Part II Reading Comprehension
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
When global warming finally came, it stuck with a vengeance(异乎寻常地). In some regions, temperatures rose several degrees in less than a century. Sea levels shot up nearly 400 feet, flooding coastal settlements and forcing people to migrate inland. Deserts spread throughout the world as vegetation shifted drastically in North America, Europe and Asia. After driving many of the animals around them to near extinction, people were forced to abandon their old way of life for a radically new survival strategy that resulted in widespread starvation and disease. The adaptation was farming: the global-warming crisis that gave rise to it happened more than 10,000 years ago.
As environmentalists convene in Rio de Janeiro this week to ponder the global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of a revolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past—and how those changes have transformed human existence. Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture of the powerful geological and astronomical forces that have combined to change the planet’s environment from hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time period stretching back hundreds of millions of year.
Most important, scientists are beginning to realize that the climatic changes have had a major impact on the evolution of the human species. New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a key role in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from the dawn of primates(灵长目动物)some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk on two legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise of agriculture. Indeed, the human history has not been merely touched by global climate change, some scientists argue, it has in some instances been driven by it.
The new research has profound implications for the environmental summit in Rio. Among other things, the findings demonstrate that dramatic climate change is nothing new for planet Earth. The benign(宜人的)global environment that has existed over the past 10,000 years—during which agriculture, writing, cities and most other features of civilization appeared—is a mere bright spot in a much larger pattern of widely varying climate over the ages. In fact, the pattern or climate change in the past reveals that Earth’s climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future—even without the influence of human activity..
21. Farming emerged as a survival strategy because man had been obliged .
A) to give up his former way of life
B) to leave the coastal areas
C) to follow the ever-shifting vegetation
D) to abandon his original settlement
24. Earth scientists have come to understand that climate .
A) is going through a fundamental change
B)has been getting warmer for 10,000 years
C) will eventually change from hot to cold
D) has gone through periodical change
23. Scientists believe that human evolution .
A) has seldom been accompanied by climatic changes
B) has exerted little influence on climatic changes
C) has largely been effected by climatic changes
D) has had a major impact on climatic changes
24. Evidence of past climatic changes indicates that .
A) human activities have accelerated changes of Earth’s environment
B) Earth’s environment will remain mild despite human interference
C) Earth’s climate is bound to change significantly in the future
D) Earth’s climate is unlikely to undergo substantial changes in the future
25. The message the author wishes to convey in the passage is that .
A) human civilization remains glorious though it is affected by climatic changes
B) mankind is virtually helpless in the face of the dramatic changes of climate
C) man has to limit his activities to slow down the global warming process
D) human civilization will continue to develop in spite of the changes of nature.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
No woman can be too rich or too thin. This saying often attributed to the late Duchess(公爵夫人)
Of Windsor embodies much of the odd spirit of our times. Being thin is deemed as such a virtue.
The problem with such a view is that some people actually attempt to live by it. I myself have fantasies of slipping into narrow designer clothes. Consequently, I have been on a diet for the better—or worse—part of my life. Being rich wouldn’t be bad either, but that won’t happen unless an unknown relative dies suddenly in some distant land, leaving me millions of dollars.
Where did we go off the track? When did eating butter become a sin, and a little bit of extra flesh unappealing, if not repellent? All religions have certain days when people refrain from eating, and excessive eating is one of Christianity’s seven deadly sins. However, until quite recently, most people had a problem getting enough to eat. In some religious groups, wealth was a symbol of probable salvation and high morals, and fatness a sign of wealth and well-being.
Today the opposite is true. We have shifted to thinness as our new mark of virtue. The result is that being fat-or even only somewhat overweight-is bad because it implies a lack of moral strength.
Our obsession(迷恋) with thinness is also fueled by health concerns. It is true that in this country we have more overweight people than ever before, and that, in many cases, being overweight correlates with an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease. These diseases, however, may have as much to do with our way of life and our high-fat diets as with excess weight. And the associated risk of cancer in the digestive system may be more of a dietary problem—too much fat and a lack of fiber—than a weight problem.
