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  Unit 11

  Part II Reading Comprehension

  (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  It was the worst tragedy in maritime (航海的) history, six times more deadly than the Titanic.

  When the German cruise ship Wilhelm Gustloff was hit by torpedoes (鱼雷) fired from a Russian submarine in the final winter of World War II, more than 10,000 people - mostly women, children and old people fleeing the final Red Army push into Nazi Germany - were packed aboard. An ice storm had turned the decks into frozen sheets that sent hundreds of families sliding into the sea as the ship tilted and began to go down. Others desperately tried to put lifeboats down. Some who succeeded fought off those in the water who had the strength to try to claw their way aboard. Most people froze immediately. Tll never forget the screams," says Christa Ntitzmann, 87, one of the 1,200 survivors. She recalls watching the ship, brightly lit, slipping into its dark grave - and into seeming nothingness, rarely mentioned for more than half a century.

  Now Germany's Nobel Prize-winning author Gtinter Grass has revived the memory of the 9,000 dead, including more than 4,000 children - with his latest novel Crab Walk, published last month. The book, which will be out in English next year, doesn't dwell on the sinking; its heroine is a pregnant young woman who survives the catastrophe only to say later: "Nobody wanted to hear about it, not here in the West (of Germany) and not at all in the East." The reason was obvious. As Grass put it in a recent interview with the weekly Die Woche: "Because the crimes we Germans are responsible for were and are so dominant, we didn't have the energy left to tell of our own sufferings.''

  The long silence about the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was probably unavoidable - and necessary. By unreservedly owning up to their country's monstrous crimes in the Second World War, Germans have managed to win acceptance abroad, marginalize (使...不得势) the neo- Nazis at home and make peace with their neighbors. Today's unified Germany is more prosperous and stable than at any time in its long, troubled history. For that, a half century of willful forgetting about painful memories like the German Titanic was perhaps a reasonable price to pay. But even the most politically correct Germans believe that they' ye now earned the right to discuss the full historical record. Not to equate German suffering with that of its victims, but simply to acknowledge a terrible tragedy.


  21. Why does the author say the sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff was the worst tragedy in maritime history?

  A) It was attacked by Russian torpedoes.

  B) Most of its passengers were frozen to death.

  C) Its victims were mostly women and children.

  D) It caused the largest number of casualties.

  22. Hundreds of families dropped into the sea when

  A) a strong ice storm tilted the ship

  B) the cruise ship sank all of a sudden

  C) the badly damaged ship leaned toward one side

  D) the frightened passengers fought desperately for lifeboats

  23. The Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy was little talked about for more than half a century because Germans

  A) were eager to win international acceptance

  B) felt guilty for their crimes in World War II

  C) ad been pressured to keep silent about it

  D) were afraid of offending their neighbors

  24. How does Gunter Grass revive the memory of the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy?

  A) By presenting the horrible scene of the torpedo attack.

  B) By describing the ship's sinking in great detail.

  C) By giving an interview to the weekly Die Woche.

  D) By depicting the survival of a young pregnant woman.

  25. It can be learned from the passage that Germans no longer think that

  A) they will be misunderstood if they talk about the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy

  B) the Wilhelm Gustloff tragedy is a reasonable price to pay for the nation's past misdeeds

  C) Germany is responsible for the horrible crimes it committed in World War II

  D) it is wrong to equate their sufferings with those of other countries


  Passage Two

  Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  Given the lack of fit between gifted students and their schools, it is not surprising that such students often have little good to say 'about their school experience. In one study of 400 adul who had achieved distinction in all areas of life, researchers found that three-fifths of these individuals either did badly in school or were unhappy in school. Few MacArthur Prize fellows, winners of the MacArthur Award for creative accomplishment, had good things to say about their precollegiate schooling if they had not been placed in advanced programs. Anecdotal (名人轶事) reports support this. Pablo Picasso, Charles Darwin, Mark Twain, Oliver Goldsmith, and William Butler Yeats all disliked school. So did Winston Churchill, who almost failed out of Harrow, an elite British school. About Oliver Goldsmith, one of his teachers remarked, "Never was so dull a boy." Often these children realize that they know more than their teachers, and their teachers often feel that these children are arrogant, inattentive, or unmotivated.

