考研前30天英语成功试卷试卷2

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考研前30天英语成功试卷试卷2

Section I Use of English
Directions:
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  What’s your earliest childhood memory? Can you remember learning to walk? Or talk? The first time you 21 thunder or watched a television program? Adults seldom 22 events much earlier than the year or so before entering school, just as children younger than three of four 23 retain any specific, personal experiences. A variety of explanations have been 24 by psychologists for this “Childhood amnesia” (儿童失忆症). One argues that the hippocampus, the region of the brain which is responsible for forming memories, does not mature 25 about the age of two. But the most popular theory 26 that, since adults do not think like children, they cannot 27 childhood memories. Adults think in words, and their life memories are like stories or 28 –one event follows 29 as in a novel or film. But when they search through their mental 30 for early childhood memories to add to this verbal life story, they don’t find any that fits the 31 . It’s like trying to find a Chinese word in an English Dictionary.

  Now psychologist Annette Simmons of the New York State University offers a new 32 for childhood amnesia. She argues that there simply 33 any early childhood memories to recall. According to Dr. Simms, children need to learn to use 34 spoken description of their personal experiences in order to turn their own short–term, quickly 35 impressions of them into long-term memories. In other 36 , children have to talk about their experiences and hear others talk about 37 ——Mother talking about the afternoon 38 looking for seashells at the beach or Dad asking them about their day at Ocean Park. Without this 39 reinforcement, says Dr. Simms, children cannot form 40 memories of their personal experiences.

1. A. listened B. felt C. touched D. heard

2. A. involve B. interpret C. recall D. resolve

3. A. largely B. rarely C. merely D. really

4. A. canceled B. figured C. proposed D. witnessed

5. A. until B. once C. after D. since

6. A. magnifies B. intervenes C. contains D. maintains

7. A. reflect B. attain C. access D. refer

8. A. narratives B. forecasts C. regulations D. descriptions

9. A. the rest B. another C. the other D. others

10. A. outputs B. dreams C. flashes D. files

11. A. footstep B. pattern C. frame D. landscape

12. A. emphasis B. arrangement C. explanation D. factor

13. A. aren’t B. weren’t C. isn’t D. wasn’t

14. A. anyone else B. anyone else’s C. some else D. someone else’s

15. A. forgotten B. remembered C. forgetting D. remembering

16. A. senses B. cases C. words D. means

17. A. him B. theirs C. it D. them

18. A. used B. chosen C. taken D. spent

19. A. habitual B. verbal C. pretty D. mutual

20. A. permanent B. conscious C. subordinate D. spiritual

Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANAWER SHEET 1 (40 points)


Text 1

  St. Paul didn’t like it. Moses warned his people against it. Hesiod declared it “ mischievious” and “ hard to get rid of it,” but Oscar Wilder said, “ Gossip is charming.”

  “ History is merely gossip,” he wrote in one of his famous plays. “ But scandal is gossip made tedious by morality.”

  In times past, under Jewish law, gossipmongers might be fined or flogged. The Puritans put them in stocks or ducking stools, but no punishment seemed to have the desired effect of preventing gossip, which has continued uninterrupted across the back fences of the centuries.

  Today, however, the much-maligned human foible is being looked at in a different light. Psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, even evolutionary biologists are concluding that gossip may not be so bad after all.

  Gossip is “ an intrinsically valuable activity,” philosophy professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev states in a book he has edited, entitled Good Gossip. For one thing, gossip helps us acquire information that we need to know that doesn’t come through ordinary channels, such as: “ What was the real reason so-and-so was fired from the office?” Gossip also is a form of social bonding, Dr. Ben-Ze’ev says. It is “ a kind of sharing” that also “ satisfies the tribal need---namely, the need to belong to and be accepted by a unique group.” What’s more, the professor notes, “ Gossip is enjoyable.”

  Another gossip groupie, Dr. Ronald De Sousa, a professor of philosophy at the University of Toronto, describes gossip basically as a form of indiscretion and a “saintly virtue”, by which he means that the knowledge spread by gossip will usually end up being slightly beneficial. “ It seems likely that a world in which all information were universally available would be preferable to a world where immense power resides in the control of secrets,” he writes.

  Still, everybody knows that gossip can have its ill effects, especially on the poor wretch being gossiped about. And people should refrain from certain kinds of gossip that might be harmful, even though the ducking stool is long out of fashion.

  By the way, there is also an interesting strain of gossip called medical gossip, which in its best form, according to researchers Jerry M. Suls and Franklin Goodkin, can motivate people with symptoms of serious illness, but who are unaware of it, to seek medical help.

  So go ahead and gossip. But remember, if ( as often is the case among gossipers) you should suddenly become one of the gossipees instead, it is best to employ the foolproof defense recommended by Plato, who may have learned the lesson from Socrates, who as you know was the victim of gossip spread that he was corrupting the youth of Athens: When men speak ill of thee, so live that nobody will believe them. Or, as Will Rogers said, “ Live so that you wouldn’t be ashamed to sell the family parrot to the town gossip.” (500 words )

21. Persons’ remarks are mentioned at the beginning of the text to ____.
[ A ] show the general disapproval of gossip
[ B ] introduce the topic of gossip
[ C ] examine gossip from a historical perspective
[ D ] prove the real value of gossip

22. By “Gossip also is a form of social bonding” (Para. 5), Professor Aaron Ben-Ze’ev means gossip ____.
[ A ] is a valuable source of social information
[ B ] produces a joy that most people in society need
[ C ] brings people the feel of being part of a group
[ D ] satisfies people’s need of being unusual

23. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
[ A ] everyone involved will not benefit from gossip
[ B ] philosophers may hold different attitudes toward gossip
[ C ] Dr. Ronald De Sousa regards gossips as perfectly advantageous
[ D ] people are generally not conscious of the value of medical gossip

24. We learn from the last paragraph that ____.
[ A ] gossipers will surely become gossipees someday
[ B ] Socrates was a typical example of a gossiper becoming a gossipee
[ C ] Plato escaped being a victim of gossip by no gossiping
[ D ] an easy way to confront gossip when subjected to it is to live as usual

25. The author’s attitude toward “ gossip” can be best described as ____.
[ A ] neutral [ B ] positive
[ C ] negative [ D ] indifferent

Text 2

  SoBig.F was the more visible of the two recent waves of infection because it propagated itself by e-mail, meaning that victims noticed what was going on. SoBig.F was so effective that it caused substantial disruption even to those protected by anti-virus software. That was because so many copies of the virus spread (some 500,000 computers were infected) that many machines were overwhelmed by messages from their own anti-virus software. On top of that, one common counter-measure backfired, increasing traffic still further. Anti-virus software often bounces a warning back to the sender of an infected e-mail, saying that the e-mail in question cannot be delivered because it contains a virus. SoBig.F was able to spoof this system by “harvesting” e-mail addresses from the hard disks of infected computers. Some of these addresses were then sent infected e-mails that had been doctored to look as though they had come from other harvested addresses. The latter were thus sent warnings, even though their machines may not have been infected.

  Kevin Haley of Symantec, a firm that makes anti-virus software, thinks that one reason SoBig.F was so much more effective than other viruses that work this way is because it was better at searching hard-drives for addresses. Brian King, of CERT, an internet-security centre at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, notes that, unlike its precursors, SoBig.F was capable of “multi-threading”: it could send multiple e-mails simultaneously, allowing it to dispatch thousands in minutes.

  Blaster worked by creating a “buffer overrun in the remote procedure call”. In English, that means it attacked a piece of software used by Microsoft's Windows operating system to allow one computer to control another. It did so by causing that software to use too much memory.
Most worms work by exploiting weaknesses in an operating system, but whoever wrote Blaster had a particularly refined sense of humour, since the website under attack was the one from which users could obtain a program to fix the very weakness in Windows that the worm itself was exploiting.

  One way to deal with a wicked worm like Blaster is to design a fairy godmother worm that goes around repairing vulnerable machines automatically. In the case of Blaster someone seems to have tried exactly that with a program called Welchi. However, according to Mr Haley, Welchi has caused almost as many problems as Blaster itself, by overwhelming networks with “pings”—signals that checked for the presence of other computers.

  Though both of these programs fell short of the apparent objectives of their authors, they still caused damage. For instance, they forced the shutdown of a number of computer networks, including the one used by the New York Times newsroom, and the one organising trains operated by CSX, a freight company on America's east coast.

  Computer scientists expect that it is only a matter of time before a truly devastating virus is unleashed.

26. SoBig.F damaged computer programs mainly by ____.
[A] sending them an overpowering number of messages
[B] harvesting the addresses stored in the computers
[C] infecting the computers with an invisible virus
[D] destroying the anti-virus software of the computers

27. Which of the following best defines the word “ doctored” (line , para. 1) ?
[A] falsified [B] cured
[C] deceived [D] diagnosed

28. Compared with SoBig.F, Blaster was a virus that was _____.
[A] more destructive
[B] more humorous
[C] less vulnerable
[D] less noticeable

29. From the text we learn that Welchi ____.
[A] is a wicked worm causing as many damages as Blaster did
[B] is a program designed by Haley to detect worms like Blaster
[C] is a program intended to fix the infected machines
[D] is a worm meant to defeat the virus with “ pings”

30. The tone of the text can best described as _____.
[A] optimistic and humorous
[B] analytical but concerned
[C] passionate but pessimistic
[D] scholarly and cautious

Text 3

  European farm ministers have ended three weeks of negotiations with a deal which they claim represents genuine reform of the common agricultural policy(CAP). Will it be enough to kickstart the Doha world trade negotiations?

  On the face of it, the deal agreed in the early hours of Thursday June 26th looks promising. Most subsidies linked to specific farm products are, at last, to be broken—the idea is to replace these with a direct payment to farmers, unconnected to particular products. Support prices for several key products, including milk and butter, are to be cut—that should mean European prices eventually falling towards the world market level. Cutting the link between subsidy and production was the main objective of proposals put forward by Mr Fischler, which had formed the starting point for the negotiations.

  The CAP is hugely unpopular around the world. It subsidises European farmers to such an extent that they can undercut farmers from poor countries, who also face trade barriers that largely exclude them from the potentially lucrative European market. Farm trade is also a key feature of the Doha round of trade talks, launched under the auspices of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in November 2001. Developing countries have lined up alongside a number of industrial countries to demand an end to the massive subsidies Europe pays its farmers. Several Doha deadlines have already been missed because of the EU’s intransigence, and the survival of the talks will be at risk if no progress is made by September, when the world's trade ministers meet in Cancùn, Mexico.