The real concern, then, is not that we weigh too much, but that we neither exercise enough nor eat well. Exercise is necessary for strong bones and both heart and lung health. A balanced diet without a lot of fat can also help the body avoid many diseases. We should surely stop paying so much attention to weight. Simply being thin is not enough. It is actually hazardous if those who get(or already are)thin think they are automatically healthy and thus free from paying attention to their overall life-style. Thinness can be pure vainglory(虚荣)。
26.In the eyes of the author, an odd phenomenon nowadays is that .
A) the Duchess of Windsor is regarded as a woman of virtue
B) looking slim is a symbol of having a large fortune
C) being thin is viewed as a much desired quality
D) religious people are not necessarily virtuous
27. Swept by the prevailing trend, the author .
A) had to go on a diet for the greater part of her life
B) could still prevent herself from going off the track
C) had to seek help from rich distant relatives
D) had to wear highly fashionable clothes
28.In human history, people’s views on body weight .
A)were closely related to their religious beliefs
B)changed from time to time
C)varied between the poor and the rich
D)led to different moral standards.
29.The author criticizes women’s obsession with thinness .
A)from an economic and educational perspective
B)from sociological and medical points of view
C)from a historical and religious standpoint
D)in the light of moral principles
30.What’s the author’s advice to women who are absorbed in the idea of thinness?
A)They should be more concerned with their overall lifestyle.
B)They should be more watchful for fatal diseases.
C)They should gain weight to look healthy.
D)They should rid themselves of fantasies about designer clothes.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage
War may be a natural expression of biological instincts and drives toward aggression in the human species. Natural impulses of anger, hostility, and territoriality(守卫地盘的天性)are expressed through acts of violence. These are all qualities that humans share with animals. Aggression is a kind of innate(天生的)survival mechanism, an instinct for self-preservation, that allows animals to defend themselves from threats to their existence. But, on the other hand, human violence shows evidence of being a learned behavior. In the case of human aggression, violence cannot be simply reduced to an instinct. The many expressions of human violence are always conditioned by social conventions that give shape to aggressive behavior. In human societies violence has a social function: It is a strategy for creating or destroying forms of social order. Religious traditions have taken a leading role in directing the powers of violence. We will look at the ritual and ethical(道德上的)patterns within which human violence has been directed.
The violence within a society is controlled through institutions of law. The more developed a legal system becomes, the more society takes responsibility for the discovery , control, and punishment of violent acts. In most tribal societies the only means to deal with an act of violence is revenge. Each family group may have the responsibility for personally carrying out judgment and punishment upon the person who committed the offense. But in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused. The society assumes the responsibility for protecting individuals from violence. In cases where they cannot be protected, the society is responsible for imposing punishment. In a state controlled legal system, individuals are removed from the cycle of revenge motivated by acts of violence, and the state assumes responsibility for their protection.
The other side of a state legal apparatus is a state military apparatus. While the one protects the individual from violence ,the other sacrifices the individual to violence in the interests of the state. In war the state affirms its supreme power over the individuals within its own borders. War is not simply a trial by combat to settle disputes between states; it is the moment when the state makes its most powerful demands upon its people for their commitment, allegiance, and supreme sacrifice. Times of war test a community’s deepest religious and ethical commitments..
31.Human violence shows evidence of being a learned behavior in that .
A)it threatens the existing social systems
B) it is influenced by society
C) it has roots in religious conflicts
D) it is directed against institutions of law
32.The function of legal systems, according to the passage is .
A)to control violence within a society
B) to protect the world from chaos
C) to free society from the idea of revenge
D) to give the government absolute power
33.What does the author mean by saying “…in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused” (Lines5-6, Para.2 )?
A) Legal systems greatly reduce the possibilities of physical violence.
B) Offenses against individuals are no longer judged on a personal basis.
C) Victims of violence find it more difficult to take revenge.
D) Punishment is not carried out directly by the individuals involved.
34.The word “allegiance” ( Line5, Para.3 )is closest in meaning to .
35.What can we learn from the last paragraph?
A) Governments tend to abuse their supreme power in times of war.
B) In times of war governments may extend their power across national borders.
C) In times of war governments impose high religious and ethical standards on their people.
D) Governments may sacrifice individuals in the interests of the state in times of war.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
Researchers who are unfamiliar with the cultural and ethnic groups they are studying must take extra precautions to shed any biases they bring with them from their own culture. For example, they must make sure they construct measures that are meaningful for each of the cultural or ethnic minority groups beings studied.
