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  Unit 17

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  The use of deferential (敬重的) language is symbolic of the Confucian ideal of the woman, which dominates conservative gender norms in Japan. This ideal presents a woman who withdraws quietly to the background, subordinating her life and needs to those of her family and its male head. She is a dutiful daughter, wife, and mother, master of the domestic arts. The typical refined Japanese woman excels in modesty and delicacy; she “treads softly (谨言慎行)in the world,” elevating feminine beauty and grace to an art form.

  Nowadays, it is commonly observed that young women are not conforming to the feminine linguistic (语言的) ideal. They are using fewer of the very deferential “women’s” forms, and even using the few strong forms that are know as “men’s.” This, of course, attracts considerable attention and has led to an outcry in the Japanese media against the defeminization of women’s language. Indeed, we didn’t hear about “men’s language” until people began to respond to girls’ appropriation of forms normally reserved for boys and men. There is considerable sentiment about the “corruption” of women’s language—which of course is viewed as part of the loss of feminine ideals and morality—and this sentiment is crystallized by nationwide opinion polls that are regularly carried out by the media.

  Yoshiko Matsumoto has argued that young women probably never used as many of the highly deferential forms as older women. This highly polite style is no doubt something that young women have been expected to “grow into”—after all, it is assign not simply of femininity, but of maturity and refinement, and its use could be taken to indicate a change in the nature of one’s social relations as well. One might well imagine little girls using exceedingly polite forms when playing house or imitating older women—in a fashion analogous to little girls’ use of a high-pitched voice to do “teacher talk” or “mother talk” in role play.

  The fact that young Japanese women are using less deferential language is a sure sign of change—of social change and of linguistic change. But it is most certainly not a sign of the “masculization” of girls. In some instances, it may be a sign that girls are making the same claim to authority as boys and men, but that is very different from saying that they are trying to be “masculine.” Katsue Reynolds has argued that girls nowadays are using more assertive language strategies in order to be able to compete with boys in schools and out. Social change also brings not simply different positions for women and girls, but different relations to life stages, and adolescent girls are participating in new subcultural forms. Thus what may, to an older speaker, seem like “masculine” speech may seem to an adolescent like “liberated” or “hip” speech.


  52. The first paragraph describes in detail ________.

  A) the Confucian influence on gender norms in Japan

  B) the stereotyped role of women in Japanese families

  C) the standards set for contemporary Japanese women

  D) the norms for traditional Japanese women to follow

  53. What change has been observed in today’s young Japanese women?

  A) They use fewer of the deferential linguistic forms.

  B) They pay less attention to their linguistic behavior.

  C) They employ very strong linguistic expressions.

  D) They confuse male and female forms of language.

  54. How do some people react to women’s appropriation of men’s language forms as reported in the Japanese media?

  A) They call for a campaign to stop the defeminization.

  B) They accept it as a modern trend.

  C) They express strong disapproval.

  D) The see it as an expression of women’s sentiment.

  55. According to Yoshiko Matsumoto, the linguistic behavior observed in today’s young women ________.

  A) may lead to changes in social relations

  B) is viewed as a sign of their maturity

  C) is a result of rapid social progress

  D) has been true of all past generations

  56. The author believes that the use of assertive language by young Japanese women is ________.

  A) a sure sign of their defeminization and maturation

  B) one of their strategies to compete in a male-dominated society

  C) an inevitable trend of linguistic development in Japan today

  D) an indication of their defiance against social change


  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  You hear the refrain all the time: the U.S. economy looks good statistically, but it doesn’t feel good. Why doesn’t ever-greater wealth promote ever-greater happiness? It is a question that dates at least to the appearance in 1958 of The Affluent (富裕的) Society by John Kenneth Galbraith, who died recently at 97.

  The Affluent Society is a modern classic because it helped define a new moment in the human condition. For most of history, “hunger, sickness, and cold” threatened nearly everyone, Galbraith wrote. “Poverty was found everywhere in that world. Obviously it is not of ours.” After World War II, the dread of another Great Depression gave way to an economic boom. In the 1930s unemployment had averaged 18.2 percent; in the 1950s it was 4.5 percent.

  To Galbraith, materialism had gone mad and would breed discontent. Through advertising, companies conditioned consumers to buy things they didn’t really want or need. Because so much spending was artificial, it would be unfulfilling. Meanwhile, government spending that would make everyone better off was being cut down because people instinctively—and wrongly—labeled government only as “a necessary evil.”

  It’s often said that only the rich are getting ahead; everyone else is standing still or falling behind. Well, there are many undeserving rich—overpaid chief executives, for instance. But over any meaningful period, most people’s incomes are increasing. From 1995 to 2004, inflation-adjusted average family income rose 14.3 percent, to $43,200. people feel “squeezed” because their rising incomes often don’t satisfy their rising wants—for bigger homes, more health care, more education, faster Internet connections.