  But now even the French seem to have gone along with the deal hammered out in Luxembourg. Up to a point, anyway. The package of measures gives the green light for the most eager reformers to move fast to implement the changes within their own countries. But there is an escape clause of sorts for the French and other reform-averse nations. They can delay implementation for up to two years. There is also a suggestion that the reforms might not apply where there is a chance that they would lead to a reduction in land under cultivation.

  These let-outs are potentially damaging for Europe’s negotiators in the Doha round. They could significantly reduce the cost savings that the reforms might otherwise generate and, in turn, keep European expenditure on farm support unacceptably high by world standards. More generally, the escape clauses could undermine the reforms by encouraging the suspicion that the new package will not deliver the changes that its supporters claim. Close analysis of what is inevitably a very complicated package might confirm the sceptics' fears.

31. The deal agreed on Thursday looks promising in that _____.
[A] European farm ministers finally reached a consensus
[B] the link between farm products and subsidies is removed
[C] farmers would definitely accept the direct payment to them
[D] European farm products will reach a lower price level than the world

32. It can be inferred from the third paragraph that ____.
[A] farmers from poor countries were put at a disadvantage by CAP
[B] the deal will be a key subject of debate in Doha round of trade talks
[C] the deal was probably a result of pressure from other countries
[D] the world’s trade ministers will resist the new deal reached recently

33. In what case might the escape clauses apply in reform-averse nations ?
[A] Farmers lose their interest in farming.
[B] Reforms have to be delayed for up to two years.
[C] Implementation of the measures goes too eagerly.
[D] The measures damage the reformers’ confidence.

34. The new package of measures is inevitably a complicated one due to ____.
[A] Europe’s negotiators’ loss of confidence
[B] European expenditure on farm support
[C] escape clauses for some European countries
[D] suspicion of the new package

35. What is the passage mainly about ?
[A] a promising new deal
[B] Doha world trade negotiations
[C] world’s anger against Europe
[D] doomed reforms of CAP

Text 4

  Perhaps only a small boy training to be a wizard at the Hogwarts school of magic could cast a spell so powerful as to create the biggest book launch ever. Wherever in the world the clock strikes midnight on June 20th, his followers will flock to get their paws on one of more than 10m copies of “Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix”. Bookshops will open in the middle of the night and delivery firms are drafting in extra staff and bigger trucks. Related toys, games, DVDs and other merchandise will be everywhere. There will be no escaping Pottermania.

  Yet Mr Potter's world is a curious one, in which things are often not what they appear. While an excitable media (hereby including The Economist, happy to support such a fine example of globalisation) is helping to hype the launch of J.K. Rowling's fifth novel, about the most adventurous thing that the publishers (Scholastic in America and Britain's Bloomsbury in English elsewhere) have organised is a reading by Ms Rowling in London's Royal Albert Hall, to be broadcast as a live webcast.

  Hollywood, which owns everything else to do with Harry Potter, says it is doing even less. Incredible as it may seem, the guardians of the brand say that, to protect the Potter franchise, they are trying to maintain a low profile. Well, relatively low.

  Ms Rowling signed a contract in 1998 with Warner Brothers, part of AOL Time Warner, giving the studio exclusive film, licensing and merchandising rights in return for what now appears to have been a steal: some $500,000. Warner licenses other firms to produce goods using Harry Potter characters or images, from which Ms Rowling gets a big enough cut that she is now wealthier than the queen—if you believe Britain's Sunday Times rich list. The process is self-generating: each book sets the stage for a film, which boosts book sales, which lifts sales of Potter products.

  Globally, the first four Harry Potter books have sold some 200m copies in 55 languages; the two movies have grossed over $1.8 billion at the box office.

  This is a stunning success by any measure, especially as Ms Rowling has long demanded that Harry Potter should not be over-commercialised. In line with her wishes, Warner says it is being extraordinarily careful, at least by Hollywood standards, about what it licenses and to whom. It imposed tough conditions on Coca-Cola, insisting that no Harry Potter images should appear on cans, and is now in the process of making its licensing programme even more restrictive. Coke may soon be considered too mass market to carry the brand at all.

  The deal with Warner ties much of the merchandising to the films alone. There are no officially sanctioned products relating to “Order of the Phoenix”; nor yet for “Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban”, the film of the third book, which is due out in June 2004. Warner agrees that Ms Rowling's creation is a different sort of commercial property, one with long-term potential that could be damaged by a typical Hollywood marketing blitz, says Diane Nelson, the studio's global brand manager for Harry Potter. It is vital, she adds, that with more to come, readers of the books are not alienated. “The evidence from our market research is that enthusiasm for the property by fans is not waning.”

36. When the author says “there will be no escaping Pottermania”, he implies that ____.
[A] Harry Potter’s appeal for the readers is simply irresistible
[B] it is somewhat irrational to be so crazy about the magic boy
[C] craze about Harry Potter will not be over in the near future
[D] Hogwarts school of magic will be the biggest attraction world over

37. Ms Rowling’s reading in London's Royal Albert Hall is mentioned to show ____.
[A] publishers are really adventurous in managing the Potter’s business
[B] businesses involved with Potter are moving along in an unusual way
[C] the media are promoting Pottermania more actively than Hollywood
[D] businesses are actually more credible than media in Potter’s world

38. The author believes that ____.
[A] Britain's Sunday Times rich list is not very convincing as it sounds
[B] Time Warner’s management of licenses is a bit over-commercialised
[C] other firms may produce goods using Harry Potter images at will
[D] what Ms Rowling got in return for her offering to Warner is a real bargain

39. Paragraph 5 intends mainly to show Warner’s ____.
[A] determination to promote Potter
[B] consistence in conducting business
[C] high regard for Ms Rowling’s request
[D] careful restrictions on licensing to Coco-Cola

40. It can be concluded from the last paragraph that ____.
[A] products of Potter films have brought enormous profits to Warner
[B] current Hollywood’s marketing of Potter may damage its potential
[C] readers could get tired of Ms Rowling’s writings sooner or later
[D] Warner will maintain the same strategy with Potter in future

Part B

Directions:
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)


  The place is a lovely meadow surrounded by deep woods on a hilltop overlooking a beautiful lake in the Catskill Mountains 120 miles from New York. It is quarter past eight in the morning, and you are about to commute to your office in the city. Yet there is no paved highway nearer than fifteen miles, and it is fifty to a railroad station.

