考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析

日期:12-30| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:435

考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析

Section ⅠUse of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  Most worthwhile careers require some kind of specialized training. Ideally, therefore, the choice of an 1 should be made even before the choice of a curriculum in high school. Actually, 2 , most people make several job choices during their working lives, 3 because of economic and industrial changes and partly to improve 4 position. The “one perfect job” does not exist. Young people should 5 enter into a broad flexible training program that will 6 them for a field of work rather than for a single 7 .

  Unfortunately many young people have to make career plans 8 benefit of help from a competent vocational counselor or psychologist. Knowing 9 about the occupational world, or themselves for that matter, they choose their lifework on a hit-or-miss 10 . Some drift from job to job. Others 11 to work in which they are unhappy and for which they are not fitted.
One common mistake is choosing an occupation for 12 real or imagined prestige. Too many high-school students—or their parents for them—choose the professional field, 13 both the relatively small proportion of workers in the professions and the extremely high educational and personal 14 . The imagined or real prestige of a profession or a “whitecollar” job is 15 good reason for choosing it as life’s work. 16 , these occupations are not always well paid. Since a large proportion of jobs are in mechanical and manual work, the 17 of young people should give serious 18 to these fields.
Before making an occupational choice, a person should have a general idea of what he wants 19 life and how hard he is willing to work to get it. Some people desire social prestige, others intellectual satisfaction. Some want security, others are willing to take 20 for financial gain. Each occupational choice has its demands as well as its rewards.

1. A. identification B. entertainment C. accommodation D. occupation

2. A. however B. therefore C. though D. thereby

3. A. entirely B. mainly C. partly D. his

4. A. its B. his C. our D. their

5. A. since B. therefore C. furthermore D. forever

6. A. make B. fit C. take D. leave

7. A. job B. way C. means D. company

8. A. to B. for C. without D. with

9. A. little B. few C. much D. a lot

10. A. chance B. basis C. purpose D. opportunity

11. A. apply B. appeal C. stick D. turn

12. A. our B. its C. your D. their

13. A. concerning B. following C. considering D. disregarding

14. A. preference B. requirements C. tendencies D. ambitions

15. A. a B. any C. no D. the

16. A. Therefore B. However C. Nevertheless D. Moreover

17. A. majority B. mass C. minority D. multitude

18. A. proposal B. suggestion C. consideration D. appraisal

19. A. towards B. against C. out of D. without

20. A. turns B. parts C. choices D. risks

Section ⅡReading Comprehension

Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

Text 1

  For all his vaunted talents, Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan has never had much of a reputation as an economic forecaster. In fact, he shies away from making the precise-to-the-decimal-point predictions that many other economists thrive on. Instead, he owes his success as a monetary policymaker to his ability to sniff out threats to the economy and manipulate interest rates to dampen the dangers he perceives.

  Now, those instincts are being put to the test. Many Fed watchers—and some policymakers inside the central bank itself—are beginning to wonder whether Greenspan has lost his touch. Despite rising risks to the economy from a swooning stock market and soaring oil prices that could hamper growth, the Greenspan-led Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) opted to leave interest rates unchanged on Sept.24. But in a rare dissent, two of the Fed’s 12 policymakers broke ranks and voted for a cut in rates—Dallas Fed President Robert D. McTeer Jr. and central bank Governor Edward M.Gramlich.

  The move by McTeer, the Fed’s self-styled “Lonesome Dove”, was no surprise. But Gramlich’s was. This was the first time that the monetary moderate had voted against the chairman since joining the Fed’s board in 1997. And it was the first public dissent by a governor since 1995.

  Despite the split vote, it’s too soon to count the maestro of monetary policy out. Greenspan had good reasons for not cutting interest rates now. And by acknowledging in the statement issued after the meeting that the economy does indeed face risks, Greenspan left the door wide open to a rate reduction in the future. Indeed, former Fed Governor Lyle Gramley thinks chances are good that the central bank might even cut rates before its next scheduled meeting on Nov.6, the day after congressional elections.

  So why didn’t the traditionally risk-averse Greenspan cut rates now as insurance against the dangers dogging growth? For one thing, he still thinks the economy is in recovery mode. Consumer demand remains buoyant and has even been turbocharged recently by a new wave of mortgage refinancing. Economists reckon that homeowners will extract some $100 billion in cash from their houses in the second half of this year. And despite all the corporate gloom, business spending has shown signs of picking up, though not anywhere near as strongly as the Fed would like.

  Does that mean that further rate cuts are off the table? Hardly. Watch for Greenspan to try to time any rate reductions to when they’ll have the most psychological pop on business and investor confidence. That’s surely no easy feat, but it’s one that Greenspan has shown himself capable of more than once in the past. Don’t be surprised if he surprises everyone again.

