Part II Reading Comprehension
Direction: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B) C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:
In the villages of the English countryside there are still people who remember the good old days when no one bothered to lock their doors. There simply wasn’t any crime to worry about.
Amazingly, these happy times appear still to be with us in the world’s biggest community. A new study by Dan Farmer, a gifted programmer, using an automated investigative program of his own called SATAN, shows that the owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up home without fitting locks to their doors.
SATAN can try out a variety of well-known hacking (黑客的) tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in. Farmer has made the program publicly available, amid much criticism. A person with evil intent could use it to hunt down sites that are easy to burgle (闯入…行窃).
But Farmer is very concerned about the need to alert the public to poor security and, so far, events have proved him right. SATAN has done more to alert people to the risks than cause new disorder.
So is the Net becoming more secure? Far from it. In the early days, when you visited a Web site your browser simply looked at the content. Now the Web is full of tiny programs that automatically download when you look at a Web page, and run on your own machine. These programs could, if their authors wished, do all kinds of nasty things to your computer..
At the same time, the Net is increasingly populated with spiders, worms, agents and other types of automated beasts designed to penetrate the sites and seek out and classify information. All these make wonderful tools for antisocial people who want to invade weak sites and cause damage.
But let’s look on the bright side. Given the lack of locks, the Internet is surely the world’s biggest (almost) crime-free society. Maybe that is because hackers are fundamentally honest. Or that there currently isn’t much to steal. Or because vandalism (恶意破坏) isn’t much fun unless you have a peculiar dislike for someone.
Whatever the reason, let’s enjoy it while we can. But expect it all to change, and security to become the number one issue, when the most influential inhabitants of the Net are selling services they want to be paid for.
21. By saying “…owners of well over half of all World Wide Web sites have set up home without fitting locks to their doors” (Line 3-4, Para.2), the author means that ______.
A) those happy times appear still to be with us
B) there simply wasn’t any crime to worry about
C) many sites are not well-protected
D) hackers try out tricks on an Internet site without actually breaking in
22. SATAN, a program designed by Dan Farmer, can be used ______.
A) to investigate the security of Internet sites
B) to improve the security of the Internet system
C) to prevent hackers from breaking into websites
D) to download useful programs and information
23. Farmer’s program has been criticized by the public because ______.
A) it causes damage to Net browsers
B) it can break into Internet sites
C) it can be used to cause disorder on all sites
D) it can be used by people with evil intent
24. The author’s attitude toward SATAN is ______.
25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that ______.
A) we should make full use of the Internet before security measures are strengthened
B) we should alert the most influential businessmen to the importance of security
C) influential businessmen should give priority to the improvement of Net security
D) net inhabitants should not let security measures affect their joy of surfing the Internet.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage:
I came away from my years of teaching on tile college and university level with a conviction that enactment (扮演角色), performance, dramatization are the most successful forms of teaching. Students must be incorporated, made, so far as possible, an integral part of the learning process. The notion that learning should have in it an element of inspired play would seem to the greater part of the academic establishment merely silly, but that is nonetheless the case. Of Ezekiel Cheever, the most famous schoolmaster of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, his onetime student Cotton Mather wrote that he so planned his lessons that his pupils “came to work as though they came to play,” and Alfred North Whitehead, almost three hundred years later, noted that a teacher should make his/her students “glad they were there.”
Since, we are told, 80 to 90 percent of all instruction in the typical university is by the lecture method, we should give close attention to this form of education. There is, I think, much truth in Patricia Nelson Limerick’s observation that “lecturing is an unnatural act, an act for which God did not design humans. It is perfectly all right, now and then, for a human to be possessed by the urge to speak, and to speak while others remain silent. But to do this regularly, one hour and 15 minutes at a time… for one person to drag on while others sit in silence? ... I do not believe that this is what the Creator ... designed humans to do.”
The strange, almost incomprehensible fact is that many professors, just as they feel obliged to write dully, believe that they should lecture dully. To show enthusiasm is to risk appearing unscientific, unobjective; it is to appeal to the students’ emotions rather than their intellect. Thus the ideal lecture is one filled with facts and read in an unchanged monotone.
