2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二

日期:12-30| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:172

2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二 SectionⅠUse of English

  Directions:Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  If it were only necessary to decide whether to teach elementary science to everyone on a mass basis or to find the gifted few and take them as far as they can go, our task would be fairly simple. The public school system, however, has no such 1 , 2 the jobs must be carried 3 at the same time. Because we depend so 4 upon science and technology for our 5, we must produce specialists in many fields. 6 we live in a 7 nation, whose citizens make the policies for the nation, large numbers of us must be educated to understand, to uphold, and 8 necessary, to judge the work of 9. The public school must educate both producers and 10 of scientific services.

  In education, there should be a good balance 11 the branches of 12 that contribute to effective thinking and 13 judgment. Such balance is defeated by 14 much emphasis on any one field. This 15 of balance involves not only the 16 of the natural sciences, the social sciences and the arts but also relative emphasis among the natural sciences themselves.

  17, we must have a balance between current and 18 knowledge. The attention of the public is continually drawn to new 19 in scientific fields and the discovery of new knowledge; these should not be allowed to turn our attention away from the sound, established materials that form the basis of 20 for beginners.

  1.[A] entity   [B] auction   [C] choice   [D] coalition

  2.[A] whereas   [B] though   [C] while   [D] for

  3.[A] off   [B] forward   [C] away   [D] on

  4.[A] substantially   [B] heavily   [C] equally [  D] misleadingly

  5.[A] stimulation   [B] shift   [C] progress   [D] glamour

  6.[A] If [B] Although   [C] Because   [D] Supposing

  7.[A] prosperous   [B] democratic   [C] literate   [D] thriving

  8.[A] unless   [B] in case   [C] when   [D] only

  9.[A] experts   [B] populace   [C] voters   [D] mob

  10.[A] subscribers   [B] users   [C] passers-by   [D] victims

  11.[A] amid   [B] between   [C] upon   [D] among

  12.[A] knowledge   [B] data   [C] intelligence   [D] quest

  13.[A] fair   [B] wise   [C] risky   [D] proper

  14.[A] too   [B] fairly   [C] very   [D] rather

  15.[A] incident   [B] question   [C] inference   [D] impact

  16.[A] reaction   [B] cooperation   [C] interaction   [D] relation

  17.[A] Conversely   [B] Similarly   [C] Accordingly   [D] Presumably

  18.[A] primitive   [B] ultimate   [C] classical   [D] initial

  19.[A] possibilities   [B] capabilities   [C] abilities   [D] responsibilities

  20.[A] grounds   [B] courses   [C] doctrines   [D] quotas

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  In the next century we‘ll be able to alter our DNA radically, encoding our visions and vanities while concocting new life-forms. When Dr. Frankenstein made his monster, he wrestled with the moral issue of whether he should allow it to reproduce,“Had I the right, for my own benefit, to inflict the curse upon everlasting generations?”Will such questions require us to develop new moral philosophies?

  Probably not. Instead, we‘ll reach again for a timetested moral concept, one sometimes called the Golden Rule and which Kant, the millennium’s most prudent moralist, conjured up into a categorical imperative: Do unto others as you would have them do unto you; treat each person as an individual rather than as a means to some end.

  Under this moral precept we should recoil at human cloning, because it inevitably entails using humans as means to other humans‘ends and valuing them as copies of others we loved or as collections of body parts, not as individuals in their own right. We should also draw a line, however fuzzy, that would permit using genetic engineering to cure diseases and disabilities but not to change the personal attributes that make someone an individual (IQ, physical appearance, gender and sexuality)。

  The biotech age will also give us more reason to guard our personal privacy. Aldous Huxley in Brave New World, got it wrong: rather than centralizing power in the hands of the state, DNA technology has empowered individuals and families. But the state will have an important role, making sure that no one, including insurance companies, can look at our genetic data without our permission or use it to discriminate against us.

  Then we can get ready for the breakthroughs that could come at the end of the next century and the technology is comparable to mapping our genes: plotting the 10 billion or more neurons of our brain. With that information we might someday be able to create artificial intelligences that think and experience consciousness in ways that are indistinguishable from a human brain. Eventually we might be able to replicate our own minds in a“dryware”machine, so that we could live on without the“wetware”of a biological brain and body. The 20th century‘s revolution in infotechnology will thereby merge with the 21st century’s revolution in biotechnology. But this is science fiction. Let‘s turn the page now and get back to real science.

