfortable furniture. But home libraries can be a dynamic expression of the owner’s personality. Creating a home library is a fun way to display your interests while establishing a special space for reading.
Home Library Organization
When you started using the public library, you probably learned about Melvil Dewey and his system for ordering libraries. The Dewey Decimal Classification System has ten broad categories for organizing books,including philosophy, religion and the arts. Each category is assigned a number, so for example, when you want a book on modern art, you head to the 700 block. Larger libraries, such as those at universities, tend to use the Library of Congress Classification System because it offers a more specific array of subjects for categorization, adding subjects such as medicine and law for a total of 21 categories.
Your home library may or may not be as large as your local public library, but a good system of organization will still help you find the book you want quickly, You could take a page from Dewey and the Library of Congress and sort books by subject matter. Sections for subjects such as history, technology or fiction might make their retrieval easier. This system also would allow you to highlight a particular passion, such as an extensive collection of World War Ⅱ history..
Here are some other ways to organize a collection.
Alphabetizing by author works well for fiction but not necessarily for nonfiction books of various subjects.
Judging a book by its cover is usually frowned upon, but sorting by color can be aesthetically pleasing to some . Those generally forgetful about the colors of their books might disagree.
After a painful breakup, the main character in Nick Hornby’s book High Fidelity organizes his record collection autobiographically in the order he acquired them. A chronological organization might include shelves that track the progress of your life, from beloved childhood reading and college textbooks to parenting books.
To some readers, there are two ways to look at books: read and unread . Prioritizing (区间优化次序) when you might need the book will allow you to keep unread books at the forefront of your collection ,as well as books you reach for frequently, such as reference books or favorite novels.
While it might be difficult for a book lover to spend money on something other than books, at some point, you will need some bookshelves. Built-in, bookshelves can provide floor-to-ceiling storage and space savings. They can be tucked under staircases or other out-of-the-way spaces; however, they’re not a good choice for renters, and they can respresent a big investment in terms of price and installation. Freestanding bookcases are widely available in a variety of sizes, colors and price points. You can also mount hanging bookshelves onto the wall or buy glass cases, which might be preferable if your collection includes antique books that you want to preserve.
Sagging poses the main threat to bookshelves. A bookshelf that is 36 inches long should have shelves at least one inch thick. If it’s longer, then it should be thicker so that it won’t droop under the weight. One tip for maximizing space on the shelves is to use adjustable bookshelves, so that very small books don't take up space that can be better used for taller coffee table books. You can also decorate bookshelves with personal items, such as photographs and souvenirs. Not only will this break up the rows of books visually, it will also give you room to expand as your collection grows.
As your bookshelves creep up the wall, you may need a library ladder to reach them. While any step stool or ladder will do, rolling library ladders add an elegant, whimsical (异想天开的) touch. The ladders attach to the shelf on a tracking rod, and the bottom of the ladder has wheels, so that you can move effortlessly from one end of the library to the other.
When considering other library furniture, think about how you’ll be using the room . If you’ll be writing and taking notes on your reading, you may want a desk or a lap desk. Desks and bookstands are also helpful for reading those big volumes that are too heavy to hold up comfortably. Overstuffed couches and chairs will beckon guests to spend a few hours reading, but if you fall asleep as soon as you hit the couch, you may need to consider other options, particularly if you’ll be doing scholarly or professional reading..
Wherever you’re sitting, it will be hard to enjoy a library if you’re suffering from eyestrain, fatigue and headaches, which can all be brought on by poor lighting. When selecting lighting, look for a lamp that will help you see the smallest text you read. The lamp should be positioned over your shoulder, so that the light is not directly in your eyes. Positioning it this way will also help to minimize glare. Your lamp should be brighter than the rest of the room but not that much brighter. However, all light will eventually damage books, so use it at a minimum.
