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2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二 SectionⅠUse of English

  Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  If it were only necessary to decide whether to teach elementary science to everyone on a mass basis or to find the gifted few and take them as far as they can go, our task would be fairly simple. The public school system, however, has no such 1 , 2 the jobs must be carried 3 at the same time. Because we depend so 4 upon science and technology for our 5, we must produce specialists in many fields. 6 we live in a 7 nation, whose citizens make the policies for the nation, large numbers of us must be educated to understand, to uphold, and 8 necessary, to judge the work of 9. The public school must educate both producers and 10 of scientific services.

  In education, there should be a good balance 11 the branches of 12 that contribute to effective thinking and 13 judgment. Such balance is defeated by 14 much emphasis on any one field. This 15 of balance involves not only the 16 of the natural sciences, the social sciences and the arts but also relative emphasis among the natural sciences themselves.

  17, we must have a balance between current and 18 knowledge. The attention of the public is continually drawn to new 19 in scientific fields and the discovery of new knowledge; these should not be allowed to turn our attention away from the sound, established materials that form the basis of 20 for beginners.

  1.[A] entity   [B] auction   [C] choice   [D] coalition

  2.[A] whereas   [B] though   [C] while   [D] for

  3.[A] off   [B] forward   [C] away   [D] on

  4.[A] substantially   [B] heavily   [C] equally [  D] misleadingly

  5.[A] stimulation   [B] shift   [C] progress   [D] glamour

  6.[A] If [B] Although   [C] Because   [D] Supposing

  7.[A] prosperous   [B] democratic   [C] literate   [D] thriving

  8.[A] unless   [B] in case   [C] when   [D] only

  9.[A] experts   [B] populace   [C] voters   [D] mob

  10.[A] subscribers   [B] users   [C] passers-by   [D] victims

  11.[A] amid   [B] between   [C] upon   [D] among

  12.[A] knowledge   [B] data   [C] intelligence   [D] quest

  13.[A] fair   [B] wise   [C] risky   [D] proper

  14.[A] too   [B] fairly   [C] very   [D] rather

  15.[A] incident   [B] question   [C] inference   [D] impact

  16.[A] reaction   [B] cooperation   [C] interaction   [D] relation

  17.[A] Conversely   [B] Similarly   [C] Accordingly   [D] Presumably

  18.[A] primitive   [B] ultimate   [C] classical   [D] initial

  19.[A] possibilities   [B] capabilities   [C] abilities   [D] responsibilities

  20.[A] grounds   [B] courses   [C] doctrines   [D] quotas

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In the next century we‘ll be able to alter our DNA radically, encoding our visions and vanities while concocting new life-forms. When Dr. Frankenstein made his monster, he wrestled with the moral issue of whether he should allow it to reproduce,“Had I the right, for my own benefit, to inflict the curse upon everlasting generations?”Will such questions require us to develop new moral philosophies?

  Probably not. Instead, we‘ll reach again for a timetested moral concept, one sometimes called the Golden Rule and which Kant, the millennium’s most prudent moralist, conjured up into a categorical imperative: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you; treat each person as an individual rather than as a means to some end.

  Under this moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitably entails using humans as means to other humans‘ends and valuing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right. We should also draw a line, however fuzzy, that would permit using genetic engineering to cure diseases and disabilities but not to change the personal attributes that make someone an individual (IQ, physical appearance, gender and sexuality)。

  The biotech age will also give us more reason to guard our personal privacy. Aldous Huxley in Brave New World, got it wrong: rather than centralizing power in the hands of the state, DNA technology has empowered individuals and families. But the state will have an important role, making sure that no one, including insurance companies, can look at our genetic data without our permission or use it to discriminate against us.

  Then we can get ready for the breakthroughs that could come at the end of the next century and the technology is comparable to mapping our genes: plotting the 10 billion or more neurons of our brain. With that information we might someday be able to create artificial intelligences that think and experience consciousness in ways that are indistinguishable from a human brain. Eventually we might be able to replicate our own minds in a“dryware”machine, so that we could live on without the“wetware”of a biological brain and body. The 20th century‘s revolution in infotechnology will thereby merge with the 21st century’s revolution in biotechnology. But this is science fiction. Let‘s turn the page now and get back to real science.

  21.Dr. Frankenstein‘s remarks are mentioned in the text

  [A] to give an episode of the DNA technological breakthroughs.

  [B] to highlight the importance of a means to some everlasting ends.

  [C] to show how he created a new form of life a thousand years ago.

  [D] to introduce the topic of moral philosophies incurred in biotechnology.

  22.It can be concluded from the text that the technology of human cloning should be employed

  [A] excessively and extravagantly.     [B] reasonably and cautiously.

  [C] aggressively and indiscriminately.    [D] openly and enthusiastically.

  23.From the text, we learn that Aldous Huxley is of the opinion that

  [A] DNA technology should be placed in the charge of individuals.

  [B] government should assume less control over individuals.

  [C] people need government to protect their DNA information.

  [D] old moral precepts should be abolished on human cloning.

  24.Judged from the information in the last paragraph, we can predict that the author is likely to write which of the following in the next section?

  [A] The reflection upon biotechnological morality.

  [B] The offensive invasion of our personal privacy.

  [C] The inevitable change of IQs for our descendants.

  [D] The present state of biotechnological research.