  21.Dr. Frankenstein‘s remarks are mentioned in the text

  [A] to give an episode of the DNA technological breakthroughs.

  [B] to highlight the importance of a means to some everlasting ends.

  [C] to show how he created a new form of life a thousand years ago.

  [D] to introduce the topic of moral philosophies incurred in biotechnology.

  22.It can be concluded from the text that the technology of human cloning should be employed

  [A] excessively and extravagantly.     [B] reasonably and cautiously.

  [C] aggressively and indiscriminately.    [D] openly and enthusiastically.

  23.From the text, we learn that Aldous Huxley is of the opinion that

  [A] DNA technology should be placed in the charge of individuals.

  [B] government should assume less control over individuals.

  [C] people need government to protect their DNA information.

  [D] old moral precepts should be abolished on human cloning.

  24.Judged from the information in the last paragraph, we can predict that the author is likely to write which of the following in the next section?

  [A] The reflection upon biotechnological morality.

  [B] The offensive invasion of our personal privacy.

  [C] The inevitable change of IQs for our descendants.

  [D] The present state of biotechnological research.

  25.According to the last paragraph,“dry-ware”is to“wet-ware”as

  [A]“collective”to“individual”。    [B]“fictional”to“factual”。

  [C]“mechanical”to“corporeal”。   [D]“temporary”to“permanent”。

  Text 2

  Before a big exam, a sound night‘s sleep will do you more good than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is the folk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is when permanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then“edited”at night, to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after a decade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. The particular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested in is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brain and body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as if watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that people are most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task during the day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, in response to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster. What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern—what is referred to as“artificial grammar”。 Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was present than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn (i.e., the“grammar”, as well as the mechanical task of pushing the button) have more active brains. The“editing”theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuli would be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposed to unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, on the eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the next day are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

  26.Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses.

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness.

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory.

   [D] the functions of a good night‘s sleep.

  27.As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by

  [A] intensely active brainwave traces.   [B] subjects‘quicker response times.

  [C] complicated memory patterns.    [D] revival of events in the previous day.

  28.By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show

  [A] its significance in the study.   [B] an inherent pattern being learnt.

  [C] its resemblance to the lights.   [D] the importance of night‘s sleep.

  29.In their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of

  [A] exposing a long-held folk wisdom.   [B] clarifying the predictions on dreams.

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons.   [D] correlating effects with their causes.

  30.What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

  Text 3

  This line of inquiry did not begin until earlier this month—more than three months after the accident—because there were“too many emotions, too many egos,”said retired Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  Testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee, Gehman said this part of his inquiry was in its earliest stages, starting just 10 days ago. But Gehman said he already has concluded it is“inconceivable”that NASA would have been unable or unwilling to attempt a rescue for astronauts in orbit if senior shuttle managers and administrators had known there was fatal damage to Columbia‘s left wing.

  Gehman told reporters after the hearing that answers to these important questions could have enormous impact, since they could place in a different context NASA‘s decisions against more aggressively checking possible wing damage in the days before Columbia’s fatal return.

  Investigators believe breakaway insulating foam damaged part of Columbia‘s wing shortly after liftoff, allowing superheated air to penetrate the wing during its fiery reentry on Feb.1, melt it from inside.

  Among those decisions was the choice by NASA‘s senior shuttle managers and administrators to reject offers of satellite images of possible damage to Columbia’s left wing before the accident. The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday‘s hearing.

  Gehman complained managers and administrators“missed signals”when they rejected those offers for images, a pointedly harsh assessment of the space agency‘s inaction during the 16-day shuttle mission.

  “We will attempt to pin this issue down in our report, but there were a number of bureaucratic and administrative missed signals here,”Gehman told senators.“We‘re not quite so happy with the process.”

  The investigative board already had recommended that NASA push for better coordination between the space agency and military offices in charge of satellites and telescopes. The U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency in March agreed to regularly capture detailed satellite images of space shuttles in orbit.

  Still, Gehman said it was unclear whether even images from America‘s most sophisticated spy satellites might have detected on Columbia’s wing any damage, which Gehman said could have been as small as two inches square. The precise capabilities of such satellites proved to be a sensitive topic during the Senate hearing.

  31.This text is most probably taken from an article entitled“ ”。

  [A] Gehman‘s Comments on Columbia Accident.

  [B] An Inquiry into Columbia Accident.

  [C] Shedding Light on Shuttle‘s Safety.