21. Alan Greenspan owes his reputation much to .
A. his successful predictions of economy
B. his timely handling of interest rates
C. his unusual economic policies
D. his unique sense of dangers

22. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A. instincts most often misguide the monetary policies
B. Greenspan has lost his control of the central bank
C. consensus is often the case among Fed’s policymakers
D. Greenspan wouldnt tolerate such a dissent

23. Gramley’s remarks are mentioned to indicate that .
A. Greenspan didnt rule out the possibility of a future rate reduction
B. Greenspan’s monetary policy may turn out to be a failure
C. Greenspan’s refusal to cut rates now was justified
D. Greenspan will definitely cut the rates before Nov.6

24. From the fifth paragraph, we can learn that .
A. economy is now well on its way to recovery
B. economists are uncertain about consumer demand
C. corporate performance is generally not encouraging
D. businesses have been investing the way the Fed hoped

25. The author seems to regard Greenspan’s manipulation of interest rates with .
A. disapproval B. doubt C. approval D. admiration

Text 2

   The U.S. may so far have enjoyed good luck in escaping a direct SARS hit, but officials aren’t leaving anything to chance. The best hope for averting a SARS epidemic at home will be to keep SARS out at the nation’s borders.
Federal immigration laws authorize immigration authorities to exclude non-citizens who are determined to have a “communicable disease of public health significance”. Immigration law also authorizes the President by proclamation to suspend the entry of any group of aliens whose entry he deems to be detrimental to the interests of the United States. This little-used power could be deployed to exclude all aliens from affected areas, a policy Taiwan has recently implemented.

  Under the Public Health Service Act, any individual (citizens included) may be quarantined at an international port of entry if they are reasonably believed to be carrying a designated communicable disease. As of an April 4 Executive Order by President Bush, SARS is now a designated disease.

  Thus, in tandem with airline screening, federal health authorities are carefully monitoring travelers from affected areas in Asia for SARS symptoms. With an estimated 25,000 individuals entering the country legally from Asia on a daily basis, that is a tall order. A single SARS- infected person getting through the net could bring down the border strategy.
The U.S. government might also frontend the border strategy through restrictions on travel by American citizens to affected areas. In a series of Cold War era decisions, the Supreme Court upheld international travel restrictions for national security reasons, and one can imagine the same rationale applying to a public health emergency. How practical it would be to prohibit—and police—a travel ban to countries such as China is another question.

The initial SARS defense, then, hinges on effective border control. But U.S. borders are far from under control. There are an estimated 8~9 million undocumented aliens now in the United States, a figure growing by as many as 500,000 per year. Asia is the largest contributor to undocumented immigration outside the western hemisphere, funneling illegal aliens into the United States through elaborate smuggling networks. SARS could just as easily make serious inroads into the U.S. through this backdoor rather than the front.

26. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that .
A. American officials dont see any chance of escaping an immediate SARS hit
B. noncitizens with a disease will be quarantined at the international airport
C. foreigners with a communicable disease may legally be denied entry into the U.S.
D. immigration officers are empowered to keep aliens out of the U.S.

27. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
A. The President rarely declares a rejection of noncitizens from infected areas.
B. The U.S. is the only lucky country to have kept safe from a SARS attack.
C. The interests of the U.S. are given more legal protection than public health.
D. The Public Health Service Act has been brought into effect since April 4.

28. The phrase “a tall order” most probably means .
A. an ambitious plan B. a difficult task
C. a careful arrangement D. an illegal decision

29. The author would probably agree that .
A. a SARS hit could be escaped by means of strict monitoring of international travel
B. undocumented immigrants poses a serious threat to national security of U.S.
C. illegal aliens come into the U.S. with the help of complicated smuggling networks
D. American border strategy may fail to attain its goal of avoiding a SARS epidemic

30. The passage is primarily concerned with .
A. the threat of SARS to the national security of U.S.
B. the U.S. border strategy against SARS
C. the problems in U.S. national security
D. the crisis of a public health emergency

Text 3

  As the American West enters its fifth year of drought—the longest stretch in 108 years—the region’s cities are instituting sweeping water-usage restrictions and conservation programs. In Aurora, Colo., where the reservoir system is at just 26% capacity and is expected to reach only half of normal levels by summer, planting new trees and shrubs is prohibited, and privately owned pools may not be filled.

  In the thirsty, growing cities of Southern California, however, simple conservation simply won’t do the trick. This region imports more than 80% of its water from neighboring states. And even though it jealously guards those arrangements, they won’t be enough to compensate for the rapid growth that lies just ahead: San Diego County’s population alone is projected to rise about 29% by 2020, from 2.84 million to 3.67 million.

  Drastic times call for drastic measures, so state water agencies are turning to desalination, a technology that makes ocean and brackish water drinkable by stripping it of salt and other minerals. California has plans in various stages to build 13 desalination plants along its coastline. The projects will cost billions, but planners say they’ll provide a far more reliable supply for California residents than waiting for Mother Nature to adjust her weather patterns.

  Since just 3% of water on earth is fresh, this is a step that would have to be taken anyway as the global population grows. “Desalination will create a drought-proof supply of water,” says Bob Yamada, the San Diego Water Authority’s seawater-desalination program manager. He adds that 20 years from now, 10% to 20% of the state’s water could come from the ocean. The American Water Works Assn., a Denverbased nonprofit dedicated to improving drinkingwater quality and supply, predicts that the market for desalination plants and equipment, now just $2 billion, will grow to more than $70 billion over the next two decades.

