2017年考研英语备考:英语阅读专项特训(2)

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2017年考研英语备考:英语阅读专项特训(2)

  Text 2

  Seventeenth-century houses in colonial North America were simple structures that were primarily functional, carrying over traditional designs that went back to the Middle Ages. During the first half of the eighteenth century, however, houses began to show a new elegance. As wealth increased, more and more colonists built fine houses.

  Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in the colonies, the design of buildings was life either to amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England. Inventories of colonial libraries show an astonishing number of these handbooks for builders, and the houses erected during the eighteenth century show their influence. Nevertheless, most domestic architecture of the first threequarters of the eighteenth century displays a wide divergence of taste and freedom of application of the rules laid down in these books.

  Increasing wealth and growing sophistication throughout the colonies resulted in houses of improved design, whether the material was wood, stone, or brick. New England still favored wood, though brick houses became common in Boston and towns, where the danger of fire gave an impetus to the use of more durable material. A few houses in New England were built of store, but only in Pennsylvania and adjacent area was stone widely used in dwellings. An increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is noticeable in Virginia and Maryland, but wood remained the most popular material even in houses built by wealthy landowners. In the Carolinas, even in closely packed Charleston, wooden houses were much more common than brick.

  Eighteenth-century houses showed great interior improvement over their predecessors. Windows were made larger and shutters removed. Large, clear panes replaced the small leaded glass of the seventeenth century. Doorways were larger and more decorative. Fireplaces became decorative features of rooms. Walls were made of plaster of wood, sometimes elaborately paneled. White paint began to take the place of blues, yellows, greens, and lead colors, which had been popular for walls in the earlier years. After about 1730, advertisements for wallpaper styles in scenic patterns began to appear in colonial newspapers. (346 words)

  6. What does the passage mainly discuss?

  [A] The improved design of eighteenth-century colonial houses.

  [B] A comparison of eighteenth-century houses and modern houses.

  [C] The decorations used in eighteenth-century houses.

  [D] The role of carpenters in building eighteenth-century houses.

  7. According to the passage, who was responsible for designing in eighteenth-century North America?

  [A] Professional architects.

  [B] Customers.

  [C] Interior decorators.

  [D] Carpenters.

  8. Where were wood houses less common?

  [A] Virginia.

  [B] Pennsylvania.

  [C] Boston.

  [D] Charleston.

  9. The word “predecessors” (Line 1, Para. 4) refer to .

  [A] colonists who arrived in North America in the seventeenth century.

  [B] houses constructed before the eighteenthcentury.

  [C] interior improvements.

  [D] wooden houses in Charleston.

  10. What does the author imply about the use of wallpaper before 1730?

  [A] Wallpaper samples appeared in the architectural manuals.

  [B] Wallpaper was the same color as the paints used.

  [C] Patterned wallpaper was not widely used.

  [D] Wallpaper was not in stone houses.

  核心词汇

  architecture n. 建筑学,建筑术;建筑风格,建筑式样

  amateur a. 业余的, 非职业的;外行的n. 业余爱好者;外行, 生手

  impetus n. 推动, 促进, 刺激;推动力

  elaborate vi. 详尽说明vt. 详细制定a. 复杂的;精心制作的

  难句剖析

  1. Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in the colonies, the design of buildings was life either to amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England.

  【解析】 句子主干是the design of buildings was life either to amateur designers or to carpenters。since引导的是原因状语从句。who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England作amateur designers or carpenters的定语。

  【译文】 由于建筑在殖民地还不是一项专门的职业,房屋设计或者由业余设计者来做,或者由那些承担对从英国进口的建筑手册的翻译任务的木匠来做。

  2. Increasing wealth and growing sophistication throughout the colonies resulted in houses of improved design, whether the material was wood, stone, or brick.

  【解析】 句子主干是wealth and sophistication resulted in houses。whether…or brick作补语修饰houses。

  【译文】 整个殖民地日渐增长的财富和精密性导致了设计的改进,不管其材料是木料、石料、还是砖料。

  文章类型:人文类——18世纪殖民地房屋的设计改进

  本文按照时间顺序,分别从建造者、图书、建造材料等方面介绍了18世纪殖民地房屋的设计改进。

  更多2011年考研英语复习资料请访问:

  . www.59wj.com

  试题解析

  6. 本文主要讨论什么?

  [A] 18世纪殖民地房屋的设计改进。

  [B] 比较18世纪房屋和现代房屋。

  [C] 18世纪房屋的装潢。

  [D] 木匠在建筑18实际房屋中的作用。

  中心主旨题【正确答案】[A]

  根据文章第一段中第二句During the first half of the eighteenth century, however, houses began to show a new elegance.(在18世纪前半叶,房屋开始显示出新的优雅风格),由此可知本文要讨论的是18世纪殖民地房屋的设计改进。故A为正确答案。

  7. 根据本文,在18世纪的北美,什么人负责设计房屋?