  [D] NASA’s Problems Being Exposed.

  32.The word“they”in the sentence“since they could place”(Para.3) denotes

  [A]“damages”。   [B]“answers”。   [C]“decisions”。   [D]“questions”。

  33.According to the writer, what may chiefly be responsible for the Columbia accident?

  [A] A supposed damage to the left wing of the spacecraft.

  [B] The deliberate rejection of satellite images.

  [C] A sense of sentiment and arrogance involved.

  [D] The space agency‘s inaction during its mission.

  34.As mentioned in the text, the Wednesday‘s hearing revolved around

  [A] the precise capabilities of spy satellites in orbit.

  [B] NASA‘s indecisions against checking upon the Columbia.

  [C] NASA‘s rejection of satellite images offered.

  [D] the coordination between NASA and military offices.

  35.Which of the following can best describe Gehman‘s attitude towards satellite images?

  [A] Apprehensive.   [B] Credulous.   [C] Indifferent.   [D] Cautious.

  Text 4

  When a disease of epidemic proportions rips into the populace, scientists immediately get to work, trying to locate the source of the affliction and find ways to combat it. Oftentimes, success is achieved, as medical science is able to isolate the parasite, germ or cell that causes the problem and finds ways to effectively kill or contain it. In the most serious of cases, in which the entire population of a region or country may be at grave risk, it is deemed necessary to protect the entire population through vaccination, so as to safeguard lives and ensure that the disease will not spread.

  The process of vaccination allows the patient‘s body to develop immunity to the virus or disease so that, if it is encountered, one can ward it off naturally. To accomplish this, a small weak or dead strain of the disease is actually injected into the patient in a controlled environment, so that his body’s immune system can learn to fight the invader properly. Information on how to penetrate the disease‘s defenses is transmitted to all elements of the patient’s immune system in a process that occurs naturally, in which genetic information is passed from cell to cell. This makes sure that, should the patient later come into contact with the real problem, his body is well equipped and trained to deal with it, having already done so before.

  There are dangers inherent in the process, however. On occasion, even the weakened version of the disease contained in the vaccine proves too much for the body to handle, resulting in the immune system succumbing, and, therefore, the patient‘s death. Such is the case of the smallpox vaccine, designed to eradicate the smallpox epidemic that nearly wiped out the entire Native American population and killed massive numbers of settlers. Approximately 1 in 10,000 people who receives the vaccine contract the smallpox disease from the vaccine itself and dies from it. Thus, if the entire population of the United States were to receive the Smallpox Vaccine today, 3000 Americans would be left dead.

  Fortunately, the smallpox virus was considered eradicated in the early 1970‘s, ending the mandatory vaccination of all babies in America. In the event of a re-introduction of the disease, however, mandatory vaccinations may resume, resulting in more unexpected deaths from vaccination. The process, which is truly a mixed blessing, may indeed hide some hidden curses.

  36.The best title for the text may be

  [A]“Vaccinations: A Blessing or A Curse.”

  [B]“Principles of Vaccinations.”

  [C]“Vaccines: Methods and Implications.”

  [D]“A Miracle Cure Under Attack.”

  37.What does the example of the Smallpox Vaccine illustrate?

  [A] The possible negative outcome of administering vaccines.

  [B] The practical use of a vaccine to control an epidemic disease.

  [C] The effectiveness of vaccines in eradicating certain disease.

  [D] The method by which vaccines are employed against the disease.

  38.The phrase“ward it off naturally”(Paragraph 2) most probably means

  [A] dispose of it naturally.   [B] fight it off with ease.

  [C] see to it reluctantly.    [D] split it up properly.

  39.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] Saving the majority would necessarily justify the death of the minority.

  [B] The immune system can be trained to fight weaker versions of a disease.

  [C] Mandatory vaccinations are indispensable to the survival of the populace.

  [D] The process of vaccination remains a mystery to be further resolved.

  40.The purpose of the author in writing this passage is

  [A] to comment and criticize.    [B] to demonstrate and argue.

  [C] to interest and entertain.    [D] to explain and inform.

  Part B

  本部分内容请参见Part B(二)

  Part C

  Directions:Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  The old adage of the title has a parallel in the scientific world“all research leads to biomedical advances”。 The fact that research in one discipline contributes to another is well understood by the scientific community. It is not, however, so clear to the public or to public policy-makers. (46) Because public support for funding of biomedical research is strong, the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science by articulating how research in other disciplines benefits biological medicine.

