第31篇：(Unit 9,Passage 2)
The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive “attachment” period from birth to three may scar a child’s personality and predispose to emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby’s work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation it entails, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion.
Firstly, anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, we saw earlier that among the Ngoni the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant alone--far from it. Secondly, common sense tells us that day care would not so widespread today if parents, caretakers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and even if they were, the results would be certain to be complicated and controversial. Thirdly, in the last decade, there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care, and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neutral or slightly positive effect on children’s development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby’s analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with. Children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly why more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cut, though experience and available evidence indicate that early care is reasonable for infants.
1.This passage primarily argues that ___.
A.infants under the age of three should not be sent to nursery schools.
B.whether children under the age of three should be sent to nursery schools.
C.there is not negative long-term effect on infants who are sent to school before they are three.
D.there is some negative effect on children when they are sent to school after the age of three.
2.The phrase “predispose to” (Para. 1, line 3) most probably means ___.
D.tend to suffer
3.According to Bowlby’s analysis, it is quite possible that ___.
A.children’s personalities will be changed to some extent through separation from their parents.
B.early day care can delay the occurrence of mental illness in children.
C.children will be exposed to many negative effects from early day care later on.
D.some long-term effects can hardly be reduced from children’s development.
4.It is implied but not stated in the second paragraph that ___.
A.traditional societies separate the child from the parent at an early age.
B.Children in modern societies cause more troubles than those in traditional societies.
C.A child did not live together with his parents among the Ngoni.
D.Children in some societies did not have emotional problems when separated from the parents.
5.The writer concludes that ___.
A.it is difficult to make clear what is the right age for nursery school.
B.It is not settled now whether early care is reasonable for children.
C.It is not beneficial for children to be sent to nursery school.
D.It is reasonable to subject a child above three to nursery school.