  The other great frustration is that it has not eliminated insecurity. People regard job stability as part of their standard of living. As corporate layoffs increased, that part has eroded. More workers fear they’ve become “the disposable American,” as Louis Uchitelle puts it in his book by the same name.

  Because so much previous suffering and social conflict stemmed from poverty, the arrival of widespread affluence suggested utopian (乌托邦式的) possibilities. Up to a point, affluence succeeds. There is much les physical misery than before. People are better off. Unfortunately, affluence also creates new complaints and contradictions.

  Advanced societies need economic growth to satisfy the multiplying wants of their citizens. But the quest for growth lets loose new anxieties and economic conflicts that disturb the social order. Affluence liberates the individual, promising that everyone can choose a unique way to self-fulfillment. But the promise is so extravagant that it predestines many disappointments and sometimes inspires choices that have anti-social consequences, including family breakdown and obesity (肥胖症). Statistical indicators of happiness have not risen with incomes.

  Should we be surprised? Not really. We’ve simply reaffirmed an old truth: the pursuit of affluence does not always end with happiness.


  57. What question does John Kenneth Galbraith raise in his book The Affluent Society?

  A) Why statistics don’t tell the truth about the economy.

  B) Why affluence doesn’t guarantee happiness.

  C) How happiness can be promoted today.

  D) What lies behind an economic boom.

  58. According to Galbraith, people feel discontented because ________.

  A) public spending hasn’t been cut down as expected

  B) the government has proved to be a necessary evil

  C) they are in fear of another Great Depression

  D) materialism has run wild in modern society

  59. Why do people feel squeezed when their average income rises considerably?

  A) Their material pursuits have gone far ahead of their earnings.

  B) Their purchasing power has dropped markedly with inflation.

  C) The distribution of wealth is uneven between the r5ich and the poor.

  D) Health care and educational cost have somehow gone out of control.

  60. What does Louis Uchitelle mean by “the disposable American” (Line 3, Para. 5)?

  A) Those who see job stability as part of their living standard.

  B) People full of utopian ideas resulting from affluence.

  C) People who have little say in American politics.

  D) Workers who no longer have secure jobs.

  61. What has affluence brought to American society?

  A) Renewed economic security.

  B) A sense of self-fulfillment.

  C) New conflicts and complaints.

  D) Misery and anti-social behavior.  

  Unit 17

  52.B 53.D 54.A 55.D 56.C 57.B 58.B 59.D 60.C 61.C


  Unit 18

  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  (35 minutes)

  Directions: There are 4 reading passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

  Passage One

  Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

  Like most people, I've long understood that I will be judged by my occupation, that my profession is a gauge people use to see how smart or talented I am. Recently. however, I was disappointed to see that I'm treated as a person.

  Last year I left a professional position as a small-town reporter and took a job waiting tables. As someone paid to serve food to people, I had customers say and do things to me I suspect they'd never say or do to their most casual acquaintances. One night a man talking on his cell phone waved me away, then beckoned(示意) me back with his finger a minute later, complaining he was ready to order and asking where I'd been.

  I had waited tables during summers in college and was treated like a peon(勤杂工) by plenty of people. But at 19 years old, I believed I deserved inferior treatment from professional adults. Besides, people responded to me differently after I told them I was in college. Customers would joke that one day I'd be sitting at their table, waiting to be served.

  Once I graduated I took a job at a community newspaper. From my first day, I heard a respectful tone from every one who called me. I assumed this was the way the professional world worked—cordially.

  I soon found out differently. I saw several feet away from an advertising sales representative with a similar name. Our calls would often get mixed up and someone asking for Kristen would be transferred to Christie. The mistakes was immediately evident. Perhaps it was because money was involved, but people used a tone with Kristen that they never used with me.

  My job title made people treat me with courtesy. So it was a shock to return to the restaurant industry.

  It’s no secret that there’s a lot to put up with when waiting tables, and fortunately, much of it can be easily forgotten when you pocket the tips. The service industry, by definition, exists to cater to others’ needs. Still, it seemed that many of my customers didn’t get the difference between server and servant.


  I’m now applying to graduate school, which means someday I’ll return to a profession where people need to be nice to me in order to get what they want. I think I’ll take them to dinner first, and see how they treat someone whose only job is to serve them.

  52. The author was disappointed to find that ____.

  A) one's position is used as a gauge to measure one's intelligence

  B) talented people like her should fail to get a respectable job

  C) one's occupation affects the way one is treated as a person

  D) professionals tend to look down upon manual workers

  53. What does the author intend to say by the example in the second paragraph?

  A) some customers simply show no respect to those who serve them.