  41) __________________________________________. The aircraft, looking oddly like a horizontal electric fan, drones toward you. When the pilot is directly overhead, all forward movement of the machine ceases and it descends vertically until the cabin door is within a foot of the ground. On the machine’s gray side is painted Helicopter Express to New York. The door opens and you step inside.

  Fifty minutes later the helicopter bus hovers over a midtown New York building, descends slowly to alight on a roof space some sixty yards square. You go into the building, take the elevator to the street below, and walk half a block to your office. Not quite an hour has elapsed since you drank your morning coffee in your home.

42) ______________________________________.

  In the air age of tomorrow, the manufacture, sale, and upkeep of the direct—lift machine will become a billion—dollar industry just as the automobile industry. There will be many startling changes in our way of life.

  43) ________________________________________________. A cheap, swift helicopter bus service will ferry these people to and from their work. Suburbs will include ten thousand or more square miles. Real estate values will come within the reach of average incomes, and the people will literally return to the good earth.

  44) _________________________________________________. But the short haul of less than 1000 miles is equally the task of the helicopter, which can do it with the greatest efficiency.

  Express and air mail will be carried from the airports to final destination by helicopter. There will be a direct—lift machine service to take airliner passengers from the airport to the city in a few minutes. There will be special delivery of perishable food to your door.

  The winter growth of fresh vegetables such as beans and tomatoes, celery and lettuce, in the warm South and the Far West has been hitherto restricted because of cost and time or transportation to market. The airline and helicopter freight service will speed such healthy foods to the ends of the nation.

45) __________________________________________________________..

  [A] Most important is that hundreds of thousands of people can return to the health and beauty of the countryside. Millions of acres of hitherto inaccessible land will be developed with small homes for medium-or low-income groups.

  [B] And a new type of architecture-perhaps a house with a flat roof and a pleasantly designed helicopter hangar to one side of it, so that you have only to wheel the machine a few feet to take off.

  [C] Does this sound like a fantasy imagined by science fiction writers? If so, I can assure you, as a practical aeronautical engineer, that such a trip is neither fantastic nor impractical. I am convinced that a helicopter bus service is not only practicable but, in fact, inevitable.

  [D] Hence our eating habits will change perhaps more than we realize. Strawberries in January, as it were, available for all. The airline and helicopter freight service render all this possible.

  [E] Private and bus helicopters will make possible vacations at seashore or mountain for countless thousands. The helicopter will destroy space for millions of people. Nothing is more delightful than touring in a helicopter. To hover and fill one’s eyes with an enchanting vista is to bring joy to the soul.

  [F] Now you hear a low hum, and over the horizon appears a flying machine. You press the button of a box nearby and a radio signal flashes to the machine.

  [G] Long-distance transportation of passengers and freight over land and sea will definitely remain the job for the large airplane.

Part C
Directions:
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  The “standard of living” of any country means the average persons share of the goods and services which the country produces. A country’s standard of living, therefore, depends first and foremost on its capacity to produce wealth. 46) “Wealth” in this sense is not money, for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy: “goods” such as food and clothing, and “services” such as transport and entertainment.

  A country’s capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors, most of which have an effect on one another. Wealth depends to a great extent upon a country’s natural resources, such as coal, gold, and other minerals, water supply and so on. 47) Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have a fertile soil and a favorable climate; other regions possess none of them.

  Next to natural resources comes the ability to turn them to use. 48) Some countries are perhaps well off in natural resources, but suffered for many years from civil and external wars, and for this and other reasons have been unable to develop their resources. Sound stable political conditions, and freedom from foreign invasion, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily, and to produce more wealth than another country equally well served by nature but less well ordered. Another important factor is the technical efficiency of a country’s people. Industrialized countries that have trained numerous skilled workers and technicians are better placed to produce wealth than countries whose workers are largely unskilled.

  49) A country’s standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed within its own borders, but also upon what is indirectly produced through international trade. For example, Britain’s wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on those grown at home. Trade makes it possible for her surplus manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would otherwise be lacking. 50) A country’s wealth is, therefore, much influenced by its manufacturing capacity, provided that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures.

Section III Writing
Part A


51. Directions:


You have stayed with your friend Cathy for a whole week. Now you are going home. Write a message to her to
1) express your gratitude
2) show your appreciation of the good days you’ve had together
3) say goodbye

You should write about 100 words on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Susan” instead. You do not need to write the address. ( 10 points )

Part B
52. Directions:


  Assuming that a manager is going to interview some job applicants and one of his friends gives him a piece of advice that the first impression is not a reliable basis for judgment. This manager wants to hear more from others and decides to have a wall newspaper put up for more views on that topic.