In conducting research on cultural and ethnic minority issues, investigators distinguish between the emic approach and the etic approach. In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in one culture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to the people in that culture or ethnic group, without regard to other cultures or ethnic groups. In the etic approach, the goal is to describe behavior so that generalizations can be made across cultures. If researchers construct a questionnaire in an emic fashion, their concern is only that the questions are meaningful to the particular culture or ethnic group being studied. If, however, the researchers construct a questionnaire in an ecit fashion, they want to include questions that reflect concepts familiar to all cultures involved.
How might the emic and etic approaches be reflected in the study of family processes? In the emic approach , the researchers might choose to focus only on middle-class White families, without regard for whether the information obtained in the study can be generalized or is appropriate for ethnic minority groups. In a subsequent Study, the researchers may decide to adopt an etic approach by studying not only middle-class White families, but also lower-income White families, Black American families, Spanish American families, and Asian American families. In studying ethnic minority families, the researchers would likely discover that the extended family is more frequently a support system in ethnic minority families than in White American families. If so, the emic approach would reveal a different pattern of family interaction than would the etic approach, documenting that research with middle-class White families cannot always be generalized to all ethnic groups.
36.According to the first paragraph, researchers unfamiliar with the target cultures are inclined to .
A) be overcautious in constructing meaningful measures
B) view them from their own cultural perspective
C) guard against interference from their own culture
D) accept readily what is alien to their own culture
37.What does the author say about the emic approach and the etic approach?
A) They have different research focuses in the study of ethnic issues.
B) The former is biased while the latter is objective
C) The former concentrates on study of culture while the latter on family issues.
D) They are both heavily dependent on questionnaires in conducting surveys.
38.Compared with the etic approach, the emic approach is apparently more .
C) culturally biased
39.The etic approach is concerned with .
A) the general characteristics of minority families
B) culture-related concepts of individual ethnic groups
C) features shared by various cultures or ethnic groups
D) the economic conditions of different types of families
40.Which of the following is true of the ethnic minority families in the U.S. according to the passage?
A) Their cultural patterns are usually more adaptable
B) Their cultural concepts are difficult to comprehend
C) They don’t interact with each other so much as White families
D)They have closer family ties than White families
21. A 22.D 23.C 24.C 25.B 26.C 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.A
31.B 32.A 33.D 34.A 35.D 36.B 37.A 38.D 39.C 40.D
Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.
Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Bill Gates, the billionaire Microsoft chairman without a single earned university degree, is by his success raising new doubts about the worth of the business world's favorite academic title: the MBA (Master of Business Administration). The MBA, a 20th-century product, always has borne the mark of lowly commerce and greed (贪婪) on the tree-lined campuses ruled by purer disciplines such as philosophy and literature. But even with the recession apparently cutting into the hiring of business school graduates, about 79,000 people are expected to receive MBAs in 1993.This is nearly 16 times the number of business graduates in 1960,a testimony to the widespread assumption that the MBA is vital for young men and women who want to run companies some day.“If you are going into the corporate world it is still a disadvantage not to have one," said Donald Morrison, professor of marketing and management science. "But in the last five years or so, when someone says, ' Should I attempt to get an MBA,' the answer a lot more is: It depends." The success of Bill Gates and other non-MBAs, such as the late Sam Walton of Wal-Mart Stores Inc. has helped inspire self-conscious debates on business school campuses over the worth of a business degree and whether management skills can be taught.
The Harvard Business Review printed a lively, fictional exchange of letters to dramatize complaints about business degree holders. The article called MBA hires "extremely disappointing" and said "MBAs wants to move up too fast, they don't understand politics and people, and they aren't able to function as part of a team until their third year. But by then, they're out looking for other jobs." The problem, most participants in the debate acknowledge, is that the MBA has acquired an aura (光环) of future riches and power far beyond its actual importance and usefulness. Enrollment in business schools exploded in the 1970s and 1980s and created the assumption that no one who pursued a business career could do with out one. The growth was fueled by a backlash(反冲)against the anti-business values of the 1960s and by the women's movement. Business people who have hired or worked with MBAs say those with the degrees of ten know how to analyze systems but are not so skillful at motivating people.“They don't get a lot of grounding in the people side of the business, "said James Shaffer, vice-president and principal of the Towers Perrin management consulting firm..