  The time is ripe to improve public appreciation of science. A recent National Science Foundation survey suggested that Americans continue to support research expenditures. In addition, public opinion polls indicate that scientists and science leaders enjoy enviably high public esteems. (47) Instead of lamenting the lack of public understanding of science, we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research by showing how investigations are in many areas close-knit and contribute to biomedical advances. A crucial task is to convey to the public, in easily understood terms, the specific benefits and the overall good that result from research in all areas of science.

  Take, for example, agricultural research. (48) On the surface, it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances, except those directly related to human nutrition. This view is incorrect, however. In the case of nutrition, the connections between agricultural and biomedical research are best exemplified by the vitamin discoveries. (49) At the turn of the century, when the concept of vitamins had not yet surfaced and nutrition as a scientific discipline did not exist, it was in a department of agricultural chemistry that the first true demonstration of vitamins was made. Single-grain feeding experiments documented the roles of vitamins A and B. The essential role of some minerals (iron and copper) was shown later, and these discoveries provided the basis of modern human nutrition research.

  (50) Despite such direct links, however, it is the latest discoveries that have been made in agricultural research that reveal its true importance to biomedicine. Life-saving antibiotics such as streptomycin were discovered in soil microorganisms. The first embryo transplant was made in a dairy cow, and related research led to advances in the understanding of human reproduction.

  SectionⅢWriting

  Part A

  51.

  Direction:Yesterday you learnt in a newspaper advertisement that there is a job vacancy in a foreign-owned company. A secretary for the manager is needed. Write a letter to its personnel department, and

  1) show your desire for the position,

  2) describe your experiencerelated abilities,

  3) and express your wish for a job interview.

  Part B

  52.

  Direction:

  Good Neighbors

  A. Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in no less than 200 words.

  B. Your essay must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:

  1) describe the cartoon,

  2) and point out its implications in our life.

  Part B (二)

  Sample One

  Directions:In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  As more and more material from other cultures became available, European scholars came to recognize even greater complexity in mythological traditions. Especially valuable was the evidence provided by ancient Indian and Iranian texts such as the Bhagavad-Gita and the Zend-A-vesta. From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely, not only by geographical region but also by historical period. (41) . He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the concerns of a basic agricultural community, whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.

  Scholars also attempted to tie various myths of the world together in some way. From the late 18th century through the early 19th century, the comparative study of languages had led to the reconstruction of a hypothetical parent language to account for striking similarities among the various languages of Europe and the Near East. These languages, scholars concluded, belonged to an Indo-European language family. Experts on mythology likewise searched for a parent mythology that presumably stood behind the mythologies of all the European peoples. (42) . For example, an expression like“maiden dawn”for“sunrise”resulted first in personification of the dawn, and then in myths about her.

  Later in the 19th century the theory of evolution put forward by English naturalist Charles Darwin heavily influenced the study of mythology. Scholars researched on the history of mythology, much as they would dig fossil-bearing geological formations, for remains from the distant past. (43) . Similarly, British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a three-stage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough. According to Frazer‘s scheme, human beings first attributed natural phenomena to arbitrary supernatural forces ( magic), later explaining them as the will of the gods (religion), and finally subjecting them to rational investigation (science)。

  The research of British scholar William Robertson Smith, published in Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889), also influenced Frazer. Through Smith‘s work, Frazer came to believe that many myths had their origin in the ritual practices of ancient agricultural peoples, for whom the annual cycles of vegetation were of central importance. (44) . This approach reached its most extreme form in the so-called functionalism of British anthropologist A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, who held that every myth implies a ritual, and every ritual implies a myth.

  Most analyses of myths in the 18th and 19th centuries showed a tendency to reduce myths to some essential core-whether the seasonal cycles of nature, historical circumstances, or ritual. That core supposedly remained once the fanciful elements of the narratives had been stripped away. In the 20th century, investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves. (45) .

  [A] German-born British scholar Max Muller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India—the oldest preserved body of literature written in an Indo-European language—reflected the earliest stages of an Indo-European mythology. Muller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.

  [B] The myth and ritual theory, as this approach came to be called, was developed most fully by British scholar Jan Ellen Harrison. Using insight gained from the work of French sociologist Emile Durkheim, Harrison argued that all myths have their origin in collective rituals of a society.

  [C] Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud held that myths—like dreams—condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.