  Environmentalists embrace desalination. Studies show that pumping the cooling water and concentrate back into the ocean raises its salinity by less than 1%, which is equivalent to the natural rise and fall. Barry Nelson, a senior policy analyst with the Natural Resources Defense Council, says he became a proponent of desalination when a June, 1999, California report demonstrated that it was cheaper than building new dams, which often have a huge environmental impact.
Nelson still worries about energy consumption and coastal disruption. But he adds that “desalination is no longer on the lunatic fringe. It has entered the mainstream. That means we look at desalt projects on a case-by-case basis, as we would any other legitimate water policy.”

  As the technology continues to improve, experts say it’ll fast become a solution not only for municipalities but for hotels and resorts, corporations, and, someday, homeowners. Privately held water-treatment outfit Matrix Water, based in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., is installing a desalination plant that will process 800,000 gallons of water per day for the new Emerald Bay Four Seasons Resort in the Bahamas. And the new U.S. Homeland Security Dept. is investigating ways of using reverse osmosis to protect the nation’s water supply from bioterrorism.

31. Water conservation programs alone wont solve the problem in Southern California because .
A. it is confronting an unprecedented drought in 108 years
B. private citizens are consuming a lot more water than before
C. it imports a large proportion of its water from other states
D. population in the cities of this area is always growing fast

32. The third paragraph is written to .
A. discuss the cause of the decline of water supply
B. introduce a solution to the issue of water shortage
C. explain the way in which desalination develops
D. exemplify the different ways to solve the problem

33. Barry Nelson became a supporter of desalination owing to its .
A. universal support among environmentalists
B. contribution to natural resources
C. low cost and little damage to environment
D. advantage to natural defense

34. Nelson’s attitude towards desalination programs can best be described as one of .
A. qualified approval B. unreserved support
C. slight indifference D. absolute pessimism
35. The expression “reverse osmosis” most probably refers to .
A. costal disruption B. technology
C. antiterrorism policies D. desalination

Text 4

  We can learn a good deal about the nature of business by comparing it with poker. While both have a large element of chance, in the long run the winner is the man who plays with steady skill. In both games ultimate victory requires intimate knowledge of the rules, insight into the psychology of the other players, self-confidence, a considerable amount of self-discipline, and the ability to respond swiftly and effectively to opportunities provided by chance.

  No one expects poker to be played on the ethical principles preached in churches. Poker has its special ethics, and here I am not referring to rules against cheating. The man who keeps an ace up his sleeve or who marks the cards is more than unethical; he is a crook, and can be punished as such—kicked out of the game or, in the Old West, shot.

  In contrast to the cheat, the unethical poker player is one who, while abiding by the letter of the rules, finds ways to put the other players at an unfair disadvantage. Perhaps he bothers them with loud talk. Or he tries to get them drunk. Ethical poker players frown on such tactics.

  Poker’s own brand of ethics is different from the ethical ideals of civilized human relationships. The game calls for distrust of the other fellow. It ignores the claim of friendship. Cunning deception and concealment of one’s strength and intentions, not kindness and openheartedness, are vital in poker. No one thinks any the worse of poker on that account. And no one should think any the worse of the game of business because its standards of right and wrong differ from the prevailing traditions of morality in our society. That most businessmen are not indifferent to ethics in their private lives, everyone will agree. My point is that in their office lives they cease to be private citizens; they become game players who must be guided by a somewhat different set of ethical standards.

  The point was forcefully made to me by a Midwestern executive who has given a good deal of thought to the question: “So long as a businessman complies with the laws of the land and avoids telling harmful lies, he is ethical. If the law as written gives a man wide-open chance to make a killing, he would be a fool not to take advantage of it. If he doesn’t, somebody else will. There is no obligation on him to stop and consider who is going to get hurt. If the law says he can do it, that’s all the justification he needs. There is nothing unethical about that. It’s just plain business sense.”
I think it is fair to sum up the prevailing attitude of businessmen on ethics as follows:

  We live in what is probably the most competitive of the world’s civilized societies. Our customs encourage a high degree of aggression in the individual’s striving for success. Business is our main area of competition, and it has been made into a game of strategy. The basic rules of the game have been set by the government, which attempts to detect and punish business frauds. But as long as a company does not break the rules of the game set by law, it has the legal right to shape its strategy without reference to anything but its profits. Decisions in this area are, finally, decisions of strategy, not of ethics.

36. According to the author, one of the common features of poker winners is .
A. a quick response to chances B. extensive knowledge of games
C. familiarity with the other players D. chancy response strategies

37. In terms of poker’s ethics, the author believes that .
A. a player who keeps an ace up his sleeve violates poker’s ethics
B. it is unethical for a player not to annoy the other players with noise
C. a player who doesn’t observe poker’s special ethics can be punished
D. poker has its own type of ethics different than those of social morality

38. The fifth paragraph implies that .
A. nothing should prevent a businessman from making big money legally
B. every businessman should give considerable thought to business ethics
C. law grants businessmen the right to hurt others when necessary
D. business sense simply approves anything unethical

39. It can be concluded from the passage that .
A. companies may neglect laws when making their strategies
B. deceptions in business might be thought of as reasonable strategies
C. laws are especially tolerant of businessmen and their actions
D. business ethics can be applied to solve moral problems in society

40. The game ethics as described in the passage might apply to which of the following?
A. Medicine. B. Sports. C. Diplomacy. D. Finance.