  25.According to the last paragraph,“dry-ware”is to“wet-ware”as

  [A]“collective”to“individual”。    [B]“fictional”to“factual”。

  [C]“mechanical”to“corporeal”。   [D]“temporary”to“permanent”。

  Text 2

  Before a big exam, a sound night‘s sleep will do you more good than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is the folk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is when permanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then“edited”at night, to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after a decade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. The particular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested in is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brain and body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as if watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that people are most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task during the day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, in response to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster. What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern—what is referred to as“artificial grammar”。 Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was present than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn (i.e., the“grammar”, as well as the mechanical task of pushing the button) have more active brains. The“editing”theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuli would be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposed to unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, on the eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the next day are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

  26.Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses.

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness.

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory.

   [D] the functions of a good night‘s sleep.

  27.As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by

  [A] intensely active brainwave traces.   [B] subjects‘quicker response times.

  [C] complicated memory patterns.    [D] revival of events in the previous day.

  28.By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show

  [A] its significance in the study.   [B] an inherent pattern being learnt.

  [C] its resemblance to the lights.   [D] the importance of night‘s sleep.

  29.In their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of

  [A] exposing a long-held folk wisdom.   [B] clarifying the predictions on dreams.

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons.   [D] correlating effects with their causes.

  30.What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

  Text 3

  This line of inquiry did not begin until earlier this month—more than three months after the accident—because there were“too many emotions, too many egos,”said retired Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  Testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee, Gehman said this part of his inquiry was in its earliest stages, starting just 10 days ago. But Gehman said he already has concluded it is“inconceivable”that NASA would have been unable or unwilling to attempt a rescue for astronauts in orbit if senior shuttle managers and administrators had known there was fatal damage to Columbia‘s left wing.

  Gehman told reporters after the hearing that answers to these important questions could have enormous impact, since they could place in a different context NASA‘s decisions against more aggressively checking possible wing damage in the days before Columbia’s fatal return.

  Investigators believe breakaway insulating foam damaged part of Columbia‘s wing shortly after liftoff, allowing superheated air to penetrate the wing during its fiery reentry on Feb.1, melt it from inside.

  Among those decisions was the choice by NASA‘s senior shuttle managers and administrators to reject offers of satellite images of possible damage to Columbia’s left wing before the accident. The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday‘s hearing.

  Gehman complained managers and administrators“missed signals”when they rejected those offers for images, a pointedly harsh assessment of the space agency‘s inaction during the 16-day shuttle mission.

  “We will attempt to pin this issue down in our report, but there were a number of bureaucratic and administrative missed signals here,”Gehman told senators.“We‘re not quite so happy with the process.”

  The investigative board already had recommended that NASA push for better coordination between the space agency and military offices in charge of satellites and telescopes. The U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency in March agreed to regularly capture detailed satellite images of space shuttles in orbit.

  Still, Gehman said it was unclear whether even images from America‘s most sophisticated spy satellites might have detected on Columbia’s wing any damage, which Gehman said could have been as small as two inches square. The precise capabilities of such satellites proved to be a sensitive topic during the Senate hearing.

  31.This text is most probably taken from an article entitled“ ”。

  [A] Gehman‘s Comments on Columbia Accident.

  [B] An Inquiry into Columbia Accident.

  [C] Shedding Light on Shuttle‘s Safety.

  [D] NASA’s Problems Being Exposed.

  32.The word“they”in the sentence“since they could place”(Para.3) denotes

  [A]“damages”。   [B]“answers”。   [C]“decisions”。   [D]“questions”。

  33.According to the writer, what may chiefly be responsible for the Columbia accident?

  [A] A supposed damage to the left wing of the spacecraft.

  [B] The deliberate rejection of satellite images.

  [C] A sense of sentiment and arrogance involved.

  [D] The space agency‘s inaction during its mission.

  34.As mentioned in the text, the Wednesday‘s hearing revolved around

  [A] the precise capabilities of spy satellites in orbit.

  [B] NASA‘s indecisions against checking upon the Columbia.

  [C] NASA‘s rejection of satellite images offered.

  [D] the coordination between NASA and military offices.

  35.Which of the following can best describe Gehman‘s attitude towards satellite images?

  [A] Apprehensive.   [B] Credulous.   [C] Indifferent.   [D] Cautious.

  Text 4

  When a disease of epidemic proportions rips into the populace, scientists immediately get to work, trying to locate the source of the affliction and find ways to combat it. Oftentimes, success is achieved, as medical science is able to isolate the parasite, germ or cell that causes the problem and finds ways to effectively kill or contain it. In the most serious of cases, in which the entire population of a region or country may be at grave risk, it is deemed necessary to protect the entire population through vaccination, so as to safeguard lives and ensure that the disease will not spread.

  The process of vaccination allows the patient‘s body to develop immunity to the virus or disease so that, if it is encountered, one can ward it off naturally. To accomplish this, a small weak or dead strain of the disease is actually injected into the patient in a controlled environment, so that his body’s immune system can learn to fight the invader properly. Information on how to penetrate the disease‘s defenses is transmitted to all elements of the patient’s immune system in a process that occurs naturally, in which genetic information is passed from cell to cell. This makes sure that, should the patient later come into contact with the real problem, his body is well equipped and trained to deal with it, having already done so before.