  [D] This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor. In Primitive Culture (1871), Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.

  [E] The studies made in this period were consolidated in the work of German scholar Christian Gottlob Heyne, who was the first scholar to use the Latin term myths ( instead of fabular , meaning“fable”) to refer to the tales of heroes and gods.

  [F] German scholar Karl Offried Muller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology, 1825.

  Sample Two

  Directions:The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] These issues cut right across traditional religious dogma. Many people cling to the belief that the origin of life required a unique divine act. But if life on Earth is not unique, the case for a miraculous origin would be undermined. The discovery of even a humble bacterium on Mars, if it could be shown to have arisen independently from Earth life would support the view that life emerges naturally.

  [B] Contrary to popular belief, speculation that we are not alone in the universe is as old as philosophy itself. The essential steps in the reasoning were based on the atomic theory of the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus. First, the laws of nature are universal. Second, there is nothing special or privileged about Earth. Finally, if something is possible, nature tends to make it happen. Philosophy is one thing, filling in the physical details is another. Although astronomers increasingly suspect that bio-friendly planets may be abundant in the universe, the chemical steps leading to life remain largely mysterious.

  [C] There is, however, a contrary view—one that is gaining strength and directly challenges orthodox biology. It is that complexity can emerge spontaneously through a process of selforganization. If matter and energy have an inbuilt tendency to amplify and channel organized complexity, the odds against the formation of life and the subsequent evolution of intelligence could be drastically shortened. The relevance of self-organization to biology remains hotly debated. It suggests, however, that although the universe as a whole may be dying, an opposite, progressive trend may also exist as a fundamental property of nature. The emergence of extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life, is a key test for these rival paradigms.

  [D] Similar reasoning applies to evolution. According to the orthodox view, Darwinian selection is utterly blind. Any impression that the transition from microbes to man represents progress is pure chauvinism of our part. The path of evolution is merely a random walk through the realm of possibilities. If this is right, there can be no directionality, no innate drive forward; in particular, no push toward consciousness and intelligence. Should Earth be struck by an asteroid, destroying all higher life-forms, intelligent beings, still less humanoids, would almost certainly not arise next time around.

  [E] Traditionally, biologists believed that life is a freak—the result of a zillion-to-one accidental concatenation of molecules. It follows that the likelihood of its happening again elsewhere in the cosmos is infinitesimal. This viewpoint derives from the second law of thermodynamics, which predicts that the universe is dying-slowly and inexorably degenerating toward a state of total chaos. Life stumbles across this trend only because it is a pure statistical luck.

  [F] Historically, the Roman Catholic church regarded any discussion of alien life as heresy. Speculating about other inhabited worlds was one reason philosopher Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake in 1600. Belief that mankind has a special relationship with God is central to the monotheistic religions. The existence of alien beings, especially if they were further advanced than humans intellectually and spiritually, would disrupt this cozy view.

  [G] The discovery of life beyond earth would transform not only our science but also our religions, our belief systems and our entire world view. For in a sense, the search for extraterrestrial life is really a search for ourselves—who we are and what our place is in the grand sweep of the cosmos.

  Order:

  G 41 42 43 44 45 F

  Sample Three

  Direction:You are going to read a text about the season for relief, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Winter‘s harsh weather, shorter hours of daylight and family demands can all aggravate feelings of stress. According to Dr. Paul Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, one Midwestern headache clinic reported that complaints of tension and migraine headaches increased 40 percent from Thanksgiving to Christmas, compared with other sixweek periods during the year.

  Many physicians are now trained in techniques to relieve tension and stress. But which strategies do they themselves use? Here top health professionals reveal their favorite stressbusters. Six in all, they are:

  (41) Soothe with food. When nutritional biochemist Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food. But in her case, it‘s a healthy rice cake or two.

  (42) Run from your problem. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper handles his own stress with a daily afterwork run.

  (43) Check your perspective. Driving in for a busy day as a MayoClinic stress-management expert, psychologist John Taylor saw the oil-maintenance light pop on in his minivan. He faced a nonstop schedule of patients and had to pick up his three-year-old after work.“I felt myself tense up,”recalls Taylor, who then tried his quick stress-busting strategy. He asked himself, Is this a matter of life or death? No. The oil could safely be changed the next week.

  (44) Look to the light side. On his way to the hospital where his father was to undergo surgery, author and educator Joel Goodman shared a hotel courtesy van with the anxious relatives of several patients. The driver began telling his stressed-out passengers a few jokes.“Then he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,”Goodman says.“In that five-minute ride he taught us that humor can relieve our stress.”The surgery was successful.