21. According to Paragraph 2, what is the general attitude towards business on campuses dominated by purer disciplines? A) Envious.
22. It seems that the controversy over the values of MBA degrees has been fueled mainly by . A) the success of many non-MBAs B)the complaints from various employers C)the poor performance of MBAs at work D)the criticism from the scientists of purer disciplines
23. What is the major weakness of MBA holders according to The Harvard Business Review? A) They are not good at dealing with people. B) They keep complaining about their jobs. C) They are usually self-centered. D) They are aggressive and greedy.
24. From the passage we know that most MBAs . A) can climb the corporate ladder fairly quickly B) cherish unrealistic expectations about their future C) quit their jobs once they are familiar with their workmates D) receive salaries that do not match their professional training
25. What is the passage mainly about? A) A debate held recently on university campuses. B) Doubts about the worth of holding an MBA degree. C) Why there is an increased enrollment in MBA programs. D) The necessity of reforming MBA programs in business schools.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
German Chancellor (首相)Otto Von Bismarck may be most famous for his military and diplomatic talent, but his legacy (遣产) includes many of today's social insurance programs During the middle of the 19th century, Germany, along with other European nations, experienced an unprecedented rash of workplace deaths and accidents as a result of growing industrialization. Motivated in part by Christian compassion(怜悯)for the helpless as well as a practical political impulse to undercut the support of the socialist labor movement, Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensation law in 1884. By 1908,the United States was the only industrial nation in the world that lacked workers' compensation insurance. America's injured workers could sue for damages in a court of law, but they still faced a number of tough legal barriers. For example, employees had to prove that their injuries directly resulted from employer negligence and that they themselves were ignorant about potential hazards in the workplace. The first state workers' compensation law in this country was passed in 1911,and the program soon spread throughout the nation. After World War Ⅱbenefit payments to American workers did not keep up with the cost of living. In fact, real benefit levels were lower in the 1970s than they were in the 1940s,and in most states the maximum benefit was below the poverty level for a family of four. In 1970,President Richard Nixon set up a national commission to study the problems of workers' compensation. Two years later, the commission issued 19 key recommendations, including one that called for increasing compensation benefit levels to 100 percent of the states' average weekly wages. In fact, the average compensation benefit in America has climbed from 55 percent of the states' average weekly wages in 1972 to 97 percent today. But, as most studies show, every 10 percent increase in compensation benefits results in a 5 percent increase in the numbers of workers who file for claims. And with so much more money floating in the workers' compensation system, it's not surprising that doctors and lawyers have helped themselves to a large slice of the growing pie..
26. The world's first workers' compensation law was introduced by Bismarck . A) for fear of losing the support of the socialist labor movement
B)out of religious and political considerations C)to speed up the pace of industrialization D)to make industrial production safer
27. We learn from the passage that the process of industrialization in Europe . A) met growing resistance from laborers working at machines B)resulted in the development of popular social insurance programs C)was accompanied by an increased number of workshop accidents D)required workers to be aware of the potential dangers at the workplace
28. One of the problems the American injured workers faced in getting compensation in the early 19th century was that . A)they had to produce evidence that their employers were responsible for the accident B)America's average compensation benefit was much lower than the cost of living C)different state in the U.S. had totally different compensation programs
D)they had to have the courage to sue for damages in a court of law
29. After 1972 workers' compensation insurance in the U.S. became more favorable to workers so that .
A)the poverty level for a family of four went up drastically
B)more money was allocated to their compensation system C)there were fewer legal barriers when they filed for claims D)the number of workers suing for damages increased
