①Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.
①It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. ②Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. ③ To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.
【考点分析】①to the point of "到...地步" ②转折常考，出21题。 "然而，在20世纪大量的最重要的批评集是有报纸评论组成的。"本句强调20世纪的报纸评论数量很多。③沿着上句的意思论述：如今读到这样的书的人不禁会对下面这个事实感到惊讶:这些评论之前竟然被认为适合在面向大众的日报上刊登。
21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that
A arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.
B English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.
C high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.
D young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.
【正确选项解析】【B】 由第一段的 ①decline in scope 和第二段的②a considerable number 都在强调以前的报纸关于艺术评论数量很多，所以选择B
【干扰选项分析】【A】 比较容易排除。与第一段①矛盾，原文只是说decline, 即下降，没有说消失(disappear)
【D】 强干扰项。"年轻的读者怀疑报纸上的评论不合适"。原文③：《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》marvel v. be very surprised (and often admiring) 大为惊讶(常含赞叹之意)，表明其实读者是赞同：这些评论可以再报纸上刊登的。这里的doubt 表示怀疑，所以与marvel意思相反。
① We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War 2,at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. ②In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. ③Theirs was a serious business. and even those reviews who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. ④These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. ⑤So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in ournalism,Newman wrote, "that I am tempted to define "journalism" as "a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are".
【考点分析】①否定常考(unfocused)出22题。承接上文，上文讲我们的评论数量减少，这里继续讲我们甚至离20世纪初到二战期间的报纸评论也相差很远。Even farther removed from 表明作者的惋惜之情。② in detail and at length"详细的"③ serious"严肃的"④calling"对做某项工作的强烈欲望或责任感" proud"骄傲" 上面的这些词都表明二战前的报纸评论的风格。⑤否定常考，出23题。"因此，几乎没有人有足够的智慧或文学天赋在新闻事业上成就自己，我更喜欢吧新闻事业定义为"被假作家耻辱地使用了的术语，对真作家来说，他们不足挂齿"。"其实本句话中Newman wrote,后面的根本不需要看懂。
22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War 2 were characterized by
A free themes.
B casual style.
C elaborate layout.
D radical viewpoints.
【正确选项解析】【A】 unfocused的英文解释：not concentrated at one point or upon one objective, free的英文解释是unrestricted，所以unfocused = free ,属于同义替换。
【B】 请看《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》字典对casual 的解释：(a)made or done without much care or thought; offhand 不经意的; 随便的; 马虎的; 临时的(b) (derog 贬) showing little concern; nonchalant; irresponsible 漠不关心的; 无动於衷的; 不负责任的(c) not methodical or thorough; not serious 无条理的; 不彻底的; 不认真的 .这几个意思都是和② in detail and at length"详细的"③ serious"严肃的"④calling"对做某项工作的强烈欲望或责任感" proud"骄傲"相矛盾的。所以不选。
【C】 强干扰项。elaborate 可以替换原文中的in detail ，但是layout(布局)无中生有，所以本题与原文不相符合。
【D】 radical 激进的 无中生有。
23. Which of the following would shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
A It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
B It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.
C Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
D Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
【正确选项解析】【D】 对⑤同义替换。Few= not all ，have brains enough or literary gift enough =capable of
【干扰选项分析】【A】 journalistic goals(新闻业的目标)，无中生有。
【B】 "作家成为记者是值得鄙视的。"与④的proud (自豪的)相反。
【C】 "作者容易被新闻业吸引"。对⑤偷梁换柱。原文说的是被define "journalism" as... 所吸引，而不是被journalism所吸引。
①Unfortunately,these critics are virtually forgotten. ②Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. ③During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England's foremost classical-music critics, and a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. ④He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. ⑤Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists.
【考点分析】①否定常考+段首常考。"不幸的是，这些批评家几乎被忘记了。"言语之间是作者对报纸评论堕落的惋惜之情。②-⑤是举Neville Cardus的例子来论证以前的评论家怎么被忘记的，可以略读。 ①Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? ②The prospect seems remote.③Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly uphostered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. ④Moreover,the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
A His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.
B His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.
C His style caters largely to modern specialists.