  (45) Take a timeout. A major cause of anxiety is an overloaded schedule. It‘s one source of stress you can ward off by preparing ahead.

  Say a little prayer. Psychologist and medical scientist Joan Bprysenko of Boulder, Colo., maintains that since most people spend too much time agonizing over the past or worrying about the future, the key to lessening stress is learning how to live emotionally in the present.

  “It helps to have some ritual to do this,”says Borysenko. For her the most relaxing ritual is“each morning when I pray.”Prayer has been shown to reduce the impact of stress hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline.

  But remember, says Borysenko, doctors can‘t turn on their patient’“internal healing system”。 That inner clam is up to you. So you‘re sick of stress, heal thyself.

  [A] Williams counts himself among the 20 percent of adults whose susceptibility to anger is high enough to threaten their health. But everyone can try his approach to handling the stressors that set anger off—and it needn‘t be in a work environment.

  [B]“Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress and make the transition into family time,”says the expert. But, he cautions, don‘t let exercise itself become a stress. Even moderate activity—such as a daily 30 minute walk can improve health and mood.“That’s why I tell my patients to be sure to walk their dog every day,”he says with a chuckle,“even if they don‘t have one.”

  [C]“My research suggests that carbohydrates raise levels of the mood-regulating brain chemical serotonin, which exerts a calming effect on the entire body,”says the M.I.T research scientist.“So symptoms of stress—such as anger, tension, irritability and inability to concentrate—are eased.”

  [D] He tells patients to do only those tasks that would have serious consequences if left undone.“Will you die if you don‘t do the laundry?”he asks. Taking at least half an hour a day to do something you enjoy, he notes, lets you recharge you batteries. Especially around the holidays, skip some routine chores to make time for family and friends.

  [E] When cardiologist Ray Rosenman was associate chief of medicine at San Francisco‘s Mount Zion Hospital, he would block off half an hour a day on his schedule.“If an emergency came up, I moved patients into that slot,”says Rosenman, co-author of Type A Behavior and Your Heart.“Or used that half-hour to return calls or go through my mail. You can’t control everything, but you can control your schedule to create some breathing space for yourself.”

  [F] He was so moved by his experience that he researched laughter‘s power.“A good laugh relaxes muscles, lowers blood pressure, suppresses stress-related hormones and enhances the immune system,”he says. In his workshops he tells clients to ask themselves how their favorite comedian would see this stressful situation.

www.59wj.com
  Sample Four

  Directions:You are going to read a list of headings and a text about explorations into maple lores. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] The influence of maples on the Canadian culture.

  [B] The token of maples in Canada.

  [C] Contemplation of global distribution of maples.

  [D] The triumph of Nokomis over the devils with the help of maples.

  [E] The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.

  [F] The maple signals the approach of fall.

  The maple smoke of autumn bonfires is incense to Canadians. Bestowing perfume for the nose, color for the eye, sweetness for the spring tongue, the sugar maple prompts this sharing of a favorite myth and original etymology of the word maple.

  41

  The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales. The time of year for sugaringoff is“in the Maple Moon.”Among Ojibwa, the primordial female figure is Nokomis, a wise grandmother. In one tale about seasonal change, cannibal wendigos-creatures of evil—chased old Nokomis through the autumn countryside. Wendigos throve in icy cold. When they entered the bodies of humans, the human heart froze solid. Here wendigos represent oncoming winter. They were hunting to kill and eat poor Nokomis, the warm embodiment of female fecundity who, like the summer, has grown old.

  42

  Knowing this was a pursuit to the death, Nokomis outsmarted the cold devils. She hid in a stand of maple trees, all red and orange and deep yellow. This maple grove grew beside a waterfall whose mist blurred the trees‘outline. As they peered through the mist, slavering wendigos thought they saw a raging fire in which their prey was burning. But it was only old Nokomis being hidden by the bright red leaves of her friends, the maples. And so, drooling ice and huffing frost, the wendigos left her and sought easier prey. For their service in saving the earth mother’s life, these maples were given a special gift: their water of life would be forever sweet, and Canadians would tap it for nourishment.

  43

  Maple and its syrup flow sweetly into Canadian humor. Quebeckers have the standard sirop d‘erable for maple syrup, but add a feisty insult to label imitation syrups that are thick with glucose glop. They call this sugary imposter sirop de Poteau“telephonepole syrup”or dead tree syrup.