  1. You are going to write an article to offer your opinion about it.
  2.You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.( 20 points )

考研前30天成功试卷(英语)试卷二答案详解

答案详解
Section I Use of English

1.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查词汇的逻辑搭配。thunder“雷声”做宾语,[B]heard是最佳选择。

2.[答案] A
[解析] 本题考查考生利用上下文选择判断的能力。文章第一行有remember一词出现,有所暗示。而且全文主题是“儿童失忆症”。[A]recall意为“回忆”,符合句义。

3.[答案] D
[解析] 本题考查上下文的连贯理解能力。前半句中出现了seldom一词,just as在这里提示后半句也应该是表示否定意义,且横线后的any一词也起到暗示作用。可见,[D]rarely为正确答案。

4.[答案] A
[解析] 本题考查词汇的搭配。和explanations搭配,[A]propose为最佳选择。[B]witness“目睹,作证”,[C]cancel“取消”,[D]figure搭配介词to意为“算出,估计,推测”

5.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查结构知识。根据句义,“……直到一两岁才能成熟”。应该用not…until结构。因此,[C]为正确答案。

6.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查考生的词汇知识。[B]maintain意为“坚持,主张;维持,维修”。根据句义“最流行的理论坚持认为……”。可见,[B]为正确答案。

7.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查上下文的连贯理解能力。22题的recall events对本题有提示作用。[C]reflect意为“反映,表现;反省,细想”,带入句中符合句义,与上文呼应。因此,[C]为正确答案。

8.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查结构知识。句中出现or连接的并列结构,故此处所选的词应与or前面的story为近义词。[C]narratives“叙述,故事”为最佳答案。

9.[答案] D
[解析] 本题考查固定搭配。与前面one搭配的应该是another。[D]为正确答案。

10.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查词汇知识。本句句意为“在心智档案中寻找儿时的记忆……”。[B]files意为“文件,答案”,为最佳答案。

11.[答案] D
[解析] 本题考查词汇知识。[A]frame指“框架”;[B]landscape指“风景线”;[C]footstep指“脚印”,[D]pattern指“模式”。可见,[D]为正确答案。

12.[答案] A
[解析] 本题同样考查词汇知识。文章第4行“a variety of explanations”处有提示作用,表示对儿童失忆症有很多解释。这里是另一位心理学家提出的新的解释(explanation)。因此,[A]为正确答案。

13.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查语法知识。there be句型单复数需要和be后面的名词保持一致,故用复数形式。时态为一般现在时。可见,[C]为正确答案。

14.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查一般词汇知识。本句句意为“儿童们需要学会用别人对自己经验的口头描述来把短期记忆转化程长期记忆”。[B]someone else’s表示“别人的”。因此,[B]为正确答案。

15.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查词汇使用知识。根据句意,short-term memories(短期记忆)会quickly forgotten(很快被忘却)。[C]为正确答案。

16.[答案] A
[解析] 本题考查固定搭配。in other words意为“换句话说”。可见,[A]为争取答案。

17.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查代词使用知识。指代others的应该是them。[B]为正确答案。

18.[答案] B
[解析] 本题考查词汇的固定搭配。spend time doing sth. 因此,[B]为争取答案。

19.[答案] D
[解析] 本题考查词汇知识。根据前句的talk about可得到提示,此处应该是[D]verbal“文字的,口头的”。

20.[答案] C
[解析] 本题考查上下文的理解能力。根据句意,此处“儿童要形成的”应该是前文提到的“长期记忆”。四个选项中,[C]permanent“永久的”符合句意。可见,[C]为正确答案。

Section II Reading Comprehension
Part A
Text 1 译文


  圣.保罗不喜欢它,摩西告诫自己的人民防着它,黑西奥德说它“恶作剧的”并且是“难以摆脱的”,但奥斯卡.王尔德却说,“闲话是充满魅力的”。

  他在一部著名的剧作中说“历史也就是一部闲话集”,“从道德角度看丑闻则是一种令人厌烦的闲话”。

  过去,按犹太教法律,说闲话是要被罚款或遭鞭刑的。清教徒则对闲话者施以足伽或投入水牢,然而任何处罚似乎都无法阻止闲话,几百年来,闲话从未中断过。
  
  然而今天,人们却从一个不同的角度来看待这个万人怨的人类弱点。心理学家、社会学家、哲学家,甚至生物进化论学家们都认为,闲话其实并不那么糟。

  哲学教授Aaron Ben-Ze’ev在其编写的名为《好的闲话》一书中就说,闲话是一种“本质上讲很有价值的活动”。首先,闲话可以帮助我们获得通常渠道不能获得的信息,比如“某人被开出办公室的真正原因是什么”。Dr. Ben-Ze’ev还说,闲话就像“一种社会纽带”,它是“一种分享”,能够“满足人类的部落需求,即属于或被某一个独特的集体接受的感觉需求”。而且,该教授还认为,“闲话给人带来快乐”。

  另一位闲话的支持者,多伦多大学的哲学教授Dr. Ronald De Sousa认为,闲话是“一种不谨慎”,也是一种“圣徒般的美德”,他的意思是说,闲话传播的信息到头来往往是有点益处的。他说,“人们更可能喜欢所有信息被广泛拥有的社会,而不会喜欢秘密被强权控制的世界”。