  Some of these gifted people may have done poorly in school because their, gifts were not scholastic. Maybe we can account for Picasso in this way. But most fared poorly in school not because they lacked ability but because they found school unchallenging and consequently lost interest. Yeats described the lack of fit between his mind and school: "Because I had found it difficult to attend to anything less interesting than my own thoughts, I was difficult to teach." As noted earlier, gifted children of all kinds tend to be strong-willed nonconformists. Nonconformity and stubbornness (and Yeats's level of arrogance and self-absorption) are likely to lead to Conflicts with teachers.

  When highly gifted students in any domain talk about what was important to the development of their abilities, they are far more likely to mention their families than their schools or teachers. A writing prodigy (神童) studied by David Feldman and Lynn Goldsmith was taught far more about writing by his journalist father than his English teacher. High-IQ children, in Australia studied by Miraca Gross had much more positive feelings about their families than their schools. About half of the mathematicians studied by Benjamin Bloom had little good to say about school. They all did well in school and took honors classes when available, and some skipped grades.

  26. The main point the author is making about schools is that

  A) they should satisfy the needs of students from different family backgrounds

  B) they are often incapable of catering to the needs of talented students

  C) they should organize their classes according to the students' ability

  D) they should enroll as many gifted students as possible


  27. The author quotes the remarks of one of Oliver Goldsmith's teachers

  A) to provide support for his argument

  B) to illustrate the strong will of some gifted children

  C) to explain how dull students can also be successful

  D) to show how poor Oliver's performance was at school

  28. Pablo Picasso is listed among the many gifted children who

  A) paid no attention to their teachers in class

  B) contradicted their teachers much too often

  C) could not cope with their studies at school successfully

  D) behaved arrogantly and stubbornly in the presence of their teachers

  29. Many gifted people attributed their success.

  A) mainly to parental help and their education at home

  B) both to school instruction and to their parents' coaching

  C) more to their parents' encouragement than to school training

  D) less to their systematic education than to their talent

  30. The root cause of many gifted students having bad memories of their school years is that

  A) their nonconformity brought them a lot of trouble

  B) they were seldom praised by their teachers

  C) school courses failed to inspire or motivate them

  D) teachers were usually far stricter than their parents


  Passage Three

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

  When we worry about who might be spying on our private lives, we usually think about the Federal agents. But the private sector outdoes the government every time. It's Linda Tripp, not the FBI, who is facing charges under Maryland's laws against secret telephone taping. It's our banks, not the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), that pass our private financial data to telemarketing fin'ms.

  Consumer activists are pressing Congress for better privacy laws without much result so far. The legislators lean toward letting business people track our financial habits virtually at will.

  As an example of what's going on, consider U.S. Bancorp, which was recently sued for deceptive practices by the state of Minnesota. According to the lawsuit, the bank supplied a telemarketer called MemberWorks with sensitive customer data such as names,, ph'one numbers, bank-account and credit-card numbers, Social Security numbers, account balances and credit limits.

  With these customer lists in hand, MemberWorks started dialing for dollars - selling dental plans, videogames, computer software and other products and services. Customers who accepted a "free trial offer" had, 30 days to cancel. If the deadline passed, they were charged automatically through their bank or credit-card accounts. U.S. Bancorp collected a share of the revenues.

  Customers were doubly deceived, the lawsuit claims. They. didn't know that the bank was giving account numbers to MemberWorks. And if customers asked, they were led to think the answer was no.

  The state sued MemberWorks separately for deceptive selling. Thecompany de'hies that it did anything wrong. For its part, U.S. Bancorp settled without admitting any mistakes. But it agreed to stop exposing its customers to nonfinancial products sold by outside firms. A few top banks decided to do the same. Many other banks will still do business with MemberWorks and similar firms.

  And banks will still be mining data from your account in order to sell you financial products, including things of little value, such as credit insurance and credit-card protection plans.

  You have almost no protection from businesses that use your personal accounts for profit. For example, no federal law shields "transaction and experience" information - mainly the details of your bank and credit-card accounts. Social Security numbers are for sale by private fa'ms. They've generally agreed not to sell to the public. But to businesses, the numbers are an open book. Selfregulation doesn't work. A firm might publish a privacy-protection policy, but who enforces it?