D His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
【正确选项解析】【A】 ③说新闻业的品味已经改变，读者不需要(have little use for)他所擅长的风格，所以Cardus's criticism不可能复苏。而A Cardus's criticism也许不能吸引当今的读者。 注意have little use for= not appeal to
25. What would be the best title for the text?
A Newspapers of the Good Old Days
B The Lost Horizon in Newspapers
C Mournful Decline of Journalism
D Prominent Critics in Memory
【B】 "报纸行业的消失的视野" 本选项的错误类型和A一样。
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have seen granted for what are called business methods. Amazon.com received one for its “one-click” online payment system. Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lying a box。
Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely-property lawyers abuzz the U.S. court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In the Bilski, as the case is known, is a “very big deal”， says Dennis’D Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law. It “has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents。”
26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
[A] their limited value to business
[B] their connection with asset allocation
[C] the possible restriction on their granting
[D] the controversy over authorization
选[C]，根正苗红的同义替换。possible= potential ， eliminate= restriction
[A] 无中生有 [B] 用第一段的一个小例子中的细节捏造选项 [D] controversy 无中生有。
27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
[A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions
[B] It involves a very big business transaction
[C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S。
选[D] potential= may ,change 对应着第一段和第二段之间的转折。从本段的review，eliminate也可以看出这是一种转折。
全文一直没有讲Bilski case的判决的结果，而 [A] [C]都是在讲其判决结果，所以与原文相反。
[B] 是从原文“ a “very big deal””字面意识出发设置的干扰选项。a big deal 其实在英文中的意思是“重要”，而不是“生意(transaction)”
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pinhts to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。
28. The word “about-face” (Line 1,Para 3) most probably means
[A] loss of good will
[B] increase of hostility
[C] change of attitude
[D] enhancement of disnity
本题是词汇题，一定要返回原文通过上下文解题。Because 之前是说对business-method 的约束(curbs)，而because之后说的是“正是联邦审判引入了business-method”，所以二者之间自然表明了是“态度的转变”。所以选[C]
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three and that one issue it wants to evaluate is weather it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling。
本段第一句话没有看懂，直接跳过。第二句讲“联邦审判要求这个案子要12个法官审，而不是普通的3人小组，并且要求判断是否要重新考虑之前的Bank ruling” 由本句可以排除29 [A]
The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme Count that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reacting to the anti_patent trend at the supreme court”， says Harole C.wegner, a partend attorney and professor at aeorge Washington University Law School。
in the wake of= after 。第一句：最高法院已经减少了对专利持有者的保护(protection)。而29[C] 减少了对专利持有者的尊重(esteem)。其中esteem是对protection的偷梁换柱。第二句：举例子。法官发出信号： too many (过多的专利被授予了)，表明法院认为很多business-method 不应该被授予，所以选[B] too many =often unnecessarily. [D]无中生有。
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
[A] are immune to legal challenges
[B] are often unnecessarily issued
[C] lower the esteem for patent holders
[D] increase the incidence of risks
见上文的解析。本题[A] [B] 两项相反必去其一。
30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
[A] A looming threat to business-method patents
[B] Protection for business-method patent holders
[C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
[D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
选择 [A] 。首先排除[B]，与原文相反。[C]大帽子。[A] [D]的选择有一定难度。用串线法解题。第一段讲过去business method很容易被授予专利。其中第一段的最后一句话已经暗含着对这种做法的反对。第二段转折：将会用一个案例来全面审查商业方法专利。第三段：对business method的约束(curbs)是法院态度的巨大转变。最后一段明确提出reacting to the anti-patent trend at the supreme court 。要注意的是原文始终没有说Bilski case的判决，因此只是一个looming (隐约地出现)的danger ，而不是已经盛行的趋势。www.59wj.com
① In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Aladuell argues that “social epidemics” are driven in large part by the actions of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive, or well connected. ②The idea is intuitively compelling, but it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread。
【考点分析】① 因果常考(driven)，出31题[A]。Malcolm Aladuell 的观点“社会流行的东西在很大程度上是有一小部分有影响力的人发动的，这些人见多识广，有说服力” ②转折常考，出31题[B]。 “这个观点不能解释思想是如何传播的”。要注意：ideas actually spread= social epidemics 这就意味着作者认为influential对how ideas actually spread作用不大，不起driven(驱动)的作用。
31. By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to __________。
[A]analyze the consequences of social epidemics
[B]discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas
[C]exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics
[D]describe the essential characteristics of influentials。
[C] 本段没有提到人们的直觉的反应(intuitive response)。②只是说“作者认为这个观点从直觉上看是吸引人的”。所以无中生有
①The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible-sounding but largely untested theory called the “two-step flow of communication”： Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. ② Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. ③The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. ④In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. ⑤Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends.