  There are dangers inherent in the process, however. On occasion, even the weakened version of the disease contained in the vaccine proves too much for the body to handle, resulting in the immune system succumbing, and, therefore, the patient‘s death. Such is the case of the smallpox vaccine, designed to eradicate the smallpox epidemic that nearly wiped out the entire Native American population and killed massive numbers of settlers. Approximately 1 in 10,000 people who receives the vaccine contract the smallpox disease from the vaccine itself and dies from it. Thus, if the entire population of the United States were to receive the Smallpox Vaccine today, 3000 Americans would be left dead.

  Fortunately, the smallpox virus was considered eradicated in the early 1970‘s, ending the mandatory vaccination of all babies in America. In the event of a re-introduction of the disease, however, mandatory vaccinations may resume, resulting in more unexpected deaths from vaccination. The process, which is truly a mixed blessing, may indeed hide some hidden curses.

  36.The best title for the text may be

  [A]“Vaccinations: A Blessing or A Curse.”

  [B]“Principles of Vaccinations.”

  [C]“Vaccines: Methods and Implications.”

  [D]“A Miracle Cure Under Attack.”

  37.What does the example of the Smallpox Vaccine illustrate?

  [A] The possible negative outcome of administering vaccines.

  [B] The practical use of a vaccine to control an epidemic disease.

  [C] The effectiveness of vaccines in eradicating certain disease.

  [D] The method by which vaccines are employed against the disease.

  38.The phrase“ward it off naturally”(Paragraph 2) most probably means

  [A] dispose of it naturally.   [B] fight it off with ease.

  [C] see to it reluctantly.    [D] split it up properly.

  39.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] Saving the majority would necessarily justify the death of the minority.

  [B] The immune system can be trained to fight weaker versions of a disease.

  [C] Mandatory vaccinations are indispensable to the survival of the populace.

  [D] The process of vaccination remains a mystery to be further resolved.

  40.The purpose of the author in writing this passage is

  [A] to comment and criticize.    [B] to demonstrate and argue.

  [C] to interest and entertain.    [D] to explain and inform.

  Part B

  本部分内容请参见Part B(二)

  Part C

  Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  The old adage of the title has a parallel in the scientific world“all research leads to biomedical advances”。 The fact that research in one discipline contributes to another is well understood by the scientific community. It is not, however, so clear to the public or to public policy-makers. (46) Because public support for funding of biomedical research is strong, the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science by articulating how research in other disciplines benefits biological medicine.

  The time is ripe to improve public appreciation of science. A recent National Science Foundation survey suggested that Americans continue to support research expenditures. In addition, public opinion polls indicate that scientists and science leaders enjoy enviably high public esteems. (47) Instead of lamenting the lack of public understanding of science, we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research by showing how investigations are in many areas close-knit and contribute to biomedical advances. A crucial task is to convey to the public, in easily understood terms, the specific benefits and the overall good that result from research in all areas of science.

  Take, for example, agricultural research. (48) On the surface, it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances, except those directly related to human nutrition. This view is incorrect, however. In the case of nutrition, the connections between agricultural and biomedical research are best exemplified by the vitamin discoveries. (49) At the turn of the century, when the concept of vitamins had not yet surfaced and nutrition as a scientific discipline did not exist, it was in a department of agricultural chemistry that the first true demonstration of vitamins was made. Single-grain feeding experiments documented the roles of vitamins A and B. The essential role of some minerals (iron and copper) was shown later, and these discoveries provided the basis of modern human nutrition research.

  (50) Despite such direct links, however, it is the latest discoveries that have been made in agricultural research that reveal its true importance to biomedicine. Life-saving antibiotics such as streptomycin were discovered in soil microorganisms. The first embryo transplant was made in a dairy cow, and related research led to advances in the understanding of human reproduction.


  Part A


  Direction:Yesterday you learnt in a newspaper advertisement that there is a job vacancy in a foreign-owned company. A secretary for the manager is needed. Write a letter to its personnel department, and

  1) show your desire for the position,

  2) describe your experiencerelated abilities,

  3) and express your wish for a job interview.

  Part B



  Good Neighbors

  A. Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in no less than 200 words.

  B. Your essay must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:

  1) describe the cartoon,

  2) and point out its implications in our life.

  Part B (二)

  Sample One

  Directions:In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  As more and more material from other cultures became available, European scholars came to recognize even greater complexity in mythological traditions. Especially valuable was the evidence provided by ancient Indian and Iranian texts such as the Bhagavad-Gita and the Zend-A-vesta. From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely, not only by geographical region but also by historical period. (41) . He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the concerns of a basic agricultural community, whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.

  Scholars also attempted to tie various myths of the world together in some way. From the late 18th century through the early 19th century, the comparative study of languages had led to the reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language to account for striking similarities among the various languages of Europe and the Near East. These languages, scholars concluded, belonged to an Indo-European language family. Experts on mythology likewise searched for a parent mythology that presumably stood behind the mythologies of all the European peoples. (42) . For example, an expression like“maiden dawn”for“sunrise”resulted first in personification of the dawn, and then in myths about her.

  Later in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars researched on the history of mythology, much as they would dig fossil-bearing geological formations, for remains from the distant past. (43) . Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough. According to Frazer‘s scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces ( magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science)。

  The research of British scholar William Robertson Smith, published in Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), also influenced Frazer. Through Smith‘s work, Frazer came to believe that many myths had their origin in the ritual practices of ancient agricultural peoples, for whom the annual cycles of vegetation were of central importance. (44) . This approach reached its most extreme form in the so-called functionalism of British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who held that every myth implies a ritual, and every ritual implies a myth.