  然而,大家都知道闲话肯定是有坏处的,尤其是对可怜的被说闲话的对象。既便水牢早已淘汰,人们也不应说那些伤人的闲话。

  顺便说,有一种被称为“医疗闲话”很有趣,据研究人员Jerry M. Suls and Franklin Goodkin的研究,这种闲话能激励那些有严重疾病症状,但自己却没有意识到的人去寻求医疗帮助。

  所以说闲话去吧,但注意,如果你自己成了被闲话的对象(闲话者中常发生这种现象),就使用柏拉图建议的简易防御方式,柏拉图是从苏格拉底那儿学到了这个经验,苏格拉底正是毒害雅典青年这个流传的闲话的直接受害者。柏拉图的建议是:如果有人说你的坏话,继续生活,使这种坏话无人相信。或正如Will Rogers所言,“生活着,不因家事成为全城的闲话中心而羞愧”。

21. 【答案】B
【解析】本题涉及作者的首段写作意图。作者文章开头引用几个人的有关闲话的言论是为了引出本文的话题:闲话。故答案为B。

22. 【答案】C
【解析】这是一道句意题。根据第五段后面Dr. Ben-Ze’ev的讲话,可知答案应为C。

23. 【答案】A
【解析】这是一道是非判断题。根据第七段的内容可知,“并非所有的人都是闲话的受益者”,所以答案为A。B、D两项文章未提,C项中“perfectly完全地”言之太过。

24. 【答案】D
【解析】这是一道细节题。依据末段归纳可知,一旦自己成了闲话的对象,最佳的应对方法是正常生活,谣言不攻自破,故答案为D。A说得绝对,BC两项与文章内容不符。

25. 【答案】B
【解析】这是一道态度题。依据第四段和末段综合可知,作者对Gossip的态度是积极肯定的,故答案为B。

Text 2 译文

  巨无霸是最近两波病毒感染中较明显的一个,它通过邮件传播,受害者看得见它的发作。巨无霸如此有效,它能给那些有防毒软件保护的电脑造成很大的破坏。这主要是因为大量的病毒被复制(大约50万电脑被感染)传播,许多电脑被自己的防毒软件发出的无数信息压得瘫痪。除此之外,普通的回击措施事与愿违,使邮件数量进一步增加,防毒软件通常会给感染了病毒的邮件发送者发个警告,说相关邮件因为含有病毒不能发送。巨无霸能骗住系统,收集感染了病毒的电脑硬盘中的邮箱地址。有些地址就会收到含病毒的邮件,伪装得像是来自所收藏的地址所发来的邮件。后者因此又会收到警告,即使电脑并没有病毒感染。

  Symantec是一家编制防毒软件的公司,公司的Kevin Haley认为,巨无霸之所以比其他病毒有效是因为,它更擅场于搜索硬盘中的地址。位于匹兹堡的卡耐基-梅隆大学的网络安全中心CERT的Brian King认为,与以前的病毒不同,巨无霸能“多径发送”,能同时发送许多邮件,几分钟多达上千条。

  冲击波病毒使“缓冲区由远程程序指令占用”来进行破坏。用普通语言来说,就是向微软视窗操作系统使用的一个软件发动进攻,从而使一台电脑控制另一台电脑,只要让该软件的记忆储存疲劳就可做到这一点。

  多数蠕虫病毒都是利用操作系统中的薄弱点进行来破坏,但不管谁编了冲击波,这人有特别雅致的幽默感,因为遭到攻击的网址正是用户获取程序修补视窗缺陷的网址,这些缺陷被蠕虫病毒利用。

  对付像冲击波这样的恶毒蠕虫的一个方法是,设计出一个教母蠕虫,自动修补电脑薄弱点。就冲击波而言,似乎已有人设计出叫“Welchi”的程序。然而,Haley先生认为,Welchi导致的问题和冲击波一样的多,它使用一种检测其他电脑存在的信号“pings”,而使网络几近瘫痪。

  尽管这两种病毒与编者的明显的目标差之甚远,它们还是造成了破坏。例如,它们迫使许多网络关闭,包括纽约时报的新闻室的网络,以及美国东海岸的货运公司CSX组织火车的网络。电脑专家们说,过不了多久,真正具有毁灭性的病毒就会出现。

26. 【答案】A
【解析】这是一道细节题。根据第一段的内容,巨无霸破坏的主要手段是用大量的邮件,显然答案为A。

27. 【答案】A
【解析】这是一道词义题。根据首段末尾几句,“doctor”一词意为“伪造”,上下句语义才能连贯,而“falsify”正是这个意思,故为答案。

28. 【答案】D
【解析】这是一道细节题。本文介绍了两种病毒,文章首句又说巨无霸是其中更加看得见的一种,可见冲击波不太那么被人注意到,故D为答案。

29. 【答案】C
【解析】这是一道细节题。根据第五段内容可知,Welchi是一种修补电脑程序感染的软件,故答案为C。

30. 【答案】B
【解析】这是一道语气题。文章分析了两种病毒的机制特点,文末又显示出对未来病毒的担心,可见B项对文章语气概括充分,为正确答案。

Text 3译文

  欧洲农业部长们结速了三周的谈判,达成了一项协议,这项协议,据他们宣称,要对欧洲共同的农业政策(CAP)进行真正的变革。这足以能启动多哈世界贸易会谈嘛?