【考点分析】①因果常考(derive from)+转折常考(but)+否定常考(untested)+段首常考+特殊标点常考(冒号)，出32题。请看supposed在《牛津高阶英语词典》的英文解释 [only before noun] used to show that you think that a claim, statement or way of describing sb/sth is not true or correct, although it is generally believed to be。这就意味着supposed后面的东西在本质上都是作者反对的。“这种influential的假象的重要性来源于一个貌似合理但是实质上未经检验的two-step flow of communication的理论”。②讲商人接受了这一错误观点。③中的seems ④中的cursory search(草率的搜索) ⑤中的Anecdotal evidence(传闻的证据)这几个词组都表明作者对这个理论持反对态度。
32. The author suggests that the “two-step flow theory” __________。
[A]serves as a solution to marketing problems
[B]has helped explain certain prevalent trends
[C]has won support from influentials
[D]requires solid evidence for its validity
【正确选项解析】[D]由①可知这个理论是未经检验的(untested)，这就意味着“需要可靠的证据证明其有效性”(requires solid evidence for its validity)。所以本题是同义替换之正话反说。
①In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. ② In fact, they don’t seem to be required of all. ③ The researchers’ argument stems from a simple observation about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey — whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence — even the most influential members of a population simply don’t interact with that many others. ④Yet it is precisely these noncelebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. ⑤ For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected, must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; ⑥and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. ⑦ If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example, the cascade of change won’t propagate very far or affect many people。
【考点分析】①承上启下。研究者****了上文的错误观点。②无需看懂。③研究者的理由来自关于社会影响的简单的观察。即使最有影响力的人也不会与太多的人交流。④是two-step-flow theory理论。⑤转折常考出33题。“每一个受影响的人必须要影响他的熟人，他的熟人再影响自己的熟人”，这也就因为是social interaction。
33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that __________。
[A] the power of influence goes with social interactions。
[B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media。
[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public。
[D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention。
【正确选项解析】[A] 由⑤可知，a social epidemic to occur= the power of influence， his or her own acquaintances=social interaction 可以明确的同义替换。goes with 与…相伴而生。
34.The underlined phrase “these people” in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who __________。
[A] stay outside the network of social influence
[B] have little contact with the source of influence
[C] are influenced and then influence others
[D] are influenced by the initial influential
【正确选项解析】本题可以看做是指代词具体是指代的对象。指代的对象一定是向前指代，往前找最近的名词。⑤中“每一个受影响的人必须要影响他的熟人，他的熟人再影响自己的熟人”所以these people 就是指这些“被影响并且影响别人的人”
[B] 强干扰项。⑥说的是“how many others pay attention to each of these people”与initial influential(= the source of influence)无关，而[B]偷换为“these people”与initial influential(= the source of influence)接触不多。
①Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of social contagion by conducting thousands of computer simulations of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced。
35. What is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
[A]The eagerness to be accepted
[B]The impulse to influence others
[C]The readiness to be influenced
[D]The inclination to rely on others
【正确选项解析】 [C]The readiness to be influenced由本段最后一句可知社会影响的动力要素是：人们影响别人的能力以及被别人影响的倾向性。所以选C。
[D]错在 rely on 。
If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example the casecade of change won’t propagate very far or affect many people。尤其是resistant可知更强调的是“被影响”www.59wj.com
(注：本文含有的生词和难句较多，考研阅读的原则是过难的单词和句子一定不会出题，在考场上紧紧抓住能看懂的句子即可，因为文章上下文的意思都是有密切关联的。笔者把本文无需看懂的句子用删除线标出来，以便于学生更好的复习。示例：not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch。)
①Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. ②Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else: the accounting standard-setters. ③Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it's just not fair. ④These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch。
【考点分析】①②“台面上，银行家们将他们的麻烦归咎于己身，台面下，他们一直把目标对准他人：会计准则制定者。”台上台下，表里不一，暗含了作者对银行家的虚伪的否定，对无辜者standard-setters的同情。③讲具体的抱怨的内容。“银行业抱怨会计规则迫使他们报告巨大损失，认为这不公平。” ④二者相比必出考点。出36题。进一步描述会计规则的内容。“规则认为他们必须以第三方付出价格来评估部分资产的价值，而非按照管理者和监管者期望该资产能够获得的价格。”本句其实只要看懂“These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not”not后面无需看懂，只要知道是与not前面不一样的方法。
36. Bankers complained that they were forced to __________。
[A] follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules
[B] collect payments from third parties
[C] cooperate with the price managers
[D] reevaluate some of their assets。
【正确选项解析】[A] 36题 complain= moan ，not fair(③) = unfavorable , value some assets(④)= asset evaluation 所以本题属于根正苗红的同义替换。
【干扰选项分析】[B] 对④偷梁换柱。把value 偷换为collect。
[C] 与原文相反。错误一：原文④说：“These rules say they must value some assets at the price 。。。， not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch”明确说“规则不让按照managers的期待的价格评估”，所以这与cooperate(合作)相反。
错误二：原文中没有提到price manager 这个概念，④managers and regulators would like them to fetch。是定语从句来修饰price。
①Unfortunately, banks’ lobbying now seems to be working. ②The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. ③And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult。
①After a bruising encounter with Congress, America’s Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. ②These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long-term assets in their income statement. ③Bob Herz, the FASB’s chairman, cried out against those who “question our motives。” ④ Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls “the use of judgment by management。”
【考点分析】①bruising encounter根本不需认识。rushed through 只需要认识through，表示 “通过”。注意：动词+介词的短语，有时候只要通过介词就可以把握句子所表达的大致方向是支持还是反对。本句只需明白“FASB通过了规则变化” 即可。 ②只需看懂：These gave banks more freedom to… value …assets and more flexibility… in their income statement。省略号所省略的内容完全可以不看。“即银行在评估资产上有了更多的自由” ③没看懂，没关系，因为后面有转折。④转折常考。出37[A]。本句只需看懂 the changes …enhance the use of judgment by management。“这些变化增加了管理层的判断的作用”
37. According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result in __________。
[A] the diminishing role of management
[B] the revival of the banking system
[C] the banks’ long-term asset losses
[D] the weakening of its independence
【正确选项解析】[D] 本题定位有点难度。从第三段①可知FASB通过了规则变化。第二段的①的意思是“不幸的是，银行的游说活动看来已起作用了。”这就意味着：第一段银行抱怨的规则的不公平得到重视，规则变化了。所以37题题干问的“the rule changes of the FASB”的结果，也就是第二段②的结果。
《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》中compromise 的解释：modify (sth); weaken 修改，更改(某事物);减轻;减弱;缓和。所以这里的compromise= weaken，根正苗红的同义替换。
【干扰选项分析】[A] 与原文相反。diminish与④中的enhance 相矛盾。
①European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. ②The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. ③Charlie McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did “not live in a political vacuum” but “in the real word” and that Europe could yet develop different rules。
38. According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB’s attempt to __________。
[A] keep away from political influences。
[B] evade the pressure from their peers。
[C] act on their own in rule-setting。
[D] take gradual measures in reform。
【正确选项解析】[C] ①讲欧洲部长对IASB的要求，②是IASB对之的抵触情绪，但是(but)压力又很大(strong)，③McCreevy对IASB警告它不是“处在政治真空中”而是“在现实世界里”。这三句话的中心是：IASB想自己独立的制定规则(act on their own in rule-setting)，而欧洲部长(包括McCreevy)又想命令其按自己意愿行为。所以选择[C]。
【干扰选项分析】[A]是强干扰项，貌似是对“not in a political vacuum”的同义替换。但是与[C]相比，[C]更加符合本段的中心。因为本段并不是强调IASB不能逃脱政治影响，而是强调IASB想要自己独立地制定规则。考生切记：当两个选项无法分清的时候，符合中心的才是正确答案。
[B]偷梁换柱。原文没有提来自同伴的压力(pressure from their peers)，而是说“在今年下半年完成规则修订时必须屈服的压力”
[D]“在改革中采取渐进措施” gradual measures属于无中生有。www.59wj.com 如果觉得《新东方2017年考研英语阅读真题答案超级详解》复习指导,kaoyan不错，可以推荐给好友哦。