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)


  A young man left hometown 22 years ago, and turned out to be a poor correspondent. After a while his letters dried up, and for six years the family had hear nothing from him. Then his sister entered his name in the Google search engine on the Web and, as she says, “There he was on a bowling league in Brazil!” Now they’re exchanging catchup letters and photos.

  Who knew Brazilian bowling leagues had Web sites? Google knew, because Google knows everything, or nearly.
41) .

  Google started in 1998, when two 26-year-olds, Sergei Brin and Larry Page, set up shop in a tiny office. Today they operate out of a building in Mountain View, Calif., and regional offices all over the world. Google has become the best and most successful search engine.

  If you need a map of a region, Google will oblige. If you rip the rotator cuff in your shoulder, Google finds drawings that show you how it works. 42) .

  An epidemiologist or social psychologist studying reactions to a phenomenon like the West Nile virus might well come here often, to learn what people are saying about it.

  43) . A story gets on if enough newspapers run it and give it prominence. Every minute, the computers update the page and compile related stories while dropping others. No human editors decide what’s to be emphasized. It sounds ridiculous, but it’s not bad at all.

  However Google is boastful. It can’t keep itself from telling you how inconceivably fast it is. Ask it for information on Chinese archaeology and it compiles 29,400 links, adding: “search took 0-14 seconds.”

  44) . It needs help distinguishing between Francis Bacon, the 20th-century painter, and Francis Bacon, the 17th-century philosopher. Sometimes Google looks a little foolish.

  45) . A woman wrote to Randy Cohen, the New York Times ethicist, about a friend who had gone out with a doctor and then Googled him when she got home, discovering that he had been involved in several malpractice suits. Cohen was asked whether this was a decent thing to do. He said it was and that he had done it himself. The woman’s Googling, Gohen said, was benign, just like asking her friends about this fellow.

  Tired or Google? I’m afraid those who are tired of Google are tired of life.

  A. The name comes from “googol,” the mathematical term for a 1 followed by 100 zeros. This means, “a hell of a lot more than there is in the universe.” The Google people chose it because they want to organize all the data on the Web.

  B. This section also provides a rich field for egosurfing, or entering your own name to find out what is said about you. Some consider ego-surfing neurotic, and anyone who does it every day probably suffers from an identity problem.

    C. Another problem is that identical names baffle Google.

  D. The other day, unable to resist, I found that I’ve been mentioned about 500 times in the various chat rooms that Google monitors. This provided half an hour of innocent pleasure.

  E. Now that the verb “to Google” is embedded in the language, Googling has turned out to be, for some, a moral problem.

  F. Should you wish to remember an Alex Colville painting, you may well find it among the 181 Colville images available. If you want to recall Churchill’s photo, Banff, or Cary Grant, Google will show them to you, usually in dozens of versions.

G. Google’s news report links to 4,500 news sources around the world. On the screen it looks rather like a newspaper page, with pictures and headings, but it changes constantly as newspapers and broadcasters change what they put on the Web.

Part C

Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Traditionally, the woman has held a low position in marriage partnerships. While her husband went his way she had to wash, stitch and sew. Today the move is to liberate the woman, which may in the end strengthen the marriage union.
Perhaps the greatest obstacle to friendship in marriage is the amount a couple usually see of each other. Friendship in its usual sense is not tested by the strain of daily, yearlong cohabitation. 46) Couples need to take up separate interests (and friendship) as well as mutually shared ones, if they are not to get used to the more attractive elements of each other’s personalities.

  47) Married couples are likely to exert themselves for guests—being amusing, discussing with passion and point—and then to fall into dull exhausted silence when the guests have gone.

  As in all friendship, a husband and wife must try to interest each other, and to spend sufficient time sharing absorbing activities to give them continuing common interests. 48) But at the same time they must spend enough time on separate interests with separate people to preserve and develop their separate personalities and keep their relationship fresh.

  49) For too many highly intelligent working women, home represents chore obligations, because the husband only tolerates her work and does not participate in household chores. For too many highly intelligent working men, home represents dullness and complaints—from an overdependent wife who will not gather courage to make their own life.

  In such an atmosphere, the partners grow further and further apart, both love and liking disappearing. 50) For too many couples with children, the children are allowed to command all time and attention, allowing the couple no time to develop liking and friendship, as well as love, allotting exclusive parental roles.
Section ⅢWriting

Part A

51. Directions:

Your son kicked his ball through your neighbor’s window. Write a letter to tell your neighbor

1) your regret at hearing the news,

2) your intention to compensate for the damage,

3) your apology.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. ( 10 points )

Part B

52. Directions:

A. Title: “More haste, less speed.” (欲速则不达)

B. Word Limit: about 160~200 words

C. Your essay must be written neatly on Answer Sheet 2.

D. Your essay must be based on the following situation:

People generally agree with the saying, yet not everyone observes it in his practice. Make a brief description of people’s practice and state your views with regard to the saying.