30. The author ends the passage with the implication that .
A) compensation benefits in America are soaring to new heights B)people from all walks of life can benefit from the compensation system C)the workers are not the only ones to benefit from the compensation system D)money floating in the compensation system is a huge drain on the U.S. economy
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
When school officials in Kalkaska, Michigan, closed classes last week, the media flocked to the story, portraying the town's 2,305 students as victims of stingy (吝啬的) taxpayers. There is some truth to that; the property-tax rate here is one-third lower than the state average. But shutting their schools also allowed Kalkaska's educators and the state's largest teachers' union, the Michigan Education Association, to make a political point. Their aim was to spur passage of legislation Michigan lawmakers are debating to increase the state's share of school funding. It was no coincidence that Kalkaska shut its schools two weeks after residents rejected a 28 percent property-tax increase. The school board argued that without the increase it lacked the $ 1.5 million needed to keep schools open. But the school system had not done all it could to keep the schools open. Officials declined to borrow against next year's state aid, they refused to trim extra curricular activities and they did not consider seeking a smaller—perhaps more acceptable—tax increase. In fact, closing early is costing Kalkaska a significant amount, including $600,000 in unemployment payments to teachers and staff and $250,000 in lost state aid. In February, the school system promised teachers and staff two months of retirement payments in case schools closed early, a deal that will cost the district $275,000 more. Other signs suggest school authorities were at least as eager to make a political statement as to keep schools open. The Michigan Education Association hired a public relations firm to stage a rally marking the school closings, which attracted 14 local and national television stations and networks. The president of the National Education Association, the MEA's parent organization, flew from Washington, D.C., for the event. And the union tutored school officials in the art of television interviews. School supervisor Doyle Disbrow acknowledges the district could have kept schools open by cutting programs but denies the moves were politically motivated. Michigan lawmakers have reacted angrily to the closings. The state Senate has already voted to put the system into receivership (破产管理) and reopen schools immediately; the Michigan House plans to consider the bill this week..
31. We learn from the passage that schools in Kalkaska, Michigan, are funded . A) mainly by the state government B) exclusively by the local government C) by the National Education Association D) by both the local and state governments
32. One of the purposes for which school officials closed classes was .
A)to draw the attention of local taxpayers to political issues B)to avoid paying retirement benefits to teachers and staff
C)to pressure Michigan lawmakers into increasing state funds for local schools D)to make the financial difficulties of their teachers and staff known to the public
33. The author seems to disapprove of . A)the shutting of schools in Kalkaska B)the involvement of the mass media
C)the Michigan lawmakers' endless debating D)delaying the passage of the school funding legislation
34. We learn from the passage that school authorities in Kalkaska are more concerned about
A) making a political issue of the closing of the schools B) the attitude of the MEA's parent organization C) a raise in the property-tax rate in Michigan D) reopening the schools there immediately
35. According to the passage, the closing of the schools developed into a crisis because of .
A) the strong protest on the part of the students' parents B) the political motives on the part of the educators C) the weak response of the state officials D) the complexity of the problem
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
Early in the age of affluence (富裕) that followed World War Ⅱ，an American retailing analyst named Victor Lebow proclaimed, “Our enormously productive economy...demands that we make consumption our way of life, that we convert the buying and use of goods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual satisfaction, our ego satisfaction, in consumption. We need things consumed, burned up, worn out, replaced and discarded at an ever increasing rate." Americans have responded to Lebow's call, and much of the world has followed.Consumption has become a central pillar of life in industrial lands and is even embedded in social values. Opinion surveys in the world's two largest economics-Japan and the United States-show consumerist definitions of success becoming ever more prevalent. Overconsumption by the world's fortunate is an environmental problem unmatched in severity by anything but perhaps population growth. Their surging exploitation of resources threatens to exhaust or unalterably spoil forests, soils, water, air and climate. Ironically, high consumption may be a mixed blessing in human terms, too. The time-honored values of integrity of character, good work, friendship, family and community have often been sacrificed in the rush to riches. Thus many in the industrial lands have a sense that their world of plenty is somehow hollow, that misled by a consumerist culture, they have been fruitlessly attempting to satisfy what are essentially social, psychological and spiritual needs with material things. Of course, the opposite of over consumption, poverty, is no solution to either environmental or human problems. It is infinitely worse for people and bad for the natural world too. Dispossessed (被剥夺得一无所有的) peasants slash, and burn their way into the rain forests of Latin America, and hungry nomads (游牧民族) turn their herds out onto fragile African grassland, reducing it to desert. If environmental destruction results when people have either too little or too much, we are left to wonder how much is enough .What level of consumption can the earth support ?When dose having more cease to add noticeably to human satisfaction?.