2017考研:历年真题来源报刊阅读25篇连载(1)

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2017考研:历年真题来源报刊阅读25篇连载(1)

历年真题来源报刊阅读25篇连载(1)

  1. A fuzzy picture

  (The Economist, Jan 5th,2006)

  “THIS is a really exciting time—a new era is starting,” says Peter Bazalgette, the chief creative officer of Endemol, the television company behind “Big Brother” and other popular shows. He is referring to the upsurge of interest in mobile television, a nascent industry at the intersection of telecoms and media which offers new opportunities to device-makers, content producers and mobile-network operators.

  Already, many mobile operators offer a selection of television channels or individual shows, which are “streamed” across their third-generation (3G) networks. In South Korea, television is also sent to mobile phones via satellite and terrestrial broadcast networks, which is far more efficient than sending video across mobile networks. In Europe, the Italian arm of 3, a mobile operator, recently acquired Canale 7, a television channel, with a view to launching mobile-TV broadcasts in Italy in the second half of 2006.

  Meanwhile, Apple Computer, which launched a video-capable version of its iPod portable music-player in October, is striking deals with television networks to expand the range of shows that can be purchased for viewing on the device, including “Lost”, “Desperate Housewives” and “Law & Order”.

  Despite all this activity, however, the prospects for mobile-TV are unclear. For a start, nobody really knows if consumers will pay for it, though surveys suggest they like the idea. Informa, a consultancy, says there will be 125m mobile-TV users by 2010. But many other mobile technologies inspired high hopes and then failed to live up to expectations. And even if people do want TV on the move, there is further uncertainty in two areas: technology and business models.

  At the moment, mobile TV is mostly streamed over 3G networks. But sending an individual data stream to each viewer is inefficient and will be unsustainable in the long run if mobile-TV takes off. So the general consensus is that 3G streaming is a prelude to the construction of dedicated mobile-TV broadcast networks, which transmit digital TV signals on entirely different frequencies to those used for voice and data. There are three main standards: DVB-H, favoured in Europe; DMB, which has been adopted in South Korea and Japan; and MediaFLO, which is being rolled out in America. Watching TV using any of these technologies requires a TV-capable handset, of course.

  In contrast, watching downloaded TV programmes on an iPod or other portable video player is already possible today. And unlike a programme streamed over 3G or broadcast via a dedicated mobile-TV network, shows stored on an iPod can be watched on an underground train or in regions with patchy network coverage. That suggests that some shows (such as drama) better suit the download model, while others (such as live news, sports or reality shows) are better suited to real-time transmission. The two approaches will probably co-exist.

  Just as there are several competing mobile-TV technologies, there are also many possible business models. Mobile operators might choose to build their own mobile-TV broadcast networks; or they could form a consortium and build a shared network; or existing broadcasters could build such networks.

  The big question is whether the broadcasters and mobile operators can agree how to divide the spoils, assuming there are any. Broadcasters own the content, but mobile operators generally control the handsets, and they do not always see eye to eye. In South Korea, a consortium of broadcasters launched a free-to-air DMB network last month, but the country’s mobile operators were reluctant to provide their users with handsets able to receive the broadcasts, since they were unwilling to undermine the prospects for their own subscription-based mobile-TV services.

  Then there is the question of who will fund the production of mobile-TV content: broadcasters, operators or advertisers? Again, the answer is probably “all of the above”.

  1. The word “nascent” (line 3, paragraph 1) most probably means .

  A. significant B. Time-consuming

  C. apparent D. Brand-new

  2. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that .

  A. communication companies welcome mobile TV

  B. mobile-TV is not allowed in many countries

  C. mobile-TV has already been served in many countries

  D. mobile-TV is coming to an end

  3. The author cites the example of Informa to demonstrate that .

  A. the prospect of mobile-TV is bright

  B. surveys and observations on mobile-TV is not quite credible

  C. MTV has encountered great technology troubles

  D. consultancy companies play an important role in MTV business

  4. According to the passage, the author istowards the prospects of MTV .

  A. optimistic B. impartial C. puzzled D. suspicious

  5. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage?

  A. MTV, a Foggy Business B. Embracing MTV

  C. Business Models D. Ways for MTV

  考研词汇

  launch

  v.①发射;②使(船)下水;③发动,开展;

  n.发射,下水

  [真题例句]The debate was launched (v.③) by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC—including ordinary listeners and viewers—to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.[1996年阅读2]

  [例句精译]这场争论是英国政府发起的,它邀请每一位对BBC有看法的人——包括普通的听众和观众——对公司好坏进行评论,甚至可以评论他们是否认为公司值得办下去。

  inspire

  v.①鼓舞,激起;②使产生灵感

  consensus

  n.(意见等)一致,一致同意

  [真题例句] In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning.”[1999年阅读4]

  [例句精译] 在5月17日会议上讨论的建议序言草案中,夏皮罗表示,专家组已取得广泛的共识,认为“试图利用成人细胞核去克隆婴儿从道义上讲是无法接受的”。

  transmit

  v.①传播,发射;②传递,传导

  [真题例句] 61. From the passage we can infer that.[1995年阅读3]

  [A] electronic mail will soon play a dominant role in transmitting (①) messages

  [例句精译] 61根据本文,我们可以推断出:

  [A]电子邮件将很快在信息传播中起主导作用

  adopt

  v.①采用,采纳,通过;②收养

  [真题例句] Too many schools adopt (①) the “win at all costs” moral standard and measure their success by sporting achievements.[1995年阅读4]