  表面上看,6月26日星期四达成的这项协议很有希望,与具体农产品挂钩的多项补贴终于取消―――意思是直接给农民付款,不与特定的产品挂钩,借此取代以前的做法。几项重要产品(包括牛奶和黄油)的支持性价格将要降低―――这意味着欧洲的价格终于趋于世界市场价格。切断补贴和生产之间的联系是Mr Fischler的提议的主要目标,这为谈判提供了一个起点。

  CAP在世界上很招人嫌,它给欧洲农民大量补贴,以致侵害了贫穷国家农民的利益,他们面临的贸易屏障使他们无法进入有利可图的欧洲市场。农业贸易是多哈贸易会谈的一个重要内容,会谈于2001年11月在世贸组织(WTO)的支持下举行。发展中国家与许多发达国家联合起来共同要求欧洲停止给农民发放补贴。由于欧洲拒不让步,多哈会谈的最终期限一再错过,如果在世贸部长们9月在墨西哥的坎坤会谈前还没有进展,会谈就有可能失败。

  但现在,甚至法国也已同意在卢森堡达成的这项协议,不管怎么说,某种程度上是这样。这一揽子措施为急切的变革者在自己的国家实施改革打开了绿灯。但对法国和其他反对变革的国家来说,还有一项回避条款,他们可以延迟多达2年时间实施协议,协议还说,如果改革导致进行耕种的土地数量减少,协议可不予实施。

  这些要求给参加多哈会谈的欧洲谈判者很大打击,这可能极大地减少改革本可以取得的成本储畜,并且使欧洲在农产品的支出,按世界标准来说显得高得不能接受。说得更广泛一点,回避条款令人怀疑新协议能否促成其支持者所宣称的变革,进而削弱改革。仔细分析这一揽子必然非常复杂的举措很可能证实怀疑者的担心。

31.【答案】B
【解析】这是一道细节题。题干用词使我们将答案锁定在第二段,答案为B。

32.【答案】C
【解析】这是一道推论题。第三段说,不少国家对欧洲的补贴政策非常不满,由此推论,文章所说的协议可能出于外在的压力而作出的,所以答案为C。B项不对,这项协议不会成为世贸部长们争议的东西,他们肯定欢迎这项协议。

33.【答案】A
【解析】这是一道细节题,根据第四段可知,法国和其他几个国家提出,如果耕地减少(农民们因没有补贴而失去种地的兴趣),可回避协议,答案应为A。

34.【答案】C
【解析】这是一道细节题。根据文章最后2段可知,回避条款使协议显得复杂,所以答案为C。

35.【答案】D
【解析】这是一道主旨题。文章第一段点出全文话题:欧洲农业补贴政策的变革。下文又对协议的成功感到灰心。综合可知答案应为D(注定要失败的CAP变革)。

Text 4译文

  也许只有在Hogwarts魔术学校受训做魔术师的小男孩才能产生如此大的魅力,造就有史以来最大的销书狂潮。6月20 日,不管在世界的什么地方,午夜的钟声一响,他的追随者就蜂拥而至,抢购1000万册“Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix”中的一本。书店半夜开门,送货公司招募更多的雇员、租用更多的卡车。相关的玩具、游戏、DVD及其它商品到处都是。哈里波特热潮无所不在。

  然而,波特的世界很奇怪,事情与往常不一样。尽管易于激动的媒体(包括《经济学家》杂志也乐于宣传这样一个全球化的经典之作)帮着鼓吹J.K. Rowling的第五部小说的发行,出版商所做的最大胆的宣传不过是请Rowling小姐到伦敦皇家阿尔伯特大厅朗读一段,并在网上实况转播。拥有除出版之外与哈里波特有关的一切的好莱坞,动作也不多。真是不可思议,商标的拥有者说,为了保护与哈里波特相关的权利,他们正试图保持底姿态。真的很底。

  Rowling小姐于1998年与华纳兄弟,美国在线时代华纳的一部分,签订了合约,赋予电影厂全部拍摄电影、许可及商品开发权,而她的所得现在看起来真廉价:约50万美元。华纳许可其他公司使用哈里波特的人物形象生产产品,Rowling小姐也从中分得一大块,使她比女王还富有————只要你相信英国Sunday Times所列的富人名单。这过程是增值的过程:书为电影搭建平台,电影促进书的销售,书的销售有带动哈里波特产品的销售。

  从全球来看,哈里波特的前四册已用55 种语言,销了2亿册;两部电影的票房也达到18亿美元。
怎么说,这也是令人震惊的成功,尤其是Rowling小姐还一直要求不要将哈里波特过于商品化。与她的要求一致,华纳说他们一直很小心,至少按好莱坞的习惯标准来说是这样,无论是发放哪类许可还是发放给谁都这样。华纳对Coca-Cola施加了严格的要求,坚持哈里波特的形象不能出现在易拉罐上,而目前正将许可的发放进一步严格化。Coca-Cola太大众市场化了,不能持用波特商标。

  与华纳的交易使得商品的开发多系于电影本身。还没有官方认可的与Order of the Phoenix相关的产品出来,Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban也没有,后者是第三部书的电影版,电影将在2004 年6月发行。华纳也认为,Rowling小姐的创作是一种不同的商品,它具有长期的潜力,用好莱坞的闪电式营销方式会破坏它的前景,电影厂的哈里波特全球商标经理Diane Nelson就这么认为。她还说,由于更多的系列还未出版,不能将读者疏远很关键。“市场调研表明,波特迷们对波特的激情没有消减”。