  B) people absorbed in a phone conversation tend to be absent-minded.

  C) Waitresses are often treated by customers as casual acquaintances.

  D) some customers like to make loud complaints for no reason at all.

  54. How did the author feel when waiting tables at the age of 19?

  A) she felt it unfair to be treated as a mere servant by professionals.

  B) she felt badly hurt when her customers regarded her as a peon.

  C) she was embarrassed each time her customers joked with her.

  D) she found it natural for professionals to treat her as inferior.

  55. What does the author imply by saying "... many of my customers didn't get the difference between server and servant" (Lines 3-4, Para.7)?

  A) those who cater to others' needs are destined to be looked down upon.

  B) those working in the service industry shouldn't be treated as servants.

  C) those serving others have to put up with rough treatment to earn a living.

  D) the majority of customers tend to look on a servant as a server nowadays.

  56. The author says she'll one day take her clients to dinner in order to ___.

  A) see what kind of person they are

  B) experience the feeling of being served

  C) show her generosity towards people inferior to her

  D) arouse their sympathy for people living a humble life


  Passage Two

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  What's hot for 2007 among the very rich? A &7.3 million diamond ring. A trip to Tanzania to hunt wild animals. Oh, and income inequality.

  Sure, some leftish billionaires like George Soros have been railing against income inequality for years. But increasingly, centrist and right-wing billionaires are starting to worry about income inequality and the fate of the middle class.

  In December, Mortimer Zuckerman wrote a column in U.S.NEWS & World Report. which he owns. "Our nation's core bargain with the middle class is disintegrating." lamented(哀叹) the 117th-richest man in America. "Most of our economic gains have gone to people at the very top of the income ladder, average income for a household of people of working age. by contrast, has fallen five years in a row." He noted that "Tens of millions of Americans live in fear that a major health problem can reduce them to bankruptcy."

  Wilbur Ross Jr. has echoed Zuckerman's anger over the bitter struggles faced by middle-class Americans. "It's an outrage that any American's life expectancy should be shortened simply because the company they worked for went bankrupt and ended health-care coverage." said the former chairman of the International Steel Group.

  What's happening? The very rich are just as trendy as you and I, and can be so when it comes to politics and policy. Given the recent change of control in Congress, the popularity of measures like increasing the minimum wage, and efforts by California's governor to offer universal health care, these guys don't need their own personal weathermen to know which way the wind blows.

  It’s possible that plutocrats(有钱有势的人)are expressing solidarity with the struggling middle class as part of an effort to insulate themselves from confiscatory(没收性的)tax policies. But the prospect that income inequality will lead to higher taxes on the wealthy doesn’t keep plutocrats up at night. They can live with that.

  No, what they fear was that the political challenges of sustaining support for global economic

  integration will be more difficult in the United States because of what has happened to the distribution of income and economic insecurity.

  In other words, if middle-class Americans continue to struggle financially as the ultrawealthy grow ever wealthier, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain political support for the free flow of goods, services, and capital across borders, and when the United States places obstacles in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods, it’s likely to encourage reciprocal action abroad, for people who buy and sell companies, or who allocate capital to markets all around the would, that’s the real nightmare.


  57. What is the current topic of common interest among the very rich in America?

  A) the fate of the ultrawealthy people.

  B) the disintegration of the middle class.

  C) the inequality in the distribution of wealth.

  D) the confilict between the left and the right wing.

  58. What do we learn from Mortimer Zuckerman's lamentation?

  A) many middle-income families have failed to make a bargain for better welfare.

  B) the American economic system has caused many companies to go bankrupt.

  C) the American nation is becoming more and more divided despite its wealth.

  D) the majority of Americans benefit little from the nation's growing wealth.

  59. From the fifth paragraph we can learn that ____.

  A) the very rich are fashion-conscious

  B) the very rich are politically sensitive

  C) universal healh care is to be implemented throughout America

  D) congress has gained popularity by increasing the minimum wage

  60. What is the real reason for plutocrats to express solidarity with the middle class?A) they want to protect themselves from confiscatory taxation.

  B) they know that the middle class contributes most to society.

  C) they want to gain support for global economic integration

  D) they feel increasingly threatened by economic insecurity.

  61. What may happen if the United States places obstacies in the way of foreign investors and foreign goods?

  A) the prices of imported goods will inevitably soar beyond control.

  B) the investors will have to make great efforts to re-allocate capital.

  C) the wealthy will attempt to buy foreign companies across borders.

  D) foreign countries will place the same economic barriers in return.

  Unit 18

  52.C 53.A 54.D 55.B 56.A 57.C 58.C 59.B 60.C 61.D

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