The cult (推崇) of lecturing dully, like the cult of writing dully, goes back, of course, some years. Edward Shils, professor of sociology, recalls the professors he encountered at the University of Pennsylvania in his youth. They seemed “a priesthood, rather uneven in their merits but uniform in their bearing; they never referred to anything personal. Some read from old lecture notes and then haltingly explained the thumb-worn last lines. Others lectured from cards that had served for years, to judge by the worn edges ....The teachers began on time, ended on time, and left the room without saying a word more to their students, very seldom being detained by questioners .... The classes were not large, yet there was no discussion. No questions were raised in class, and there were no office hours.”
26. The author believes that a successful teacher should be able to ______.
A) make dramatization an important aspect of students’ learning
B) make inspired play an integral part of the learning process
C) improve students’ learning performance
D) make study just as easy as play.
27. The majority of university professors prefer the traditional way of lecturing in the belief that ______.
A) it draws the close attention of the students
B) it conforms in a way to the design of the Creator
C) it presents course content in a scientific and objective manner
D) it helps students to comprehend abstract theories more easily
28. What the author recommends in this passage is that ______.
A) college education should be improved through radical measures
B) more freedom of choice should be given to students in their studies
C) traditional college lectures should be replaced by dramatized performances
D) interaction should be encouraged in the process of teaching
29. By saying “They seemed ‘a priesthood, rather uneven in their merits but uniform in their bearing…’” (Lines 3-4, Para.4), the author means that ______.
A) professors are a group of professionals that differ in their academic ability but behave in the same way
B) professors are like priests wearing the same kind of black gown but having different roles to play
C) there is no fundamental difference between professors and priests though they differ in their merits
D) professors at the University of Pennsylvania used to wear black suits which made them look like priests
30. Whose teaching method is particularly commended by the author?
A) Ezekiel Cheever’s.
B) Alfred North Whitehead’s.
C) Cotton Mather’s.
D) Patricia Nelson Limerick’s.
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage:
Take the case of public education alone. The principal difficulty faced by the schools has been the tremendous increase in the number of pupils. This has been caused by the advance of the legal age for going into industry and the impossibility of finding a job even when the legal age has been reached. In view of the technological improvements in the last few years, business will require in the future proportionately fewer workers than ever before. The result will be still further raising of the legal age for going into employment, and still further difficulty in finding employment when that age has been attained. If we cannot put our children to work, we must put them in school.
We may also be quite confident that the present trend toward a shorter day and a shorter week will be maintained. We have developed and shall continue to have a new leisure class. Already the public agencies for adult education are swamped by the tide that has swept over them since the depression began. They will be little better off when it is over. Their support must come from the taxpayer..
It is surely too much to hope that these increases in the cost of public education can be borne by the local communities. They cannot care for the present restricted and inadequate system. The local communities have failed in their efforts to cope with unemployment. They cannot expect to cope with public education on the scale on which we must attempt it. The answer to the problem of unemployment has been Federal relief. The answer to the problem of public education may have to be much the same, and properly so. If there is one thing in which the citizens of all parts of the country have an interest, it is in the decent education of the citizens of all parts of the country. Our income tax now goes in part to keep our neighbors alive. It may have to go in part as well to make our neighbors intelligent. We are now attempting to preserve the present generation through Federal relief of the destitute (贫民). Only a people determined to ruin the next generation will refuse such Federal funds as public education may require.
31. What is the passage mainly about?
A) How to persuade local communities to provide more funds.
B) How to cope with the shortage of funds for public education.
C) How to improve the public education system.
D) How to solve the rising unemployment problem.
32. What is the reason for the increase in the number of students?
A) The requirement of educated workers by business.
B) Raising of the legal age forgoing to work.
C) The trend toward a shorter workday.
D) People’s concern for the future of the next generation.
33. The public agencies for adult education will be little better off because ______.
A) the unemployed are too poor to continue their education
B) a new leisure class has developed
C) they are still suffering from the depression
D) an increase in taxes could be a problem
34. According to the author, the answer to the problem of public education is that the Federal government _______.
A) should allocate Federal funds for public education
B) should demand that local communities provide support
C) should raise taxes to meet the needs of public education
D) should first of all solve the problem of unemployment.
35. Why does the author say “Only a people determined to ruin the next generation will refuse such Federal funds as public education may require” (Lines 10-11, Para. 3)?