  Take U.S. Bancorp again. Customers were told, in writing, that "all personal information you supply to us will be considered confidential." Then it sold your data to MemberWorks. The bank even claims that it doesn't "sell" your data at all. It merely "shares" it and reaps a profit. Now you know.

  31. Contrary to popular belief, the author finds that spying on people's privacy

  A) is mainly carried out by means of secret taping

  B) has been intensified with the help of the IRS

  C) is practiced exclusively by the FBI

  D) is more prevalent in business circles

  32. We know from the passage that

  A) legislators are acting to pass a law to provide better privacy protection

  B) most states are turning a blind eye to the deceptive practices of private businesses

  C) the state of Minnesota is considering drawing up laws to protect private information

  D) lawmakers are inclined to give a free hand to businesses to inquire into customers' buying habits

  33. When the "free trial" deadline is over, you'll be charged without notice for a product or service if

  A) you fail to cancel it within the specified period

  B) you happen to reveal your credit card number

  C) you find the product or service unsatisfactory

  D) you fail to apply for extension of the deadline

  34. Businesses do not regard information concerning personal bank accounts as private because

  A) its revelation will do no harm to consumers under the current protection policy

  B) it is considered "transaction and experience" information unprotected by law

  C) it has always been considered an open secret by the general public

  D) its sale can be brought under control through self-regulation

  35. We can infer from the passage that

  A) banks will have to change their ways of doing business

  B) privacy protection laws will soon be enforced

  C) consumers' privacy will continue to be invaded

  D) "free trial" practice will eventually be banned


  Passage Four

  Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.

  It's hardly news that the immigration system is a mess. Foreign nationals have long been slipping across the border with fake papers, and visitors who arrive in the U.S. legitimately often overstay their legal welcome without being punished. But since Sept. 11, it's become clear that terrorists have been shrewdly factoring the weaknesses of our system into their plans. In addition to their mastery of forging passports, at least three of the 19 Sept. 11 hijackers (劫机者) were here on expired visas. That's been a safe bet until now. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) ( 移民归化局 ) lacks the resources, and apparently the inclination, to keep track of the estimated 2 million foreigners who have intentionally overstayed their welcome.

  But this laxness (马虎) toward immigration fraud may be about to change. Congress has already taken some modest steps. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, passed in the wake of the Sept. 11 tragedy, requires the FBI, the Justice Department, the State Department and the INS to share more data, which will make it easier to stop watch-listed terrorists at the border.

  But what's really needed, critics say, is even tougher laws and more resources aimed at tightening up border security. Reformers are calling for a rollback of rules that hinder law enforcement.They also want the INS to hire hundreds more border patrol agents and investigators to keep illegal immigrants out and to track them down once they're here. Reformers also want to see the INS set up a database to monitor whether visa holders actually leave the country when they are required to.

  All these proposed changes were part of a new border-security bill that passed the House of Representatives but died in the Senate last week. Before Sept. 11, legislation of this kind had been blocked by two powerful lobbies: universities, which rely on tuition from foreign students who could be kept out by the new law, and business, which relies on foreigners for cheap labor. Since the attacks, they've backed off. The bill would have passed this time but for congressional maneuverings and is expected to be reintroduced and to pass next year.

  Also on the agenda for next year: a proposal, backed by some influential law-makers, to split the INS into two agencies - a good cop that would tend to service functions like processing citizenship papers and a bad cop that would concentrate on border inspections, deportation and other functions. One reason for the division, supporters say, is that the INS has in recent years become too focused on serving tourists and immigrants. After the Sept. l 1 tragedy, the INS should pay more attention to serving the millions of ordinary Americans who rely on the nation's border security to protect them from terrorist attacks.


  36. Terrorists have obviously taken advantage of

  A) the legal privileges granted to foreigners

  B) the excessive hospitality of the American people

  C) the irresponsibility of the officials at border checkpoints

  D) the low efficiency of the Immigration and Naturalization Service

  37. We learn from the passage that coordinated efforts will be made by various U.S. government agencies to

  A) refuse the renewing of expired visas

  B) ward off terrorist suspects at the border

  C) prevent the forgery of immigration papers

  D). limit the number Of immigrants to the U.S.