  Most analyses of myths in the 18th and 19th centuries showed a tendency to reduce myths to some essential core-whether the seasonal cycles of nature, historical circumstances, or ritual. That core supposedly remained once the fanciful elements of the narratives had been stripped away. In the 20th century, investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves. (45) .

  [A] German-born British scholar Max Muller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India—the oldest preserved body of literature written in an Indo-European language—reflected the earliest stages of an Indo-European mythology. Muller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.

  [B] The myth and ritual theory, as this approach came to be called, was developed most fully by British scholar Jan Ellen Harrison. Using insight gained from the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, Harrison argued that all myths have their origin in collective rituals of a society.

  [C] Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud held that myths—like dreams—condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.

  [D] This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.

  [E] The studies made in this period were consolidated in the work of German scholar Christian Gottlob Heyne, who was the first scholar to use the Latin term myths ( instead of fabular , meaning“fable”) to refer to the tales of heroes and gods.

  [F] German scholar Karl Offried Muller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology, 1825.

  Sample Two

  Directions:The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] These issues cut right across traditional religious dogma. Many people cling to the belief that the origin of life required a unique divine act. But if life on Earth is not unique, the case for a miraculous origin would be undermined. The discovery of even a humble bacterium on Mars, if it could be shown to have arisen independently from Earth life would support the view that life emerges naturally.

  [B] Contrary to popular belief, speculation that we are not alone in the universe is as old as philosophy itself. The essential steps in the reasoning were based on the atomic theory of the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus. First, the laws of nature are universal. Second, there is nothing special or privileged about Earth. Finally, if something is possible, nature tends to make it happen. Philosophy is one thing, filling in the physical details is another. Although astronomers increasingly suspect that bio-friendly planets may be abundant in the universe, the chemical steps leading to life remain largely mysterious.

  [C] There is, however, a contrary view—one that is gaining strength and directly challenges orthodox biology. It is that complexity can emerge spontaneously through a process of selforganization. If matter and energy have an inbuilt tendency to amplify and channel organized complexity, the odds against the formation of life and the subsequent evolution of intelligence could be drastically shortened. The relevance of self-organization to biology remains hotly debated. It suggests, however, that although the universe as a whole may be dying, an opposite, progressive trend may also exist as a fundamental property of nature. The emergence of extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life, is a key test for these rival paradigms.

  [D] Similar reasoning applies to evolution. According to the orthodox view, Darwinian selection is utterly blind. Any impression that the transition from microbes to man represents progress is pure chauvinism of our part. The path of evolution is merely a random walk through the realm of possibilities. If this is right, there can be no directionality, no innate drive forward; in particular, no push toward consciousness and intelligence. Should Earth be struck by an asteroid, destroying all higher life-forms, intelligent beings, still less humanoids, would almost certainly not arise next time around.

  [E] Traditionally, biologists believed that life is a freak—the result of a zillion-to-one accidental concatenation of molecules. It follows that the likelihood of its happening again elsewhere in the cosmos is infinitesimal. This viewpoint derives from the second law of thermodynamics, which predicts that the universe is dying-slowly and inexorably degenerating toward a state of total chaos. Life stumbles across this trend only because it is a pure statistical luck.

  [F] Historically, the Roman Catholic church regarded any discussion of alien life as heresy. Speculating about other inhabited worlds was one reason philosopher Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in 1600. Belief that mankind has a special relationship with God is central to the monotheistic religions. The existence of alien beings, especially if they were further advanced than humans intellectually and spiritually, would disrupt this cozy view.

  [G] The discovery of life beyond earth would transform not only our science but also our religions, our belief systems and our entire world view. For in a sense, the search for extraterrestrial life is really a search for ourselves—who we are and what our place is in the grand sweep of the cosmos.


  G 41 42 43 44 45 F

  Sample Three

  Direction:You are going to read a text about the season for relief, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Winter‘s harsh weather, shorter hours of daylight and family demands can all aggravate feelings of stress. According to Dr. Paul Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, one Midwestern headache clinic reported that complaints of tension and migraine headaches increased 40 percent from Thanksgiving to Christmas, compared with other sixweek periods during the year.

  Many physicians are now trained in techniques to relieve tension and stress. But which strategies do they themselves use? Here top health professionals reveal their favorite stressbusters. Six in all, they are:

  (41) Soothe with food. When nutritional biochemist Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food. But in her case, it‘s a healthy rice cake or two.

  (42) Run from your problem. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper handles his own stress with a daily afterwork run.

  (43) Check your perspective. Driving in for a busy day as a MayoClinic stress-management expert, psychologist John Taylor saw the oil-maintenance light pop on in his minivan. He faced a nonstop schedule of patients and had to pick up his three-year-old after work.“I felt myself tense up,”recalls Taylor, who then tried his quick stress-busting strategy. He asked himself, Is this a matter of life or death? No. The oil could safely be changed the next week.

  (44) Look to the light side. On his way to the hospital where his father was to undergo surgery, author and educator Joel Goodman shared a hotel courtesy van with the anxious relatives of several patients. The driver began telling his stressed-out passengers a few jokes.“Then he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,”Goodman says.“In that five-minute ride he taught us that humor can relieve our stress.”The surgery was successful.

  (45) Take a timeout. A major cause of anxiety is an overloaded schedule. It‘s one source of stress you can ward off by preparing ahead.