答案解析:   Section ⅠUse of English

1.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。上文的career有提示作用。D. occupation指“职业”,符合句意,故为正确答案。

2.【答案】 A
【解析】 本题考查考生对语义逻辑的识别能力。上一句与该句之间表达的是转折关系。因此,A为正确答案。

3.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题考查副词使用知识。后半句的partly起到提示作用,此处也应该是partly(部分的)。可见,C为正确答案。

4.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题考查代词。指代most people应该用D. their。

5.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题考查逻辑关系。根据句意,因为不存在“完美的工作”,所以“年轻人需要参加广泛灵活的培训课程”。此处是因果关系。

因此,B为正确答案。
6.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。B. fit表示“使适合,使配合”,符合句意。

7.【答案】 A
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。 A. job指“工作”,带入句中与rather than前面的work呼应。故A为正确答案。

8.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题考查介词知识。根据句首的unfortunately(不幸的)推断此处应该是“没有……的好处”,故C. without为正确答案。

9.【答案】 A
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“年轻人对职业世界知之甚少”,A. little为最佳答案。

10.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题考查固定搭配。on a ...basis表示“基于……”。 可见,B为正确答案。

11.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题考查词汇搭配知识。A. apply to表示“引用,适用”;B. appeal to表示“呼吁,要求”;C. stick to表示“坚持”;D. turn to表示“求助于”。此处C最符合句意。

12.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题考查代词。指代occupation应该用B. its。

13.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题考查句内语义逻辑关系。上下文提到年轻人盲目择业,不顾其他实际问题。此处D. disregarding“不考虑”代入符合句意。因此,D为正确答案。

14.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,此处应为“单位提出的极高的个人要求”。故B. requirement“要求”符合题意,为正确答案。

15.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题考查考生把握句内观点的能力。根据句意,对“因这些白领工作想象或真实的名声而去选择工作”这一观点文章持否定态度。因此,C. no为正确答案。

16.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题考查上下句逻辑关系。上句说“白领工作”未必就好,本句进一步说明“报酬也不一定总是很高”。两句是递进关系,故选择D. moreover。

17.【答案】 A
【解析】 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“大多数的年轻人”,此处应为A. majority。

18.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题同样考查词汇的搭配知识。give consideration to表示“考虑”。C为正确答案。

19.【答案】 C
【解析】 本题考查介词知识。根据句意,“一个人想从生活中得到他想要的东西……”,故此处应为C. out of。

20.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题考查结构关系。some...others...前后对应,故此处的词应与上句的security相对。因此,D. risk“风险,冒险”为正确答案。

Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Part A

Text1译文

美联储主席格林斯潘才智卓越,然而他并不是经济预测大师。实际上,他并不喜欢进行精确的经济预测,而不少其他经济学家却借此发迹。相反,作为一个货币政策制定者,格林斯潘的成功是由于他能够嗅出经济所面临的威胁,从而调控利率,消除他所感受到的危险。
现在,这些才能正经受着考验。许多美联储的观察家——包括中央银行内部的一些政策指定者——都琢磨着格林斯潘是不是已才思不再。尽管经济面临着诸多危险,证券低迷,油价飙升,经济遭阻,但在9月24日,格林斯潘所领导的FOMC却决定维持利率不变。然而出现了罕见的分歧,美联储的12位立法者中有两人打破惯例,主张降低利率——美联储驻达拉斯总裁Robert D.McTeer Jr.及中央银行总裁Edward M.Gramlich。

美联储内部自称“孤独的鸽子”的Mc Teer的这一举动不令人吃惊,而Gramlich的举动令人费解,作为一个货币温和派,这是他自1997年加入美联储委员会以来第一次投票反对主席,这也是自1995年以来中行总裁第一次公开表示自己的不同观点。

尽管出现了投票分歧,现在就认为货币大师输了还为时过早,格林斯潘是有充分理由不立即降息的。在会后发表的申明中,格林斯潘承认经济有危险,这就说明他并没有将未来降息的可能全部封死。事实上,前美联储主席Lyle Gramley就认为,11月6日, 即国会选举日后一天,中央银行在下次例行会议上会宣布降息。

那么,为什么传统上反对风险的格林斯潘这次却不再降息,从而防止紧随经济增长而出现的危险呢?首先,他仍然认为经济处于复苏之中,消费需求强劲,并随新一波的抵押投资而进一步加码。经济学家认为,在今年的后半年,地产拥有者能从房产中获得一千亿美元的收入。尽管整体经济灰暗,但商业投资已有回升的迹象,虽然不如美联储所希望的那么强劲。

这是否意味着进一步的降低利率不再可能?不。注意格林斯潘,他总是选择对经济和投资者信心影响最大的时刻宣布降低利率。这绝非易事,而格林斯潘已不止一次做到了这一点,如果他再有惊人之举,大家不应吃惊。

21. 【答案】 B
【解析】 这是一道细节题。根据首段末句可知,Greenspan总能借助利率的调整消除他所感觉到的对经济的威胁,即能在威胁出现之前“及时的”行动。故B为正确答案。

22.【答案】 C
【解析】 这是一道推论题。根据第二段末句 “ in a rare dissent...”可知,美联储的决策者们多数情况下是意见一致的。故C为正确项。

23.【答案】 A
【解析】 这是一道例证题。在第四段末尾,作者引用Gramley的评述无非是证明其前面的观点:Greenspan并没有将降息的可能完全排除。故A为正确答案,“rule out”意为“排除”。