  38. It can be inferred from the passage that before Sept. 11, aliens with expired visas

  A) might have them extended without trouble

  B) would be closely watched by FBI agents

  C) might stay on for as long as they wished

  D) would live in constant fear of deportation

  39. It is believed by many that all these years the INS

  A) has been serving two contradictory functions

  B) has been too liberal in granting visas to tourists and immigrants indiscriminately

  C) has over-emphasized its service functions at the expense of the nation's security

  D) has ignored the pleas of the two powerful lobbies

  40. Before Sept. 11, the U.S. Congress had been unable to pass stricter immigration laws because

  A) they might have kept away foreign students and cheap labor

  B) it was difficult to coordinate the efforts of the congressmen

  C) education and business circles cared little about national security

  D) resources were not available for their enforcement



  Unit 11

  21.D 22.C 23.B 24.D 25.A 26.B 27.A 28.C 29.A 30.C

  31.D 32.D 33.A 34.B 35.C 36.D 37.B 38.C 39.C 40.A

  Unit 12

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  I had an experience some years ago which taught me something about the ways in which people make a bad situation worse by blaming themselves. One January, I had to officiate at two funerals on successive days for two elderly women in my community. Both had died “full of years,” as the Bible would say; both yielded to the normal wearing out of the body after a long and full life. Their homes happened to be near each other, so I paid condolence (吊唁) calls on the two families on the same afternoon.

  At the first home, the son of the deceased (已故的) woman said to me, “If only I had sent my mother to Florida and gotten her out of this cold and snow, she would be alive today. It’s my fault that she died.” At the second home, the son of the other deceased woman said, “If only I hadn’t insisted on my mother’s going to Florida, she would be alive today. That long airplane ride, the abrupt change of climate, was more than she could take. It’s my fault that she’s dead.”

  When things don’t turn out as we would like them to, it is very tempting to assume that had we done things differently, the story would have had a happier ending. Priests know that any time there is a death, the survivors will feel guilty. Because the course of action they took turned out badly, they believe that the opposite course-keeping Mother at home, postponing the operation—would have turned out better. After all, how could it have turned out any worse?

  There seem to be two elements involved in our readiness to feel guilt. The first is our pressing need to believe that the world makes sense, that there is a cause for every effect and a reason for everything that happens. That leads us to find patterns and connections both where they really exist and where they exist only in our minds.


  The second element is the notion that we are the cause of what happens, especially the bad things that happen. It seems to be a short step from believing that every event has a cause to believing that every disaster is our fault. The roots of this feeling may lie in our childhood. Psychologists speak of the infantile myth of omnipotence (万能). A baby comes to think that the world exists to meet his needs, and that he makes everything happen in it. He wakes up in the morning and summons the rest of the world to its tasks. He cries, and someone comes to attend to him. When he is hungry, people feed him, and when he is wet, people change him. Very often, we do not completely outgrow that infantile notion that our wishes cause things to happen.

  21. What is said about the two deceased elderly women?

  A) They lived out a natural life.

  B) They died due to lack of care by family members.

  C) They died of exhaustion after the long plane ride.

  D) They weren’t accustomed to the change in weather.22. The author had to conduct the two women’s funerals probably because ________.

  A) he wanted to console the two families

  B) he was an official from the community

  C) he had great sympathy for the deceased

  D) he was priest of the local church23. People feel guilty for the deaths of their loved ones because ________.

  A) they couldn’t find a better way to express their grief

  B) they believe that they were responsible

  C) they had neglected the natural course of events

  D) they didn’t know things often turn out in the opposite direction24. In the context of the passage, “... the world makes sense” (Line 2, Para, 4) probably means that ________.

  A) everything in the world is predetermined

  B) the world can be interpreted in different ways

  C) there’s an explanation for everything in the world

  D) we have to be sensible in order to understand the world

  25. People have been made to believe since infancy that ________.

  A) everybody is at their command

  B) life and death is an unsolved mystery

  C) every story should have a happy ending

  D) their wishes are the cause of everything that happens

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