  Say a little prayer. Psychologist and medical scientist Joan Bprysenko of Boulder, Colo., maintains that since most people spend too much time agonizing over the past or worrying about the future, the key to lessening stress is learning how to live emotionally in the present.

  “It helps to have some ritual to do this,”says Borysenko. For her the most relaxing ritual is“each morning when I pray.”Prayer has been shown to reduce the impact of stress hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline.

  But remember, says Borysenko, doctors can‘t turn on their patient’“internal healing system”。 That inner clam is up to you. So you‘re sick of stress, heal thyself.

  [A] Williams counts himself among the 20 percent of adults whose susceptibility to anger is high enough to threaten their health. But everyone can try his approach to handling the stressors that set anger off—and it needn‘t be in a work environment.

  [B]“Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress and make the transition into family time,”says the expert. But, he cautions, don‘t let exercise itself become a stress. Even moderate activity—such as a daily 30 minute walk can improve health and mood.“That’s why I tell my patients to be sure to walk their dog every day,”he says with a chuckle,“even if they don‘t have one.”

  [C]“My research suggests that carbohydrates raise levels of the mood-regulating brain chemical serotonin, which exerts a calming effect on the entire body,”says the M.I.T research scientist.“So symptoms of stress—such as anger, tension, irritability and inability to concentrate—are eased.”

  [D] He tells patients to do only those tasks that would have serious consequences if left undone.“Will you die if you don‘t do the laundry?”he asks. Taking at least half an hour a day to do something you enjoy, he notes, lets you recharge you batteries. Especially around the holidays, skip some routine chores to make time for family and friends.

  [E] When cardiologist Ray Rosenman was associate chief of medicine at San Francisco‘s Mount Zion Hospital, he would block off half an hour a day on his schedule.“If an emergency came up, I moved patients into that slot,”says Rosenman, co-author of Type A Behavior and Your Heart.“Or used that half-hour to return calls or go through my mail. You can’t control everything, but you can control your schedule to create some breathing space for yourself.”

  [F] He was so moved by his experience that he researched laughter‘s power.“A good laugh relaxes muscles, lowers blood pressure, suppresses stress-related hormones and enhances the immune system,”he says. In his workshops he tells clients to ask themselves how their favorite comedian would see this stressful situation.

  Sample Four

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text about explorations into maple lores. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] The influence of maples on the Canadian culture.

  [B] The token of maples in Canada.

  [C] Contemplation of global distribution of maples.

  [D] The triumph of Nokomis over the devils with the help of maples.

  [E] The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.

  [F] The maple signals the approach of fall.

  The maple smoke of autumn bonfires is incense to Canadians. Bestowing perfume for the nose, color for the eye, sweetness for the spring tongue, the sugar maple prompts this sharing of a favorite myth and original etymology of the word maple.


  The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales. The time of year for sugaringoff is“in the Maple Moon.”Among Ojibwa, the primordial female figure is Nokomis, a wise grandmother. In one tale about seasonal change, cannibal wendigos-creatures of evil—chased old Nokomis through the autumn countryside. Wendigos throve in icy cold. When they entered the bodies of humans, the human heart froze solid. Here wendigos represent oncoming winter. They were hunting to kill and eat poor Nokomis, the warm embodiment of female fecundity who, like the summer, has grown old.


  Knowing this was a pursuit to the death, Nokomis outsmarted the cold devils. She hid in a stand of maple trees, all red and orange and deep yellow. This maple grove grew beside a waterfall whose mist blurred the trees‘outline. As they peered through the mist, slavering wendigos thought they saw a raging fire in which their prey was burning. But it was only old Nokomis being hidden by the bright red leaves of her friends, the maples. And so, drooling ice and huffing frost, the wendigos left her and sought easier prey. For their service in saving the earth mother’s life, these maples were given a special gift: their water of life would be forever sweet, and Canadians would tap it for nourishment.


  Maple and its syrup flow sweetly into Canadian humor. Quebeckers have the standard sirop d‘erable for maple syrup, but add a feisty insult to label imitation syrups that are thick with glucose glop. They call this sugary imposter sirop de Poteau“telephonepole syrup”or dead tree syrup.


  The contention that maple syrup is unique to North America is suspect, I believe. China has close to 10 species of maple, more than any country in the world. Canada has 10 native species. North America does happen to be home to the sugar maple, the species that produces the sweetest sap and the most abundant flow. But are we to believe that in thousands of years of Chinese history, these inventive people never tapped a maple to taste its sap? I speculate that they did. Could Proto-Americas who crossed the Bering land bridge to populate the Americas have brought with them a knowledge of maple syrup? Is there a very old Chinese phrase for maple syrup? Is maple syrup mentioned in Chinese literature? For a non-reader of Chinese, such questions are daunting but not impossible to answer.


  What is certain is the maple‘s holdfast on our national imagination. Its leaf was adopted as an emblem in New France as early as 1700, and in English Canada by the mid-19th century. In the fall of 1867, a Toronto schoolteacher named Alexander Muir was traipsing a street at the city, all squelchy underfoot from the soft felt of falling leaves, when a maple leaf alighted to his coat sleeve and stuck there. At home that evening, he wrote a poem and set it to music, in celebration of Canada’s Confederation. Muir‘s song,“The Maple Leaf Forever,”was wildly popular and helped fasten the symbol firmly to Canada.