24.【答案】 C
【解析】 这是一道简单推论题。根据第五段末句“尽管整体经济很是阴暗……”,可以认定,C项应是正确答案。

25.【答案】 D
【解析】 这是一道态度题。根据全文,尤其末段的描述,可见作者对Greenspan的利率操作非常钦佩,故D为正确答案。C项语气不够。

Text2译文

迄今为止,美国非常幸运,没有遭到“非典”的直接袭击,但官员们也没有掉以轻心,在美国国内预防“非典”流行的最佳策略是拒之于国境之外。

按照联邦移民法,移民署有权拒绝让那些患有“危及美国公众健康的传染性疾病”的外国人进入美国;移民法也赋予美国总统权力,对有损美国利益的外国团体实施禁入,这种难得使用的权力可用来阻止来自于病灾区的外国人,台湾人最近这么做了。

根据公共卫生法,只要被确信患有特定的传染性疾病,任何人(包括公民)均可在国际入港处被隔离。4月4日,总统布什签署行政命令,“非典”属于特定疾病。

因此,与航空部门的检查相一致,联邦卫生部门正仔细审查来自亚洲重灾区的游客。据估计,每天自亚洲合法进入美国的人员达25,000,以上这一点将很难做到。只要一名“非典”患者进入,边境策略便全线崩溃。

美国政府可能限定美国公民前往病灾区,从而加强边境策略。在冷战时期的许多决策中,出于国家安全利益,最高法院曾支持实施国际旅行限定措施,可以想象,同样原则也适用于公共健康紧急事件。当然,怎样禁止和监控去像中国这样的国家旅行则是另一回事。

因此,开始阶段预防“非典”取决于边境控制,而美国边境远没有得到控制。估计,美国有8至9百万的未注册的外国人,而且每年增加500,000。亚洲是西半球外最大的非法移民来源地,他们通过复杂的走私网络进入美国。“非典”完全可能借此后门而非前门侵入美国。

26.【答案】 C
【解析】 这是一道细节题。根据第二段首句可知,“患有传染性疾病的外国人,移民局可不让其入境”,所以C项应为正确答案。由于文章强调“传染性”是拒绝入境的前提条件,故B项“病人要隔离”过于夸大。

27.【答案】 A
【解析】 这是一道是非判断题。根据第二段末句可知,移民法赋予总统的这种权利其实很少使用(This littleused power),所以A项为正确答案。

28.【答案】 B
【解析】 这是一道词义题。根据第四段内容可知,由于每天合法进入美国的亚洲人实在太多,要想将“非典”拒于国门之外恐非易事,故B为正确答案。

29.【答案】 D
【解析】 这是一道推论题,问作者会赞同下面哪种说法。综合后三段的末句,可知作者对美国的拒“非典”于国门之外的边境战略,不一定能实现,所以答案为D项。A与文章所含之意相反;文章也未说所有的非法移民均通过复杂的走私网络来美国,故C不对;B项过于夸大。

30.【答案】 B
【解析】 这是一道主旨题。文章首段先点出了美国人的拒“非典”于国门之外的策略,随后诸段主要说这一点很难做到,故文章主旨标题应为B项。A项不足以概括全文,排除。

Text3译文

随着美国西部旱灾进入第五年——108年来持续时间最长的一次——该地区的城市纷纷实施用水限定和节水措施,科罗拉多州奥罗拉的水库蓄水只达到26%,到暑期也只能达到通常蓄水的一半,该地区禁止种树、培植灌木,私人泳池也不许注满。

然而,在不断扩张着的、干渴的加州南方城市,只凭节水根本无济于事。这个地区的80%多的水是从周边几个州引进,既便设法维持水的引入也不足以补偿未来人口的飞速增长:光圣迪哥县的人口预计到2020年上升29%,从2,840,000到3,670,000。

严峻的时刻需要严峻的措施。加州水管理部门正计划海水脱盐技术,即将海水或盐水中的盐等矿物质去除,使其可以饮用。加州计划分不同阶段,沿海岸建造13个脱盐厂。这些项目需要数十亿美元,但计划者认为这能给加州居民带来更稳定的水供应,而等待大自然的恩赐实在靠不住。

由于地球上的水资源中只有3%是淡水,加上全球人口的增长,这一步非走不可。圣迪哥的海水脱盐项目经理鲍伯?雅马鞑说,“海水脱盐将为我们创造一个可以御旱的水供应”,他还认为,20年后加州用水的10%到20% 将来自于海洋。美国水厂协会(设在丹佛的致力于饮用水质量和供应的非赢利机构)预言,现在20亿的脱盐工厂设备市场未来20年中将增加到70多亿美元。

环保主义者支持海水脱盐。研究表明,将冷却盐水注回海洋只会使海水含盐度增加1%不到,这也就相当于自然升降程度。伯芮?讷而什,一位自然资源防护协会的资深分析师,就说他之所以变成一名海水脱盐的支持者,是因为1999年6月加州的一份报告证明了海水脱盐比造大坝还要费用低廉,而大坝的建造对环境造成很大的破坏。

讷而什对能源消耗及海岸破坏仍有疑虑。但他也说,“海水脱盐再也不是狂人所为了,这已经是主流做法。我们当然会具体问题具体分析地对待每一个脱盐项目,就好比对待其他合法的水资源政策一样。”

随着技术的不断完善,专家们认为这种技术不仅为市政府所择用,还将为酒店、景点、公司甚至家庭所采用。私营水处理公司Matrix Water,总部设在佛罗里达州的福特?劳得代尔市,正在为巴哈马的绿湾四季胜地建造一座日处理800,000加仑水的海水脱盐厂。新成立的美国国土安全部也在研究使用这项技术保护美国的水供应免遭生化恐怖分子的袭击。

