第54篇：(Unit 15 ,Passage 1)
If we look at education in our own society, we see two sharply different factors. First of all, there is the overwhelming majority of teachers, principals, curriculum planners, school superintendents, who are devoted to passing on the knowledge that children need in order to live in our industrialized society. Their chief concern is with efficiency, that is, with implanting the greatest number of facts into the greatest possible number of children, with a minimum of time, expense, and effort.
Classroom learning often has as its unspoken goal the reward of pleasing the teacher. Children in the usual classroom learn very quickly that creativity is punished, while repeating a memorized response is rewarded, and concentrate on what the teacher wants them to say, rather than understanding the problem.
The difference between the intrinsic and the extrinsic aspects of a college education is illustrated by the following story about Upton Sinclair. When Sinclair was a young man, he found that he was unable to raise the tuition money needed to attend college. Upon careful reading of the college catalogue, however, he found that if a student failed a course, he received no credit for the course, but was obliged to take another course in its place. The college did not charge the student for the second course, reasoning that he had already paid once for his credit. Sinclair took advantage of this policy and not a free education by deliberately failing all his courses.
In the ideal college, there would be no credits, no degrees, and no required courses. A person would learn what he wanted to learn. A friend and I attempted to put this ideal into action by starting a serials of seminars at Brandeis called “Freshman Seminars Introduction to the Intellectual Life.” In the ideal college, intrinsic education would be available to anyone who wanted it—since anyone can improve and learn. The student body might include creative, intelligent children as well as adults; morons as well as geniuses (for even morons can learn emotionally and spiritually). The college would be ubiquitous—that is, not restricted to particular buildings at particular times, and teachers would be any human beings who had something that they wanted to share with others. The college would be lifelong, for learning can take place all through life. Even dying can be a philosophically illuminating, highly educative experience.
The ideal college would be a kind of education retreat in which you could try to find yourself; find out what you like and want; what you are and are not good at. The chief goals of the ideal college, in other words, would be the discovery of identity, and with it, the discovery of vocation.
1.In the author’s opinion, the majority of education workers ___.
A.emphasize independent thought rather than well-memorized responses
B.tend to reward children with better understanding rather than with a goal for credits
C.implant children with a lot of facts at the expense of understanding the problem
D.are imaginative, creative and efficient in keeping up with our industrialized society
2.Children in the usual classroom learn very quickly when ___.
A.they are required to repeat what teacher has said
B.they read books that are not assigned by the teacher
C.they know how to behave themselves in face of the teacher
D.they can memorize the greatest number of facts in the shortest period of time
3.An extrinsically oriented education is one that ___.
A.focuses on oriented education
B.takes students’ need into account
C.lays emphases on “earning a degree”
D.emphasizes learning through discussion
4.To enter the author’s ideal college, a student ___.
A.has to pass an enrollment exam
B.should be very intelligent
C.needn’t worry about homework
D.can be best stimulated for creative work
5.The author’s purpose of writing the article is ___.
A.to advocate his views
B.to criticize college students
C.to stress self-teaching attitude
D.to put technological education to a later stage