Do you devour books quickly ? You’re not the only one. Some insects love books, but not for a good story. Book-worms are not just those readers that have their nose in a book all the time. The more dangerous kind will tunnel through the book, eat the pages and lay eggs in it.
Once you identify an infestation, isolate the affected books. In some cases, you can seal the books in plastic bags and freeze them to kill the insects. Keeping your library free of excess moisture and dust will help to prevent an attack by these insects and vermin (害虫).
Controlling moisture and dust doesn't just keep away the book bugs though . Moisture in the air will also promote the growth of fungus and mold. Mold develops at temperatures greater than 70 degrees Fahrenheit, and with 65 percent relative humidity. Dehumidifiers will suck excess moisture out of the air, moisture that could otherwise lead to loose bindings, stains and mildew. Oppositely, too little humidity can dry out books, so use a humidifier in the drier winter months. Dust is also a magnet for moisture and mildew, so periodically dusting the tops of books will keep them clean.
In addition to a humidifier, you also might need a fan to keep the library well ventilated. Books should be stored away from radiators and kept in a room between 60 oF and 70 oF. Air conditioners and fans are fine to use to keep the temperature down. Extreme heat will damage books; if heat occurs in a room with low humidity, the fibers in the books will dehydrate, turning the pages brittle. In combination with high humidity, heat creates ideal growing conditions for mold.
As we mentioned in the last section, lighting can damage books because it leads to bleaching (漂白), fading and eventual deterioration. Natural lighting is the most dangerous. If your library has windows, draw the blinds or curtains to minimize injury. Limiting the intensity light and duration of exposure will help to preserve the books..
1.During the whole life, Jefferson ____________.
A)built three libraries for Congress B)built three libraries at his home
C)donated books for three libraries D)collected books from three libraries
2.Why do universities usually use the Library of Congress Classification System ?
A)Because it is more popular than other systems.
B)Because it is more modern than other systems
C)Because it is more specific in arranging subjects.
D)Because it is less difficult than other systems.
3.Who might dislike the idea of arranging books by their colors ?
A)Those who like painting on the bookshelves.
B)Those who tend to arrange anything scientifically.
C)Those who are color-blind.
D)Those who usually cannot remember the colors of books.
4.If you rank the books according to the frequency they might be touched, you’d better put _____.
A)reference books at the most important position
B)brand-new books at the most important position
C)dog-eared books at the most important position
D)all the novels at the most important position
5.The treasured books should be put in ________.
A)built-in bookshelves B)freestanding bookcases
C)hanging bookshelves D)glass cases.
6.If you are doing academic reading in your library, you’re advised _________.
A)to hit overstuffed couches and chairs to produce ideas
B)to beckon guests to sit in the coaches or chairs
C)not to use overstuffed couches and chairs
D)not to stuff comfortable coaches or chairs
7.How do you choose proper lighting for your reading in the library ?
A)The light should cover most areas in the room.
B)The light should come over your shoulder.
C)The light should not be brighter than other lights in the room.
D)The light should only focus on the smallest text.
8.In order to prevent your books from being damaged by insects, you should make your library avoid ______________.
9.The proper temperature for storing books is ________________.
10.To reduce the damage of books in a room with windows, you have to ________________.
Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension (35 minutes)
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
11. A)She ordered it through the mail.
B)A male student gave it to her as a birthday present.
C)It was a present from her parents.
D)She got it while visiting her parents.
12. A)Put some money in her wallet. B)Buy a band concert ticket.
C)Make a donation. D)Lend the man some money..
13. A)He felt sick when he saw the alteration. B)He thinks the woman is being mean.
C)He expected his suit to be ready. D)He backed up into another car.
14. A)The organization of a conference. B)The cost of renting a conference room.
C)The decoration of a conference room. D)The job of cleaning up the dining room.
15. A)Because he wanted to meet the woman’s parents.
B)Because he goes to a beach house each August.
C)Because he won’t be able to take a vacation.
D)Because he didn’t know the woman’s plan.