31.【答案】 D
【解析】 这是一道涉及因果关系提问的细节题。根据第二段可知,节水计划在南加州解决不了问题的主要原因是,该地区人口增长过快。
故D项为正确答案。

32.【答案】 B
【解析】 本题涉及第三段的写作意图。既然一二小节揭示了水资源紧张问题,且第三段开头又提出了一个解决问题的方案,可见,第三段的写作意图为B。

33.【答案】 C
【解析】 这同样是一道因果关系提问的细节题。根据第五段末句,可知Nelson转而支持该项目,是因为相对于造大坝,该项目成本低,对环境破坏小。可见,C是答案。

34.【答案】 A
【解析】 这是一道态度题。虽然Nelson支持该项目,然而第六段开头,他又表示对项目所引起的能源消耗及海岸线的破坏有所忧虑,可见,他对该项目的态度应为:“有限度的支持”,答案为A。B意为“无保留地支持”;C意为“略微无所谓”;D意为“非常悲观”。

35.【答案】 D
【解析】 这是一道词义题。末段说,海水脱盐技术会成为各界解决水问题的方案,可以推论,文末的美国国土安全部所想利用的技术也应为脱盐技术。故答案为D。

text4译文

将做生意与玩扑克作一比较就可让我们了解生意的本质。尽管两者都有偶然性,但从长远看,赢者都是技术稳定的人。这两种游戏中,获胜都要求非常了解游戏规则、洞悉其他人的心理、自信、相当的自律以及对偶然机会快速有效的反应。

没人要求玩扑克得按照教堂所宣讲的伦理规范去进行。扑克有其自身的特殊规矩,我不是指禁止作弊的规矩。袖中藏个A或者牌上作记号不只是不规矩的问题;这是骗子,应受惩罚——赶出比赛,或在古老的西方是要毙了的。

与作弊相反,不规矩的扑克玩者指的是遵守规则本身却想法让对手处于不公平的处境中的人。比如,大声说话,烦扰对方,或把对方灌醉。规矩玩家对此不屑一顾。

扑克的伦理规范不同于文明社会人际伦理理想。游戏要求彼此不能信任对方,忽略友谊,狡猾地欺骗对方,隐瞒自己的实力和意图,不能友善,不能坦率,对扑克而言,这些都很重要。不会有人因此而蔑视扑克,同样也没人会因为生意的是非标准不同于盛行的社会道德规范而蔑视生意游戏。大家都认为,生意人私生活上对社会道德不是不遵守的。我想说的是,在生意场上,他们不再是普通公民;他们是游戏参与者,得按一套不同的伦理规则做事。

一位来自中西部的公司执行官对这个问题进行了大量思考,他曾跟我谈过这件事,说得很透:“商人只要守法,不恶意撒谎,那他就是守规矩的。如果法律允许某人赚笔钱,他不去做才是傻瓜。如果他不去,其他人会的。他没必要想谁会因此而受到伤害,法律允许了,那就是做事的全部理由。这没有什么不道德的,这是简单的商业常识。”

我想,可以把商人对道德规范的态度归纳如下:

我们生活在文明社会最具竞争性的时代。我们的习俗要求谋取成功的个人具有高度的侵犯性。商业是竞争的主战场,是策略性很强的游戏。政府制定了基本的游戏规则,去检查并处罚欺诈行为,只要公司不去触犯法律规范,它就有合法的权力制定策略,谋取利润,不必顾及其他。商业决策是策略性决策,不是伦理决策。

36.【答案】 A
【解析】 该题涉及作者的一个观点。根据首段末句,游戏赢家的共同特点之一是:对机会的快速反应,A是答案。其他三项均与文章不完全吻合。

37.【答案】 D
【解析】 本题问作者对扑克游戏规范所持观点。根据第四段首句可知,作者认为,扑克的游戏规范不同于社会人际交往的道德规范,D为此意,是正确答案。

38.【答案】 A
【解析】 这是一道推论题。第五段强调,只要在法律范围内,企业家尽可放开赚钱。A符合此意,为正确答案。

39.【答案】 B
【解析】 这同样是推论题。根据第四段的第二至五句可知,欺骗(deception)是商业活动中该有的,再结合末段的意思,可得出结论:欺骗是工商界可用策略之一。故B为答案。末段中的“fraud”意为“illegal deception”,中文为“欺诈”,不等于deception。

40. 【答案】 C
【解析】 这是一道引申判断题,问第四段所描述的游戏规范适用于下面哪种场合。外交场合要求任何一方不能轻易相信对方,不能让对方了解自己的实力和意图,符合段四所描述的情况,故为正确答案。

Part B

总体分析

本篇对Google搜索引擎的创建及其作用作了一番解说。第一、二段为引子,三、四段说明它的创建,后几段作者进行正反评说。

41. 【答案】 A
【解析】 本题考察考生对全文结构,尤其上下段的逻辑的把握。既然上段介绍了Google,下段又介绍Google的创建,那么空格选项应为A项,才符合前后逻辑。