A) Only by appropriating adequate Federal funds for education can the next generation have a bright future.
B) Citizens of all parts of the country agree that the best way to support education is to use Federal funds.
C) People all over the country should make contributions to education in the interest of the next generation.
D) Educated people are determined to use part of the Federal funds to help the poor.
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage:
A new high-performance contact lens under development at the department for applied physics at the University of Heidelberg will not only correct ordinary vision defects but will enhance normal night vision as much as five times, making people’s vision sharper than that of cats.
Bille and his team work with an optical instrument called an active mirror — a device used in astronomical telescopes to spot newly emerging stars and far distant galaxies. Connected to a wave-front sensor that tracks and measures the course of a laser beam into the eye and back, the aluminum mirror detects the deficiencies of the cornea, the transparent protective layer covering the lens of the human eye. They highly precise data from the two instruments — which, Bille hopes, will one day be found at the opticians (眼镜商) all over the world — serve as a basis for the production of completely individualized contact lenses that correct and enhance the wearer’s vision.
By day, Bille’s contact lenses will focus rays of light so accurately on the retina (视网膜) that the image of a small leaf or the outline of a far distant tree will be formed with a sharpness that surpasses that of conventional vision aids by almost half a diopter (屈光度). At night, the lenses have an even greater potential. “Because the new lens — in contrast to the already existing ones — also works when it’s dark and the pupil is wide open,” says Bille, “lens wearers will be able to identify a face at distance of 100 meters — 80 meters farther than they would normally be able to see. In his experiments night vision was enhanced by an even greater factor: in semi-darkness, test subjects could see up to 15 times better than without the lenses.
Bille’s lenses are expected to reach the market in the year 2000, and one tentative plan is to use the Internet to transmit information on patients’ visual defects from the optician to the manufacturer, who will then produce and mail the contact lenses within a couple of days. The physicist expects the lenses to cost about a dollar a pair, about the same as conventional one-day disposable lenses.
36. The new contact lens is meant for ______.
A) astronomical observations
B) the night blind
C) those with vision defects
D) optical experiments.
37. What do the two instruments mentioned in the second paragraph (Line 5) refer to?
A) The astronomical telescope and the wave-front sensor.
B) The aluminum mirror and the laser beam.
C) The active mirror and the contact lens.
D) The aluminum mirror and the wave-front sensor.
38. Individualized contact lenses (Line 7, Para.2) are lenses designed ______.
A) to work like an astronomical telescope
B) to suit the wearer’s specific needs
C) to process extremely accurate data
D) to test the wearer’s eyesight
39. According to Bille, with the new lenses the wearer’s vision ______.
A) will be far better at night than in the daytime
B) may be broadened about 15 times than without them
C) can be better improved in the daytime than at night
D) will be sharper by a much greater degree at night than in the daytime
40. Which of the following is true about Bille’s lenses?
A) Their production process is complicated.
B) They will be sold at a very low price.
C) They have to be replaced every day.
D) Purchase orders can be made through the Internet.
21.C 22.A 23.D 24.C 25.A 26.B 27.C 28.D 29.A 30.A
31.B 32.B 33.B 34.A 35.A 36.C 37.D 38.B 39.D 40.B
Part II Reading Comprehension
Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre..
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
For years, doctors advised their patients that the only thing taking multivitamins does is give them expensive urine (尿). After all, true vitamin deficiencies are practically unheard of in industrialized countries. Now it seems those doctors may have been wrong. The results of a growing number of studies suggest that even a modest vitamin shortfall can be harmful to your health. Although proof of the benefits of multivitamins is still far from certain, the few dollars you spend on them is probably a good investment.
Or at least that's the argument put forward in the New England Journal of Medicine. Ideally, say Dr. Walter Willett and Dr. Meir Stampfer of Harvard, all vitamin supplements would be evaluated in scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But those studies can take a long time and often raise more questions than they answer. At some point, while researchers work on figuring out where the truth lies, it just makes sense to say the potential benefit outweighs the cost.
The best evidence to date concerns folate, one of the B vitamins. It's been proved to limit the number of defects in embryos (胚胎), and a recent trial found that folate in combination with vitamin B 12 and a form of B6 also decreases the re-blockage of arteries after surgical repair.