  [例句精译] 太多的学校采用“不惜一切代价获取成功”的道德标准并通过炫耀成绩来估量孩子们是否成功。

  portable

  a.轻便的,手提(式)的

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  背景知识介绍

  移动电视技术

  从目前全球范围内手机电视的业务开展来看,存在两种最主要的方式:流媒体和广播。为了开发手机电视的市场需求,部分电信系统商已经开始在手机上提供电视收视的服务, 这些服务和传统电视并不相同,手机通过电信网络(2.5G/2.75G/3G)连接到媒体服务器, 采用点对点流媒体方式播放,而非多点式的广播。但当3G的使用越来越普遍后,利用大量频率提供廉价电视内容的播放将会越来越不经济,同时对大规模的商业运营在技术上也相当不实际。手机电视业务数据是通过卫星或地面数字广播来进行传输。但是,由于广播方式可能同时牵涉到电信运营商和广播网络运营商,商业模式上相对复杂,特别是在管制较严的国家受政策因素的影响较大,制约较多,给商用运营带来一定的难度。

  参考译文

  移动电视正在出现——但是市场将怎样发展下去却仍然不得而知

  “这真是一个令人激动的时刻 ——一个新的时代正在开始”,Endemol 电视公司的首席创意官Peter Bazalgette这样宣称,他谈到了众人对移动电视的巨大兴趣,这是一个在电信和媒体领域有交叉的新兴产业,给设备制造商、电视内容制作者以及移动网络运营商提供了新的机遇。

  许多移动网络运营商已经通过他们的第三代(3G)网络用流媒体方式提供了一些电视频道以及个人表演。在韩国,电视节目也通过卫星和地面广播网传送给移动电话,这远比通过移动网络传输视频更为有效。最近在欧洲,意大利3G移动运营商买下了一个电视频道“第七频道”,目的是为了2006年下半年在意大利发射移动电视信号。

  与此同时,苹果电脑公司在10月发售了一款可以观看电视的便携式音乐播放器iPod,这个播放器大大扩展了电视网络节目的范围,其可以供用户购买的、用于在移动终端的节目范围令人惊奇,包括《迷失》、《绝望的主妇》以及《法律与秩序》。

  然而,尽管有这么多的商业行为,移动电视的前景依旧是不明朗的。作为一个开端,没有人真正清楚消费者是否乐意为它付费,即使调查显示他们喜欢这个主意。一个名为Informa的顾问表示到2010年将会有1.23亿移动电视用户。但是有许多其他的移动技术尽管给了人们很高的期待,最终却没能做出成绩。就算人们真的需要在移动中观看电视,还有两方面的不确定因素存在着:技术和商业模式。

  在现阶段,移动电视主要通过3G网络用流媒体方式来传送,但是给每一个观众发送一段单独的数据流的效果会很差,而且在长时间的运动中也会不稳定,比如说在移动电视被关闭时。因此大多数人认为3G技术只是建立起一个专门的移动电视广播网络的前奏,这个网络以一种全然不同的频率为使用声音和数据的人传送数字电视信号,主要分为3种:DVBH,主要在欧洲受到欢迎;DMB,正在韩国和日本被采用;以及MediaFLO,已经在美国铺开其网络。

  与此相反,在iPod或其他便携式视频播放器上观看下载的电视节目已经成为可能,而且不像那些通过3G网络或专用移动电视网传送的节目,人们可以在地铁里或者网络信号覆盖不稳定的地区观看储存在iPod上的节目。这说明有些节目(比如戏剧)比较适合用下载的形式,而另一些节目(比如现场直播新闻、体育节目或现场节目)更加适合实时播送。这两种方法有可能共存。

  就像有几种互相竞争的移动电视技术那样,同样存在着几种可能的商业模式。移动运营商也许会选择建立起他们自己的移动电视广播网;或者他们可以组成联盟建立起一个共享网络;或者现有的广播公司会建立起类似的网络。

  如果这个网络可以赢利,关键问题就是广播公司能否和移动运营商就如何划分利益达成一致。广播公司拥有节目内容,但掌上终端通常都由移动运营商控制,而且他们并不总是意见一致。在韩国,广播公司联盟上个月开播了一个免费的DMB网络,但是这个国家的移动运营商却并不愿意为他们的用户提供能够接收这个广播信号的掌上终端,因为他们不愿破坏他们自己拥有付费移动电视业务的前景。

  于是,接下来的问题就是谁将投资移动电视内容的制作:广播公司、运营商还是广告商?同样的,答案很可能是“他们所有人”。

  答案及解析

  1.词汇题【正确答案】D

  根据文章第一段第二句中的...at the intersection of telecoms and media which offers new opportunities...可以推知。

  2.推理题【正确答案】C

  根据文章第二段第一句...which are ‘streamed’ across their thirdgeneration(3G) networks以及后面的列举韩国和意大利的例子可知移动电视已经扩展到许多国家,因此选C。A项没有提及,B项和D项与文章意思相反。

  3.例证题【正确答案】A

  根据文章第四段,Informa用数字阐述了移动电视的使用数量,后面一句“But...”表达了消极的意思,根据这一转折关系,可以推知前句必然是积极的,因此Informa例子是为了表明移动电视前景光明。其他各项均不符合题意。

  4.作者态度题【正确答案】D

  根据文章第四段第一句... however, the prospect for mobileTV are unclear.以及后面的论述,可知作者对移动电视的前景持怀疑态度,并有条理地分析了其前景不明朗的原因,因此选D。

  5.中心主旨题【正确答案】A

  文中反复提出移动电视前景还是一个未知数,并详细分点说明了原因,因此选A。

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