36. 【答案】A
【解析】这是一道句意题。第一段描述了波特迷们的世界性狂热,由此可知A项为答案。

37. 【答案】B
【解析】这是一道例证题。文章说到Rowling应邀朗读一事是为了说明此次商家的行为不同往常,故此答案为B。

38. 【答案】D
【解析】这是一道作者观点题。依据第三段首句,可知答案为D。

39. 【答案】C
【解析】这是一道主旨题。段落的主要意思是华纳按Rowling的要求做了,严紧过分的商业化。故答案为C。

40. 【答案】D
【解析】这是一道推论题。前文说华纳不想过分商业化Potter,最后一段重申这种做法的正确性,并说市场调研表明Potter迷们的激情未减,可以推论,公司在未来还将保持这一策略。故答案为D。

Part B

【总体分析】
本文讲直升飞机短途服务给人们的生活带来的种种变化。前三段描述了一个假定的场面,说明直升飞机的便捷服务。第五段说“There will be many startling changes in our way of life”,这是全文的关键句,它决定了下文的几个段落的内容。
【详细解答】

41.F
本题涉及前后段的内容把握,由于前三段是描述便捷的直升飞机为“you”服务的过程,所以F项应为正确答案。

42.C
本题考察考生对全文,尤其前三段与下文的逻辑关系的把握能力。作为一个自然的过渡,既与上面的描述衔接,又与下文的内容呼应,C项是最佳选择,C中的“this”很重要。

43.A
本题既涉及考生对文章的整体结构(尤其第五段末的全文核心句)的把握,又涉及考生对下文的句意内容的理解。能够满足这两个要求的选项为A。

44.G
本题考察考生对段落内部逻辑的把握。既然下文说“But the short haul (运输)of less than 1000 miles is equally the task of the helicopter”,对应的上文就该是G项。

45.E
本题考察考生对文章结构的把握能力。既然第五段末句说了“many changes”,而文章6-10段分别讲述直升飞机的服务对人类生活带来的各种变化,那么45题,即第十段的内容应是E项。D项与上段内容重复。

Part C

46. [结构分析] 这是一个复合句。For引导一个原因状语从句,其中包含了not…but结构。
[词汇难点] “in this sense”意为“在这一意义上”。
[参考译文] 在这一意义上,财富并不是钱财,因为我们的生存并不依赖于钱而是依赖于钱所能购买的东西:诸如食品、衣服的物品和诸如交通、娱乐的服务。

47. [结构分析] 这是一个复合句。分号隔开了两个部分。
[词汇难点] “be well supplied with”意为“有充足的供给”;“fertile”意为“肥沃的”。
[参考译文] 世界上有些地区蕴藏着丰富的煤炭和矿产资源,有丰沃的土地和宜人的气候;而其它一些地区却一无所有。

48. [结构分析] 这是一个并不简单的简单句。一共有3个并列成分。
[词汇难点] “well off”意为“富裕的”。
[参考译文] 有些国家自然资源可能很丰富,但却多年以来饱受内外战的困扰,并且因为这个或那个的原因不能够发展本国资源。

49. [结构分析] 这是一个简单句。not only…but also的结构。
[词汇难点] “within its own borders”译为“在本国内”。
[参考译文] 一个国家的生活水准,不仅取决于它在本国内生产和消费的财富,还取决于它通过国际贸易间接生产的财富。

50. [结构分析] 这是一个复合句。provided that引导一个条件状语从句。
[词汇难点] “provided”意为“倘若,只要,假如”。
[参考译文] 因此,一个国家的财富很大程度上受到它的生产能力的影响,如果有其它国家愿意接受它的产品的话。

Section III Writing
写作分析:


  写作A是一篇感谢信,考生注意审读规定的情景和相应提纲,挖掘写作内容,做好字数方面的布局,然后按相应提纲逐项展开。写作时,要注意不同的写作对象和和写作目的,注意语体措辞的得体性。

  写作B是一篇情景作文,考生要审读所给情景,确定文章的主题,设定三段的写作内容。考生们写完自己的作文后,可参看并分析下面的范文,如,它是怎样设定三段的写作内容的,又用了那些句式和词汇去表达内容,从中汲取写作的营养。

Part A

  Dear Cathy,

  Please accept my thanks for the very pleasant time I spent together with you for the past week.

  I very much appreciated your hospitality and also thoroughly enjoyed the six very interesting days together, driving along the coast at the sunset, swimming at the sea, eating those delicious seafood, watching classic movies at cinema, playing video games for a whole night and doing many other wonderful things .

  I know the past six beautiful days will keep me happy for a long time.

  Now I would like to express my thanks for your warm hospitality with a little gift that you will
shortly receive.

  Cordially,
  Susan

Part B

  Interviews are being held to seek persons for some vacancies in our company and people are wondering how to find the right persons. Someone claims that the first impression is a reliable basis for judgment. There could be some truth in his saying, but I insist that only a thorough study of the applicant can provide a solid basis on which the manager may decide whether he or she is qualified for the job.

  In the interview, responsibility and ability, among other things, are the two foremost qualities the manager should stress in his assessment of the applicant. It’s hard to imagine a person without responsibility can perform his duties well. And persons who are lack of responsibility but hold important positions may bring disasters to the company involved, to the public and to the society. The same is true of those without abilities. One often hears of news stories in which incompetent guys, reportedly, bring about huge amount of economic loss to the companies or even to the country.

  In my opinion, interviewers should try to judge the applicants in many relevant respects, not just the first impression. And I’m confident that qualified applicants can thus be found and contribute to the development of our company.

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