The news on vitamin E has been more mixed. Healthy folks who take 400 international units daily for at least two years appear somewhat less likely to develop heart disease. But when doctors give vitamin E to patients who already have heart disease, the vitamin doesn't seem to help. It may turn out that vitamin E plays a role in prevention but cannot undo serious damage.
Despite vitamin C's great popularity, consuming large amounts of it still has not been positively linked to any great benefit. The body quickly becomes saturated with C and simply excretes (排泄) any excess.
The multivitamins question boils down to this: Do you need to wait until all the evidence is in before you take them, or are you willing to accept that there's enough evidence that they don't hurt and could help?
If the latter, there's no need to go to extremes and buy the biggest horse pills or the most expensive bottles. Large doses can cause trouble, including excessive bleeding and nervous system problems.
Multivitamins are no substitute for exercise and a balanced diet, of course. As long as you understand that any potential benefit is modest and subject to further refinement, taking a daily multivitamin makes a lot of sense..
21. At one time doctors discouraged taking multivitamins because they believed that multivitamins ____.
A) could not easily be absorbed by the human body
B) were potentially harmful to people's health
C) were too expensive for daily consumption
D) could not provide any cure for vitamin deficiencies
22. According to the author, clinical trials of vitamin supplements ____.
A) often result in misleading conclusions
B) take time and will not produce conclusive results
C) should be conducted by scientists on a larger scale
D) appear to be a sheer waste of time and resources
23. It has been found that vitamin E _____.
A) should be taken by patients regularly and persistently
B) can effectively reduce the recurrence of heart disease
C) has a preventive but not curative effect on heart disease
D) should be given to patients with heart disease as early as possible
24. It can be seen that large doses of multivitamins _____.
A) may bring about serious side effects
B) may help prevent excessive bleeding
C) are likely to induce the blockage of arteries
D) are advisable for those with vitamin deficiencies
25. The author concludes the passage with the advice that _____.
A) the benefit of daily multivitamin intake outweighs that of exercise and a balanced diet
B) it's risky to take multivitamins without knowing their specific function
C) the potential benefit of multivitamins can never be overestimated
D) it's reasonable to take a rational dose of multivitamins daily.
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Some futurologists have assumed that the vast upsurge (剧增) of women in the workforce may portend a rejection of marriage. Many women, according to this hypothesis, would rather work than marry. The converse (反面) of this concern is that the prospects of becoming a multi-paycheck household could encourage marriages. In the past, only the earnings and financial prospects of the man counted in the marriage decision. Now, however, the earning ability of a woman can make her more attractive as a marriage partner. Data show that economic downturns tend to postpone marriage because the parties cannot afford to establish a family or are concerned about rainy days ahead. As the economy rebounds, the number of marriages also rises.
Coincident with the increase in women working outside the home is the increase in divorce rates. Yet, it may be wrong to jump to any simple cause-and-effect conclusions. The impact of a wife's work on divorce is no less cloudy than its impact on marriage decisions. The realization that she can be a good provider may increase the chances that a working wife will choose divorce over an unsatisfactory marriage. But the reverse is equally plausible. Tensions grounded in financial problems often play a key role in ending a marriage. Given high unemployment, inflationary problems, and slow growth in real earnings, a working wife can increase household income and relieve some of these pressing financial burdens. By raising a family's standard of living, a working wife may strengthen her family's financial and emotional stability.
Psychological factors also should be considered. For example, a wife blocked from a career outside the home may feel caged in the house. She may view her only choice as seeking a divorce. On the other hand, if she can find fulfillment through work outside the home, work and marriage can go together to create a stronger and more stable union.
Also, a major part of women's inequality in marriage has been due to the fact that, in most cases, men have remained the main breadwinners. With higher earning capacity and status occupations outside of the home comes the capacity to exercise power within file family. A working wife may rob a husband of being the master of the house. Depending upon how the couple reacts to these new conditions, it could create a stronger equal partnership or it could create new insecurities.
26. The word "portend" (Line 2, Para. 1) is closest in meaning to “_____”.
A) defy C) suffer from
B) signal D) result from
27. It is said in the passage that when the economy slides, _____.
A) men would choose working women as their marriage partners
B) more women would get married to seek financial security
C) even working women would worry about their marriages
D) more people would prefer to remain single for the time being.