  The word“maple”is from“mapeltreow”, the Old English term for maple tree, with“mapl”—as its ProtoGermanic root, a compound in which the first“m”—is, I believe, the nearly worldwide“ma”, one of the first human sounds, the pursing of a baby‘s lips as it prepares to suck milk from mother’s breast. The“ma”root gives rise in many world languages to thousands of words like“mama”,“mammary”,“maia”, and“Amazon.”Here it would make“mapl”mean“nourishing mother tree,”that is, tree whose maple sap in nourishing. The second part of the compound,“apl”, is a variant of IndoEuropean able“fruit of any tree”and the origin of another English fruit word, apple. So the primitive analogy compares the liquid sap with another nourishing liquid, mother‘s milk.

  SectionⅠUse of English


  本文是一篇论说文。文章的主题是“英才通才教育”。作者在文章开头就提出了一个具有选择性的问题:“如果我们只是需要决定是把基本的科学传授给每个人,还是找一些有才华的人,引领他们变得更出色,那么我们的工作将会相当容易。”随后作者从“the education in public school, the balance among the branches of knowledge and the balance between current and classical knowledge”三个方面来论述在教育中保持知识平衡的重要性。解读文章时注意作者的客观态度。



  「解析」“选择”。根据文章一致性原则,“choice”与文章第一句中的“decide决定”形成呼应,根据原文“decide whether……or……”所以下文就应该是对其有所“选择choice”或没有“选择choice”。而选项[A]“(与属性区别的)本质:the entity of justice正义的本质”,[B]“拍卖;(某些纸牌戏中的)叫牌;叫牌阶段”,[D]“结合体,联合;(政党、个人、国家等)临时结成的联盟”是本题的干扰,均不形成呼应,不符合题意。


  「解析」“因为”。“for”与文章第一段第三句中的“Because we depend……”构成搭配,均表示解释原因。而选项[A][B][C]均不用于解释原因,不符合原文意思。


  「解析」“坚持下去;继续下去”。“carry on”与原文中的“at the same time同时”是一种搭配,而且根据原文意思:“由于这种工作必须同时继续下去”,所以选择“carry on”。而选项[A]“carry off拿走,搬走;抓走;夺走;致……死亡”,[B]“carry forward推进,使前进”,[C]“carry away拿走,搬走;抢走;冲走,卷走;使激动而失去自制力;吸引住”均不符合题意。




  「解析」“进步;发展;进展”。根据文章的一致性,“progress”与上文的“as far as they can go”构成呼应。而选项[A]“刺激;鼓舞;激励”,[B]“转换,转变;(轮)班,(换)班”,[D]“魔力;魔法;魅力”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。


  「解析」“因为”。根据文章的一致性,“because”与上句的“Because we depend……”形成句子结构的一致性。而选项[A][B][D]均不构成句子的一致性,不符合题意。


  「解析」“民主主义的;民主政体的;平民的”。根据文章一致性原则,“democratic”与“whose citizens”形成一种照应。而选项[A]“繁荣的;富裕的;兴旺的”,[C]“受过教育的;有学识的”,[D]“兴隆的;兴旺的;繁荣的”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。


  「解析」“when”。根据原文,在文章开头作者就用假设的手法提出了问题“if……whether……or”,而“when”表达的是对可能出现的某种情况的回答,即对“if”的假设问题的回答,所以选择“when”。而选项[A]“unless除非;除外”,[B]“in case万一”,[D]“only仅仅”均不符合题意。




  「解析」“用户;使用者”。根据文章一致性,“users”与原文第一句中的“a mass basis”形成呼应,而且“users使用者”与原文中的“producers生产者”形成一种搭配。而选项[A]“购者;订阅者”,[C]“过路人;路人”,[D]“受害者;牺牲品”均不形成一致性,不符合题意。


  「解析」“在(三者或三者以上)……之间”。根据上下文,上文提到的“science and technology”、“in many fields”以及下文的“the branches of”可知应填入“among”。而选项[A]“amid在……中间,被……围绕”,[B]“between在(两者)……之间”,[C]“upon在……之上”均不符合题意。


  「解析」“知识”。根据上文第一句提到的“teach elementary science”,“knowledge”与“teach”形成搭配。而选项[B]“数据”,[C]“智力”,[D]“探索;探询”均不符合题意。






  「解析」“问题”。根据全文的第一句“If it were only……whether……or……”,该句是提问式的句子,是需要做出回答的问题,所以选择“question”。而选项[A]“小事件;事件”,[C]“推论;推理;暗示”,[D]“冲击;冲突;影响”均不符合原文意思。










  「解析」“教学;课程;教程”。根据文章一致性原则,“courses”与全文第一句中的“elementary science”形成呼应,而选项[A]“场地;背景”,[C]“教义,教条,主义”,[D]“(分)定额,限额,配额;定量”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A  Text 1


  这篇文章采用的是一种对比的思维模式。本文讲述了关于DNA遗传技术本身涉及的道德和道义问题。作者在第1自然段引用了弗兰肯斯坦博士所创造的一个怪物,从而引出了DNA的道义问题和道德问题,并提出一个问题即我们要不要去形成一种新的道德哲学观呢。之后在第2自然段作者对该问题做出了回答,说不用,其实在一千年以前康德就说过个体不应该作为一种达到目的的手段。在第3自然段作者批判了为达到目的而把DNA技术当作手段的问题。在第4自然段作者对比性地说明了,关于个人以及国家究竟谁来控制DNA的问题,在第5自然段作者又对比了人和机械之间的差异性。文章的关键词为“alter our DNA radically”、“lifeforms”、“moral issue”、“reproduce”、“moral philosophies”等等。