  44

  The contention that maple syrup is unique to North America is suspect, I believe. China has close to 10 species of maple, more than any country in the world. Canada has 10 native species. North America does happen to be home to the sugar maple, the species that produces the sweetest sap and the most abundant flow. But are we to believe that in thousands of years of Chinese history, these inventive people never tapped a maple to taste its sap? I speculate that they did. Could Proto-Americas who crossed the Bering land bridge to populate the Americas have brought with them a knowledge of maple syrup? Is there a very old Chinese phrase for maple syrup? Is maple syrup mentioned in Chinese literature? For a non-reader of Chinese, such questions are daunting but not impossible to answer.

  45

  What is certain is the maple‘s holdfast on our national imagination. Its leaf was adopted as an emblem in New France as early as 1700, and in English Canada by the mid-19th century. In the fall of 1867, a Toronto schoolteacher named Alexander Muir was traipsing a street at the city, all squelchy underfoot from the soft felt of falling leaves, when a maple leaf alighted to his coat sleeve and stuck there. At home that evening, he wrote a poem and set it to music, in celebration of Canada’s Confederation. Muir‘s song,“The Maple Leaf Forever,”was wildly popular and helped fasten the symbol firmly to Canada.

  The word“maple”is from“mapeltreow”, the Old English term for maple tree, with“mapl”—as its ProtoGermanic root, a compound in which the first“m”—is, I believe, the nearly worldwide“ma”, one of the first human sounds, the pursing of a baby‘s lips as it prepares to suck milk from mother’s breast. The“ma”root gives rise in many world languages to thousands of words like“mama”,“mammary”,“maia”, and“Amazon.”Here it would make“mapl”mean“nourishing mother tree,”that is, tree whose maple sap in nourishing. The second part of the compound,“apl”, is a variant of IndoEuropean able“fruit of any tree”and the origin of another English fruit word, apple. So the primitive analogy compares the liquid sap with another nourishing liquid, mother‘s milk.

www.59wj.com
  SectionⅠUse of English

  篇章导读

  本文是一篇论说文。文章的主题是“英才通才教育”。作者在文章开头就提出了一个具有选择性的问题:“如果我们只是需要决定是把基本的科学传授给每个人,还是找一些有才华的人,引领他们变得更出色,那么我们的工作将会相当容易。”随后作者从“the education in public school, the balance among the branches of knowledge and the balance between current and classical knowledge”三个方面来论述在教育中保持知识平衡的重要性。解读文章时注意作者的客观态度。

  思路解析

  1「答案」[C]

  「解析」“选择”。根据文章一致性原则,“choice”与文章第一句中的“decide决定”形成呼应,根据原文“decide whether……or……”所以下文就应该是对其有所“选择choice”或没有“选择choice”。而选项[A]“(与属性区别的)本质:the entity of justice正义的本质”,[B]“拍卖;(某些纸牌戏中的)叫牌;叫牌阶段”,[D]“结合体,联合;(政党、个人、国家等)临时结成的联盟”是本题的干扰,均不形成呼应,不符合题意。

  2「答案」[D]

  「解析」“因为”。“for”与文章第一段第三句中的“Because we depend……”构成搭配,均表示解释原因。而选项[A][B][C]均不用于解释原因,不符合原文意思。

  3「答案」[D]

  「解析」“坚持下去;继续下去”。“carry on”与原文中的“at the same time同时”是一种搭配,而且根据原文意思:“由于这种工作必须同时继续下去”,所以选择“carry on”。而选项[A]“carry off拿走,搬走;抓走;夺走;致……死亡”,[B]“carry forward推进,使前进”,[C]“carry away拿走,搬走;抢走;冲走,卷走;使激动而失去自制力;吸引住”均不符合题意。

  4「答案」[B]

  「解析」“大量地”。根据原文意思:“因为为了我们的发展,我们大量地依据科学和技术,所以必须培养出许多领域里的专家。”,所以选择“heavily”。而选项[A]“substantially实际上;大体上;实质上”,[C]“equally相等地;同样地”,[D]“misleadingly误解地”均不符合题意。

  5「答案」[C]

  「解析」“进步;发展;进展”。根据文章的一致性,“progress”与上文的“as far as they can go”构成呼应。而选项[A]“刺激;鼓舞;激励”,[B]“转换,转变;(轮)班,(换)班”,[D]“魔力;魔法;魅力”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。