16. A)1 million. B)1/4 million. C)1/2 million. D)2 million.
17. A)She will reach the restaurant in ten minutes late.
B)She has ten minutes to reach the restaurant.
C)He thinks he can reach the restaurant in ten minutes.
D)He thinks he can’t arrive at the restaurant very soon.
18. A)Because the plane turns sharply. B)Because it is 22 miles.
C)Because there are no signs. D)Because of driving conditions.
Questions 19 to 21 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
19. A)The tourist and the guide. B)The student and the teacher.
C)The reporter and the urban expert. D)The worker and the manager.
20. A)At the beginning of the 19 th century. B)At the late of 18 th century.
C)At the beginning of the 18 th century. D)In the middle of the 19 th century.
21. A)Thoughout Latin America and in parts of Asia.
B)In Europe and American.
C)In Latin America and Europe.
D)In Latin American, Europe and Asia.
Questions 22 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
22. A)Be a researcher in the area. B)Be a clinical psychologist.
C)Know how to be a problem’s solver. D)Know more about people’s behavior.
23. A)The area covered by the course.
B)The practice orientation of the course.
C)Teachers’ attitude to both teaching and the student.
D)Teachers’ flexibility in teaching..
24. A)Designing various questionnaires. B)Making surveys in factories.
C)Making analysis on statistics. D)Writing reports about questionnaires.
25. A)She was tired of asking people questions.
B)She wanted something for a change.
C)She wanted something more challenging.
D)She failed to get a promotion.
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D).Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard.
26. A)Because many people believe in old ways of predicting weather.
B)Because city dwellers have no other ways of predicting weather.
C)Because it is based on long experience and observation.
D)Because we have no other origins of foretelling weather.
27. A)Because human beings are close to nature.
B)Because human beings depend on weather forecasting warnings.
C)Because senses of ours are not useful as that of animals.
D)Because human beings don't depend on the senses.
28. A)Animals’ extraordinary ability to predict weather.
B)Some old ways of weather predicting.
C)The wisdom of ancient people.
D)Why we should pay more respect to animals.
Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
29. A)How to drive a car.
B)How to get a driving license in America.
C)Traffic laws and safety rules in America.
D)The age requirement for driving a car..
30. A)You must be at least 16 to start the courses.
B)You need to take a hearing test.
C)You learn to drive in the classroom.
D)You can drive only when another person is in the car.
31. A) When you complete classroom instruction.
B)The federal government set the rules for getting a license.
C)You need to take a test to get a license.
D)A Learner’s Permit is not a certificate ensuring you to drive.
Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
32. A)They were too busy working to learn to read .
B)Their owners were afraid they could read.
C)They had no one to teach them to read.
D)They thought reading was not necessary.
33. A)They were severely punished. B)They were treated well.
C)They were sold to another white man. D)They were given different work.
34. A)Some slaves were brought to America in the 20 th century.
B)Slaves were not treated as people.
C)Being brutal to slaves was agaist the law.
D)No slave owner was ever punished for their brutality.
35. A)There were laws that protected the rights of slaves.
B)Nobody in the U.S. disagreed with slavery before 1800.
C)There was progress in the opposition to slavery.
D)The end of the Civil War enabled blacks to enjoy equality.
Directions: In this section, you will hear a passage three times, when the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea .When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard. For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information .For these blanks, you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, you should check what you have written..
The American economic system is organized around a basically private enterprise. It’s (36) ________ ecomomy in which consumers determine what shall be producted by spending their money for those goods and services. Private businessmen, (37) ________ to make their profits, produce these goods and services in (38) _______ with other businessmen, and the profit (39) _______ , operating under competitive pressures, largely (40) ________ how these goods and services are produced. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, (41)_________ with the desire of businessmen to gain more profits and the desire of individuals to (42) _________ their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how (43) ________ are used to produce it.
