2017年考研英语备考:英语阅读专项特训(7)

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2017年考研英语备考:英语阅读专项特训(7)

  Text 7

  

  The tragic impact of modern city on the human being has killed his sense of aesthetics. The material benefits of an affluent society have diverted his attention from his city and its cultural potential to the products of science and technology: washing machines, central beating, automatic cookers, television sets, computers and fitted carpets. He is, at the moment, drunk with democracy, well-to-do, and has never had it so good.

  He is reluctant to walk. Statistical data reveal that the distance he is prepared to walk from his parking place to his shopping centre is very short. As there are no adequate offstreet parking facilities, the cities are littered with kerbparked cars, and parking meters rear themselves everywhere. Congestion has become the predominant factor in his environment, and statistics suggest that two cars per household system may soon make matters worse.

  In the meantime, insult is added to injury by “land value”. The value of land results from its use: its income is derived from the service it provides. When its use is intensified, its income and its value increase. “Putting land to its highest and best use” becomes the principal economic standard in urban growth. This speculative approach and the pressure of increasing population leads to the “vertical” growth of cities with the result that people are forced to adjust themselves to congestion in order to maintain these relatively artificial land values. Paradoxically the remedy for removing congestion is to create more of it.

  Partial decentralization, or rather pseudo-decentralization, in the form of large development units away from the traditional town centres, only shifts the disease round the anatomy of the town: if it is not combined with the remodeling of the town’s transportation system, it does not cure it. Here the engineering solutions are strongly affected by the necessity for complicated intersections, which, in turn, are frustrated by the extravagant cost of land.

  It is within our power to build better cities and revive the civic pride of their citizens, but we shall have to stop operating on the fringe of the problem. We shall have radically to replan them to achieve a rational density of population. We shall have to provide in them what can be called minimum “psychological elbow room.” One of the ingredients of this will be proper transportation plans. These will have to be an integral part of the overall planning process which in itself is a scientific process. If we want to plan effectively, we must collect, in an organized manner, all and complete information about the city or the town. In this process, we must not forget that cities are built by people, and that their form and shape should be subject to the will of the people. Scientific methods of data collection and analysis will indicate trends, but they will not direct action. Scientific methods are only an instrument. Man will have to set the target, and, using the results obtained by science and his own engineering skill, take upon himself the final shaping of his environment. (505 words)

  1. It can be inferred from the first paragraph that people in old times

  [A] paid more attention to material benefits.

  [B] had a stronger dense of beauty.

  [C] desired more for the development of science and technology.

  [D] enjoyed more freedom and democracy.

  2. The highly developed technology has made man

  [A] increasingly industrious.

  [B] free from inconvenience.

  [C] excessively dependent on external aids.

  [D] able to save his physical strength.

  3. The drastic increase of land value in the city

  [A] is annoyingly artificial and meaningless.

  [B] offers more opportunities to land dealers.

  [C] is the good result of economic development.

  [D] fortunately leads to the “vertical” growth of cities.

  4. The author suggests that the remodeling of cities must

  [A] give priority to the benefit of future generations.

  [B] be focused on the will of people.

  [C] be economically profitable to land owners.

  [D] resort to scientific methods.

  5. The passage is mainly concerned with

  [A] city culture.

  [B] land value in cities.

  [C] decentralization.

  [D] city congestion.

  核心词汇

  kerb n. 街头的边石

  kerbparked停在路边的

  remedy n. 补救,药物,治疗法,赔偿

  aesthetics n. 美学,美术理论;审美学,美的哲学

  litter n. 废弃物,垃圾 vt. & vi. 使杂乱,乱丢杂物

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  难句剖析

  1. The material benefits of an affluent society have diverted his attention from his city and its cultural potential to the products of science and technology: washing machines, central beating, automatic cookers, television sets, computers and fitted carpets.

  【解析】 句子主干是The material benefits of an affluent society have diverted his attention from…to…。短语divert…from…to…意思是“把…从某一方面转移到另一方面”,冒号后面是列举说明。

  【译文】 一个富裕社会所带来的物质利益已经将人类的注意力从城市及其文化潜能转移到了科技产品上:洗衣机、中央供暖、自动厨灶、电视机、电脑以及尺寸合适的地毯。

  2. This speculative approach and the pressure of increasing population leads to the “vertical” growth of cities with the result that people are forced to adjust themselves to congestion in order to maintain these relatively artificial land values.

  【解析】 句子主干是This speculative approach and the pressure of increasing population leads to the “vertical” growth of cities。句中的that引导了一个同位语从句,充当result的同位语,要注意其翻译方式。

  【译文】 这种投机的方法和来自于人口增长的压力导致城市的“垂直发展”,结果是人们被迫去适应这种拥挤以维持这种相对人为造成的土地价值。

  3. Partial decentralization, or rather pseudo-decentralization, in the form of large development units away from the traditional town centres, only shifts the disease round the anatomy of the town: if it is not combined with the remodeling of the town’s transportation system, it does not cure it.