  「解析」题干问:“本文引用弗兰肯斯坦博士所说的话的目的是为了……”。此题可以定位在第1自然段,且文章1、2、3段反复强调“moral philosophies”,因此选项[D]“引入生物技术中所存在的道德问题的话题”为正确选项。而选项[A]“给出DNA技术突破的精彩的一页”,选项[B]“强调手段对达到一种永久目的的重要性”和选项[C]“显示出他是如何在一千年前创造一种新的生命形式”都与原文不相符,不是作者引用的目的















  Text 2


  本文是一篇关于睡眠方面的研究性的文章。文章第1自然段说好睡眠是相当重要的,而没有必要在考前努力地研读课本,那么关于这种古训毫无疑问是正确的,而人们没有搞清楚的是为什么睡眠对记忆有好处,我们知道它好,却不知道它为什么好。随后作者通过文章第2、3、4、5段的科学实验,进一步澄清说明睡眠的确对于记忆是有好处的。文章的关键词为“sound night‘s sleep”、“science”、“behavioral psychology”、“memory”以及“brainwave”等等。


















  Text 3







  「解析」题干问:“在句子‘since they could place’中的‘they’所指的是……”。正确选项为[B]“回答”,对该句进行句型分析后,得出“they”指代的对象为前面的“answers”,“answer”为在听证会上的回答。选项[A]“赔偿金”,选项[C]“决定”和选项[D]“问题”都与原文语境不相符合。




  「解析」题干问:“像文中所提到的,星期三的听证会的主题是……”。在4、5、6、7段反复讲到了美国航空航天局拒绝接受军事部门提供的卫星图像,此题可以定位在第5段的最后一句,“The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday‘s hearing”,该句中的“subject”指的就是美国航空航天局拒绝接受军事部门提供的卫星图像,因此选项[C]“美国航空航天局拒绝了军事部门提供的卫星图像”为正确选项。而选项[A]“轨道中情报卫星的一种精确能力”,选项[B]“美国航空航天局没有作出决定反对对哥伦比亚号的检测”和选项[D]“美国航空航天局和军事部门的合作”,尽管文中都有所提及,但却不是这次听证会所解决的问题和焦点。




  在事故发生后的三个多月也就是本月初,这宗调查才开始,原因是有“太多的情绪和自负”,哥伦比亚号事故调查委员会的主席Harold Gehman如是说道。









  Text 4


  本文讲述的中心是关于接种疫苗与防止传染病的重要性。第2自然段讲述了接种疫苗后整个免疫系统的应付过程,第3自然段阐述的是接种疫苗可能存在的危险。最后一段对比分析接种疫苗所带来的好处以及不足之处。本文的关键词为“disease of epidemic”、“populace”、“vaccination”等等。







  「解析」题干问:“这个短语‘ward it off naturally’最可能的意思是……”。文中第2自然段讲述了在接种疫苗后,身体自然可以跟这种疾病进行对抗。因此选项[B]“很轻松地与之对抗”为正确选项。而选项[A]“自然地将其排除”,选项[C]“很不情愿地去管理它”和选项[D]“恰当地分解它”都不符合第二段所谈论的一个原理。










  Part B

  本部分内容请参见Part B(二)答案解析及参考译文

  Part C




  46.本句的句子主干结构为“……the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science……”,其中“Because……is strong”为because引导的原因状语从句,“by articulating……”为方式状语,在该方式状语中how引导“articulate”的宾语从句。

  47.本句的句子主干结构为“……we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research……”,其中“by showing……”为方式状语,在该方式状语中how引导“show”的宾语从句。

  48.本句为简单句。句子的主干结构为“……it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances……”,在该句中“related to human nutrition”为形容词短语作后置定语,修饰前面的“those.”

  49.本句的主句为“it was……that”的强调句型,其中“at the turn of the century”为时间状语,该时间状语包含一个when引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰前面的“the turn of the century”,该定语从句为连词and连接的并列结构。

  50.本句为主从复合句。句子的主干结构为“……it is the latest discoveries……that reveal its true importance to biomedicine”,该主句为“it was……that”的强调句型,“that have been made in agricultural research”为that引导的限制性定语从句,修饰前面的“discoveries.”








  Part A


  Dear Sir,

  I write this letter to inquire about the post your company advertised in the newspaper yesterday. I intend to apply for the job vacancy of the manager‘s secretary. I’m very interested in the job.

  I think I have the needed qualifications for the position in your business. I‘m good at short hand, and my spoken English is much fluent. And above all, I have enough experience for the job because I once worked as a secretary in another foreignowned enterprise. I strongly believe I’m extremely well qualified for the job.

  I‘ve learned your company enjoys good reputation and shows great promise worldwide. I wish to get an interview opportunity. I’m expecting an early reply from your company.



  Part B


  This cartoon presents in front of us a sharp contrast between two types of neighbors. The two pet neighbors greet each other politely and amiably while the two lonely human neighbors seem to ignore each other. When we take a walk in any of the cities in the modern society, we can often observe such a sad scene in which social interactions have been grievously diminishing.