42. 【答案】 F
【解析】 本题涉及段落内容的前后连贯,尤其上下句的修辞排比。既然前后都是if...,那么选项当然就该是F项了。

43. 【答案】 G
【解析】 本题同样涉及段落内上下文的逻辑把握。既然下文说到“A story(新闻故事) gets on if enough newspapers run it and give it prominence”,那么答案就得与新闻报纸内容有关,答案显然是G项。

44. 【答案】 C
【解析】 本题涉及段落内部逻辑。既然下文说到“It needs help distinguishing between Francis Bacon, the 20thcentury painter, and Francis Bacon, the 17thcentury philosopher”,那么上文就得说过Google不善区分相同姓名的人物,答案显然是C项。

45. 【答案】 E
【解析】 本题涉及段落内逻辑。下文说到一位女士给一报纸编辑(ethicist伦理学家)写信,问自己所做的事是否得体(decent),可见上文涉及伦理道德问题,所以E项为答案。

Part C

46. 【结构分析】 这是一个复合句。if引导一个条件状语从句。
【词汇难点】 “as well as”强调前者。“take up”译为“从事,有”。
【参考译文】 夫妻不但要有双方共同的兴趣还要保留相互不同的兴趣(和友谊),如果他们不能够适应相互个性中更吸引人的元素的话。

47. 【结构分析】 这是一个复合句。句中有较长插入语成分。
【词汇难点】 “exert”此处可译为“尽力表现”。
【参考译文】 已婚夫妇有可能在客人在场时尽力表现自我,既热情又中肯地逗趣、讨论,而在客人走后则又陷入枯燥而精疲力竭的沉默。

48. 【结构分析】 这是一个简单句。
【词汇难点】 “preserve and develop”译为“保持、发展”。
【参考译文】 但同时,夫妻必须花足够的时间在各自的兴趣上,和各自的朋友一起,保持、发展他们各自的个性,并使得他们的关系鲜活。

49. 【结构分析】 这是一个复合句。because引导一个原因状语从句。
【词汇难点】 “chore”意为“家务琐事”。
【参考译文】 对于很多非常聪明的职业女性而言,家就代表着家务琐事的义务,因为丈夫只是愿意容忍妻子的工作而从不加入到家务事中来。

50. 【结构分析】 这是一个简单句。有两个由现在分词引导的状语成分。
【词汇难点】 “allot”意为“分配,分派”;“exclusive”译为“仅仅的”。
【参考译文】 对于很多有孩子的夫妻,孩子会需要父母全部的时间和关注,使得夫妻没有时间发展彼此的爱情和相互的喜爱、友谊,仅仅分派给他们父母的角色。

Section ⅢWriting

分析

写作A是一篇致歉信,考生应注意审读规定的情景和相应提纲,挖掘写作内容,做好字数方面的布局,然后按相应提纲逐项展开。写作时,要注意不同的写作对象和写作目的,注意语体措辞的得体性。

写作B是一篇情景作文,考生要审读所给情景,确定文章的主题,然后列出提纲。仔细阅读本题标题和情景后,考生应发现有两种展开方式:1. 第一段对比性的描述围绕“欲速则不达”,人们在实践中的不同表现;第二段阐述自己在这个问题上的看法。2. 第一段描述人们在看法上总的来说是一致的;第二段说明人们在实践中的做法则有所不同;第三段考生可阐明自己对这个问题的看法(见范文)。二段或三段不是问题,关键在于考生能否把命题的全部内容讲清楚。

范文
Part A


Dear Mrs. Harrison,

I was most upset to learn that Thomas had kicked his ball through your sitting room window again this afternoon.
He has been warned repeatedly not to play on that piece of waste ground beside your house, especially since the last accident. Unfortunately, he disobeyed me, and I can only offer my sincerest apologies.

When you have the window repaired, please send the bill to me. I intend to keep the money out of Thomas’s pocket money in the hope that this will teach him a lesson.

Apologize once again.

Sincerely,

Li Ming

Part B

People generally agree with the saying “More haste, less speed”. Indeed, most people are acting on this principle in their daily activities. They realize that if they do things in a hurried way, they will achieve less than what they hope for. However, if things are done at a reasonable pace, people can, more often than not, attain their goals as expected.
Nevertheless, when it comes to daily practice, not everyone observes this principle. For example, in the 1950’s, the leaders of Chinese government wished to realize Communism in a shorter period of time by so called “Great Leap Forward”. Yet, the result is that the whole economy was totally damaged and the people’s life became miserable. Likewise, students may make the same mistakes in their studies. Some students intend to gain enough credits as soon as possible by selecting many courses in a term, only to find that they fail in most of the courses. To make things worse, their required courses suffer a lot. Obviously, more haste invariably means more failures.

In short, I strongly believe that “more haste, less speed” should be a warning to our decisionmaking. Only when we keep it in mind can we avoid the same mistakes mentioned above and ensure our final success in all respects.

www.59wj.com 如果觉得《考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析》模拟试题,kaoyan不错,可以推荐给好友哦。
本文Tags: 考研 - 考研英语 - 模拟试题,kaoyan,
在百度中搜索相关文章:考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析
在谷歌中搜索相关文章:考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析
在soso中搜索相关文章:考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析
在搜狗中搜索相关文章:考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷一及答案解析
相关分类导航|
热门推荐|