(44)________________________. In the American economy, this mechanism is provided by a price system, a process in which prices rise and fall in response to relative demands of consumers. If the product is in short reply relative to the demand, the price will be a bit up and some consumers will be eliminated from the market. If, on the other hand, (45) ______________________ which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product . Thus, price is the regulating mechanism in the American economic system.
The important factor in a private-oriented economy is that individuals are permitted to hire labor, gain comtrol over natural resources, and produce goods and services for sale at a profit. In the American economy, (46) ___________________________, including determining the price or making a free contract .
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth) (25 minutes)
Directions:In the section, there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. Please write your answers on Answer Sheet 2.
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.
The history of the development of modern sport is the history of the development of industrial capitalism. There is, of course, documented evidence of ball games, racket games and athletic games, that date well before industrial capitalism. However they are unrecognizable from today’s sports. Take, for example, football and rugby, derivatives of folk football, where a game would continue for days, with no boundaries expect the edge of the village, or the edge of the next village. People would throw or kick the ball, it was mixed, there was no offside rule, no 90 minutes, and really no discernible winners. The Olympics are always claimed as having their roots in the athletic cultrue of ancient Greek society. Yet their origins were about military training in a far from equal society at the end of the 19 th century and these were games which relatively few people would watch . The Olympics were revived with the emergence of international trade. The first hour modern Olympics were held in conjunction with trade fairs..
It is common to talk of sport as a neutral medium which transcends politics. The popular notion is that while everything else in the world is dirtied by politics and inequality, sport itself operates on a different set of rules. Performance-enhancing drugs in sport have created huge press hysteria, in the main because sports stars are often thought of as moral guardians, but also because it undoes one of the foundation stones of sport-the notion of fair play. Jim Firstle, a freelance sports journalist, notes that drugs have always been used in sport, long before technology and money were involved. In athletics there is an unwritten and unconfirmed notion that everyone is doing it. The key thing is not to get caught. Firstle resports that Dr. Don Caitlin,who runs the International Olympic Committee accredited drug testing laboratory in Los Angeles, likened the situation to attempts between the Cold War superpowers to negotiate nuclear non-proliferation treaties. One side would only crack down and get tough on its drug cheats if the other country did the same. To bust one’s drug cheats without the gesture being reciprocated put the antidoping nation at a competitive disadvantage. The idea that there is fair competition in sport is as unlikely as the idea of fair competition in capitalism.
47. Modern sport is ____________ from ancient sport although some forms of ancient sport existed and developed much eariler than industrial capitalism.
48. According to the author, what made modern Olympics resume its prosperity ?
49. Sport is usually considered to have the ability to transcend politics because it itself _________.
50. What has the use of performance-enhancing drugs destroyed based on the passage ?
51. Anti-dopiing nation would be at a competitive disadvantage if other nations failed to ________.
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C) and D).You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.
“The creation of PC is the best thing that ever happened,” said Bill Gates at a conference in 2000. He even wondered if it might be possible to make computers for the poor in countries without an electric power grid. The answer is yes, and things are going even further. Villagers in a remote region of Laos that has neither electricity nor telephone connections are being wired up to the Internet with the help of a special kind of PC provided by an American foundation.
The foundation, which has helped villagers in a remote region of Laos build schools, install wells and organize a weaving cooperative, was told recently that what the villagers need most was access to the Internet. To have any hope of meeting that end, in an environment which is both physically harsh and far removed from technical support, the foundation realized that a robust computer was the first requirement.
The foundation therefore turned to engineers who devised a machine that has no moving, and few delicate, parts. Instead of a hard disk, the PC relies on flash-memory chips to store its data. Its screen is a liquid-crystal display-an exception to the rule that the components used are old-fashioned, and therefore cheap. The foundation estimates that, built in quantity, each PC would cost around $400. Furthermore, because of its simplicity, the PC can be powered by a car battery charged with bicycle cranks-thus removing the need for a connection to the grid..