  There are more and more urban residents who love raising pets. Pet-keeping is becoming increasingly pervasive because a pet may be a companion for old people, a friend for young couples, and a playing toy for children. Believe it or not, pets are such an inseparable part in their daily life that they often devote lots of energy, time and money to taking care of the needs of their loved animals. Small wonder, such devotion to pet-raising points to a truth of great importance today—loneliness in a busy world.

  Since most people have to live on an on-the-move lifestyle, they are probably denied opportunities to share their feelings with their friends and relatives. Whereas pets will be good listeners. Where there are so many dishonesties going around, they must stay with a dog, which is likely to be faithful to them. It seems that an individual is being ridiculous if he starts conversations with his neighbors, so he often has no alternative but to enjoy the company of pets. That‘s why the scene depicted in the cartoon is not uncommon in our daily life.

  Our life would be, of course, enjoyable if we have pets. But we would enjoy much more meaningful life if the two human neighbors started a talk to each other in a friendly way, just like the two dogs.











  Part B (二)答案解析及参考译文

  Sample One



  「解析」空格前面的句子说“From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely,not only by geographical region but also by historical period.”,空格后面的句子说“He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the economics of a basic agricultural community,whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该是在讲神话的特点,并且会提到某位学者。选项F中说“German scholar Karl Offried Muller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology,1825.”,这与前后句子的意思连贯,所以应该选F.虽然选项[A]、[C]、[D]中也都提到了学者,但是,其意思与前后句子不连贯,所以不能选用。


  「解析」空格前面的句子说“These languages,scholars concluded,belonged to an Indo-European language family……”,空格后面的句子说“For example,an expression like‘maiden dawn’for‘sunrise’resulted first in personification of the dawn,and then in myths about her.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该会提到“Indo.European language”。并且会说明人们的误解。选项[A]中说“German-born British scholar Max Muller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India—the oldest preserved body of literature written in an IndoEuropean language…… Muller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.”,这与前后句子的意思连贯。并且也提到了“Indo-European language”,所以应该选[A].


  「解析」空格后面的句子说“Similarly,British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a threestage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该是在讲学者们的研究方法。选项[D]中说“This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor.…Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.”,这与后面句子的意思连贯,所以应该选[D].


  「解析」空格后面的句子说“This approach reached its most extreme form in the socalled functionalism of British anthropologist A.R.Radcliffe.Brown,who held that every myth implies a ritual,and every ritual implies a myth.”,由此可知:前面的句子应该会介绍某种理论,并且会提到“myth”和“ritual”。选项[B]中说“The myth and ritual theory,as this approach came to be called,was developed most fully by British scholar Jan E1len Harrison.……”,这与后面句子的意思连贯,所以应该选[B].选项[D]虽然也提到了某种方式,但是与后面句子的意思不连贯,所以不能选用。


  「解析」空格前面的句子说“In the 20th century,investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves.”。由此可知:所填的句子应该是讲现代的研究。只有选项[C]中表达的“Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud held that myths—like dreams—condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.”是现代的研究,所以应该选[C].







  Sample Two


  41.[B]  42.[E]  43.[D]  44.[C]  45.[A]





  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,本语段的话题为“哲学对于其他生命状态的探索”。其二,本语段的第1个句子中的“we are not alone”紧密地承接了第1自然段的内容。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了总分关系,即“改变观点”和“世界观”。


  「解析」其一,本语段的话题为“生物学对于其他生命状态的阐释”。其二,本语段的第1个句子中的“biologists”和“molecules”承接了上一段最后一句的内容,即“chemical steps”。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了对比与比较关系,即“哲学与生物学对于外层生命状态的观点”。


  「解析」其一,本语段的话题为“进化”。其二,本语段的第1个句子承接了上一个段落的内容。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了“比较”关系,段首的“similar reasoning”为逻辑连接表达。




  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,本语段的话题为“问题的争议”。其二,本语段的第1个句子承接了上一个自然段最后一句的内容,“issues (争议)”与“rival paradigms(争议)”构成了衔接性的照应。其三,本段与上文构成了总结关系,而且从最后一个段落来看,也能构成上下文的一致和连贯。









  Sample Three







  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题概念来看,选项中的“aerobic exercise”与原文中的“run”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据说明的就是锻炼对于缓解压力的功能。其三,注意本语段“锻炼”概念在原文的表达方式分析。




  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题概念来看,选项中的“laughter”、“comedian”与原文中的“the light side”、“joke”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据阐明了轻松看待问题的效果。其三,注意分析本语段中“幽默”概念的相关表达。


  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“some breathing space”与原文中的“a timeout”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据说明的就是留给自己休息时间对减轻压力的重要性。其三,注意分析各个发展段落与全文第1、2自然段之间的内在的、分析性的思维关系。














  Sample Four





  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.”与原文段落的“The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales”构成同义转述的关系。其二,从分析性思维的角度来看,本段详尽地谈论了一个被受欢迎的传说。其三,本语段承接了上文所引出的关于枫树传说的话题。













  (4)枫树和枫糖浆甜蜜地进入了加拿大式幽默之中。魁北克省人以“sirop d‘erable”亲切地称呼枫糖浆,而对各种含有黏乎乎葡萄糖液的仿制枫糖浆,总要加上一个带强烈贬意的词,把这种含糖的“冒牌货”叫作“sirop de Poteau”,意为“电线杆糖浆”或“死树糖浆”。




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