  [A] 职业建筑师。

  [B] 顾客。

  [C] 内部装修者。

  [D] 木匠。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[D]

  根据第二段首句Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in the colonies, the design of buildings was life either to amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to interpret architectural manuals imported from England.(由于建筑在殖民地还不是一项专门的职业,房屋设计或者由业余设计者来做,或者由那些承担对从英国进口的建筑手册的翻译任务的木匠来做),可知在18世纪的北美,木匠来负责设计房屋。故正确答案为D。

  8. 什么地方木头建的房屋比较少?

  [A] 弗吉尼亚。

  [B] 宾夕法尼亚。

  [C] 波士顿。

  [D] 查尔斯顿。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[B]

  根据文中第三段第五行An increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is noticeable in Virginia and Maryland, but wood remained the most popular material even in houses built by wealthy landowners. In the Carolinas, even in closely packed Charleston, wooden houses were much more common than brick.(在弗吉尼亚和马里兰房屋和外屋的建造上使用砖料的增长是显而易见的,但甚至在富有的土地主建造的房屋里面,木料仍然是最流行的材料。在南北卡罗纳州,甚至在拥挤的查理斯顿,木制房屋也比砖房要普遍),可知,正确答案为B宾夕法尼亚。

  9. 第四段第一行的“predecessors”指代什么?

  [A] 17世纪到达北美的殖民者。

  [B] 18世纪前建造的房屋。

  [C] 内部的改进。

  [D] 查尔斯顿的木制房屋。

  词汇题【正确答案】[B]

  根据第四段第一句Eighteenthcentury houses showed great interior improvement over their predecessors,可以看出文章是拿18世纪的房屋和“their predecessors”相比较,但从句子意思上看,肯定是与18世纪以前建造的房屋相比较。故正确答案为B。

  10. 关于1730年前墙纸的使用,作者暗示了什么?

  [A] 墙纸样本出现在建筑手册上。

  [B] 墙纸和使用的墙壁涂料颜色一样。

  [C] 用图案装饰的墙纸未被广泛使用。

  [D] 石制房屋中未使用墙纸。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[C]

  文中最后一句话After about 1730, advertisements for wallpaper styles in scenic patterns began to appear in colonial newspapers.(大概1730年后,殖民地报纸上开始出现了风景画形式的壁纸风格广告),言外之意就是,在此之前这种风景画式的壁纸还没有广泛使用。故正确答案为C。

  全文精译

  17世纪北美殖民时期的房屋结构简单,基本上是为使用而设计的,继续着能够追溯到中世纪的传统设计。然而在18世纪前半叶,房屋开始显示出新的优雅风格。随着财富的增加,越来越多的殖民者建造起比较精美的房屋。

  由于建筑在殖民地还不是一项专门的职业,房屋设计或者由业余设计者来做,或者由那些承担对从英国进口的建筑手册的翻译任务的木匠来做。殖民时期图书馆中的详细目录显示了这种为建造者所编的手册有惊人的数目,而18世纪建造起来的房屋也体现出它们的影响。然而18世纪的70年代前大多数家庭建筑都展现了品味上的广泛不同和这些书中的规则在运用上的自由。

  整个殖民地日渐增长的财富和精密性导致了设计的改进,不管其材料是木料、石料,还是砖料。尽管砖房在波士顿和其他由于火灾的危险促进了耐用材料的使用的城镇已经变得很普通,但新英格兰仍然偏爱木料。在新英格兰有一些房屋是用石料造的,但只有在宾夕法尼亚及其邻近地区石料才被广泛应用到房屋的建造上。在弗吉尼亚和马里兰房屋和外屋的建造上使用砖料的增长是显而易见的,但甚至在富有的土地主建造的房屋里面,木料仍然是最流行的材料。在南北卡罗纳州,甚至在拥挤的查理斯顿,木制房屋也比砖房要普遍。

  18世纪的房屋与它们的前身相比显示出巨大的内部改善。窗子做得更大,拆除了活动遮板。大而透明的窗玻璃代替了17世纪小小的铅制玻璃。门廊更大更有装饰性。炉壁成为房间的装饰特征。墙壁用灰泥或木料制作有时还精心镶嵌而成。白色涂料开始替代早些年墙上曾很普遍的蓝色、黄色、绿色和铅色。大概1730年后,殖民地报纸上开始出现了风景画形式的壁纸风格广告。

  第一段:指出随着时代的变迁,财富的增加引起殖民地房屋建造风格的改变。

  第二段:指出殖民地时期房屋建造者和图书等对房屋设计的影响。

  第三段:指出整个殖民地日渐增长的财富和精密性导致了设计的改进。

  第四段:18世纪的房屋与它们的前身相比显示出巨大的内部改善。

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