  【解析】 冒号前是一个分句,冒号后是另一个分句。在后一个分句中,if引导了一个真实条件句。

  【译文】 以大型开发区的形式向远离传统城市中心的地方发展的部分分散或者假分散,仅仅是将弊病转移到市中心的周围;如果不与重新设计城市的交通系统相结合,这一问题无法得到根本的解决。

  文章类型:社会类——现代城市对人类的影响

  作者在文章的首句就指出,现代城市已经扼杀了人类的审美意识,接着文章通篇都揭露了社会中存在的诸多问题,作者认为城市的拥挤是主导因素。

  试题解析

  1. 我们能从第一段推断出古代的人们

  [A] 更加注重物质利益。

  [B] 有更强的审美观。

  [C] 期望更多的科学技术发展成果。

  [D] 享有更多的自由和民主。

  推理题【正确答案】[B]

  文章一开始就指出,现代城市对人类产生的悲剧性影响已经扼杀了人类的审美意识。由此可以判断,他认为古时候的人的审美意识更强一些。

  2. 高度发达的科技让人们

  [A] 更加勤劳。

  [B] 享受更多方便。

  [C] 过分依靠外部帮助。

  [D] 能够节省体力。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[C]

  从第一段的后半部分和第二段的前两句中,我们可以得知:人类在享受着科技成果带来的种种方便的同时也变得更加懒惰了,人类已经变得更加依赖外来的帮助,即现代化机器的帮助。

  3. 急剧增长的城市土地价格

  [A] 是令人讨厌的人为和无意义的。

  [B] 给土地交易者提供了更多的机会。

  [C] 是经济发展产生的良好结果。

  [D] 幸运地促成城市的“垂直”增长。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[A]

  根据文章第三段可知,土地价值的增长一是人为的,二是对于解决城市拥挤的问题无济于事。

  4. 作者暗示了城市的改造必须

  [A] 以下一代的福利为前提。

  [B] 以人民的意愿为重点。

  [C] 让土地拥有者获得经济利益。

  [D] 求助于科学方法。

  推论题【正确答案】[B]

  根据最后一段的内容,作者认为,城市是由人建造的,它们的构成以及形式应该取决于人的意志。这也就是说,城市的重新设计应该强调人的意志,即B正确。

  5. 文章的中心是

  [A] 城市文化。

  [B] 城市土地价格。

  [C] 分散化。

  [D] 城市拥挤。

  细节事实题【正确答案】[D]

  文章的首句就指出,现代城市对人类产生的悲剧性影响已经扼杀了人类的审美意识,接着作者通篇都揭露了社会存在的诸多问题,认为城市的拥挤已经成为人类环境的主导因素。

  全文精译

  现代化城市对人类造成了悲剧性的影响。扼杀了人类的审美意识,富足社会的物质利益使人类的目光抛开了自己的城市及其文化发展潜力而专注于科技产品:洗衣机、中央供暖设备、自动电炊具、电视机以及尺寸合适的地毯。此时此刻,人们陶醉于民主、富足、以车代步,这种感觉是以前所没有的。

  人们不愿步行。统计数据表明,人们从停车地点到购物商店,愿意步行的距离很短。由于远离街面的停车设施不足,城市内到处可见随便停放的汽车,而且到处都有停车计时器,这样的景象比比皆是。拥挤成了人类环境的首要影响因素,而且,统计表明,如果每个家庭拥有两辆汽车,不久,情形就会变得更加糟糕。

  与此同时,“地价”又使人们雪上加霜。地价源于土地的使用:它的收入源于它所能提供的服务。随着土地使用得到加强,土地的收入和价值相应增加。“最大限度地利用土地,并发挥其最大效益”成为城市发展中基本的经济标准。这种投机心态和人口增长所带来的压力导致城市急剧膨大。结果,人们为了保持这种相对而言属于人为造成的土地价值,只好被迫适应拥挤的环境。互相矛盾的是,人们为了摆脱拥挤而采取的补救措施却制造了更多的拥挤。

  采取把大型的发展单位迁离传统的中心城市的做法,是一种部分分散,或更准确地说是一种准分散。因为这种分散只会把中心城市的拥挤弊病带给新兴地区。如果这种分散不是同城市交通运输系统的重新改造相结合,则它将无法解决城市拥挤问题。从工程技术上说,问题的答案就是很有必要建设复杂的道路立体交叉网,然而,这样做反过来又要受到使用土地的高昂费用的阻碍。

  我们有能力建设更美好的城市。恢复城镇居民们对城市的自豪感。但是,我们必须停止只搞修修补补、小打小闹的做法。我们必须从根本上对城市加以重新规划,将人口控制在一个合理的密度,我们必须在我们的城市里能为人们提供那种称之为“最小的转得开身子的空间”。为此,其中一项要做的就是要制定合理的交通设施规划。这些规划必须是城市总体规划的组成部分,而这项总体规划本身是一个科学规划过程。为了使规划可行,我们必须有组织地收集有关城市或集镇的一切完整的资料。在这过程中,我们一定不要忘记,城市是由人来建设的,城市的布局和外观形象应该受人民的意愿所支配。采集和分析数据所运用的科学方法能够指明城市发展方向,但不会指导人们的行动。科学方法只不过是一种手段。人类必须制定一个目标,然后,自己承担起塑造人类最终环境的重任。

  第一段:提出现代化城市对人类造成了悲剧性的影响。

  第二段:指出人们不愿意步行而导致拥挤。

  第三段:分析“低价”导致拥挤雪上加霜。

  第四段:分析准分散对解决中心城市拥挤的作用和应注意的问题。

  第五段:作者对城市规划的建议。

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