  6「答案」[C]

  「解析」“因为”。根据文章的一致性,“because”与上句的“Because we depend……”形成句子结构的一致性。而选项[A][B][D]均不构成句子的一致性,不符合题意。

  7「答案」[B]

  「解析」“民主主义的;民主政体的;平民的”。根据文章一致性原则,“democratic”与“whose citizens”形成一种照应。而选项[A]“繁荣的;富裕的;兴旺的”,[C]“受过教育的;有学识的”,[D]“兴隆的;兴旺的;繁荣的”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。

  8「答案」[C]

  「解析」“when”。根据原文,在文章开头作者就用假设的手法提出了问题“if……whether……or”,而“when”表达的是对可能出现的某种情况的回答,即对“if”的假设问题的回答,所以选择“when”。而选项[A]“unless除非;除外”,[B]“in case万一”,[D]“only仅仅”均不符合题意。

  9「答案」[A]

  「解析」“专家”。根据文章一致性原则,“experts”与“specialists专家”构成一致性。而选项[B]“平民;民众;老百姓”与文章意思相反,[C]“选举人;投票者;有投票权者”,[D]“暴民;暴徒”是本题的干扰,均不符合题意。

  10「答案」[B]

  「解析」“用户;使用者”。根据文章一致性,“users”与原文第一句中的“a mass basis”形成呼应,而且“users使用者”与原文中的“producers生产者”形成一种搭配。而选项[A]“购者;订阅者”,[C]“过路人;路人”,[D]“受害者;牺牲品”均不形成一致性,不符合题意。

  11「答案」[D]

  「解析」“在(三者或三者以上)……之间”。根据上下文,上文提到的“science and technology”、“in many fields”以及下文的“the branches of”可知应填入“among”。而选项[A]“amid在……中间,被……围绕”,[B]“between在(两者)……之间”,[C]“upon在……之上”均不符合题意。

  12「答案」[A]

  「解析」“知识”。根据上文第一句提到的“teach elementary science”,“knowledge”与“teach”形成搭配。而选项[B]“数据”,[C]“智力”,[D]“探索;探询”均不符合题意。

  13「答案」[B]

  「解析」“聪明的;明智的”。根据文章的一致性,“wise”与“good”形成呼应。而选项[A]“公平的;清晰的”,[C]“危险的;冒险的;大胆的”,[D]“适当的;正确的”均不符合题意。

  14「答案」[A]

  「解析」“(用于形容词或副词前)太;过分”。根据原文:“由于在任何一个领域太多地强调以至于造成这种平衡失败了。”“too”用于表示否定的语气,否定了平衡的成功。而选项[B]“fairly(常用于褒义的场合)公正地,正当地;相当,还算”,[C]“very很,十分”,[D]“rather(常用于贬义的场合)相当,有一点儿”均不符合题意。

  15「答案」[B]

  「解析」“问题”。根据全文的第一句“If it were only……whether……or……”,该句是提问式的句子,是需要做出回答的问题,所以选择“question”。而选项[A]“小事件;事件”,[C]“推论;推理;暗示”,[D]“冲击;冲突;影响”均不符合原文意思。

  16「答案」[D]

  「解析」“关系”。根据文章的一致性,“relation”与下句中的“relative”构成呼应。而选项[A]“反应”,[B]“合作,[C]”相互作用;相互影响“均不符合原文意思。

  17「答案」[B]

  「解析」“同样地”。根据上下文,上文谈到“balance”,下文的主题也是“balance”,所以选择“Similarly同样地”作为过度,连接上下文。而选项[A]“相反地”,[C]“因此;于是”,[D]“也许;假定地”均不符合题意。

  18「答案」[C]

  「解析」“古典的;经典的”。“classical古典的”与“current现今的;当今的”是一种对比,指“保持现在和过去的知识的一种平衡”。而选项[A]“原始的,远古的,早期的”,[B]“最后的;最终的;根本的”,[D]“最初的;开始的;字首的”是本题的干扰,均不符合题意。

  19「答案」[A]

  「解析」“可能;可能性”。本题考查形近义异词辨析。根据全文以及该句的意思:“大众将继续将注意力放到科学领域(出现的)新的可能性和新知识的发现上。”所以选择“possibilities”。而选项[B]“能力;才能”,[C]“能力;本领;才能”,[D]“责任;负担”均不符合题意。

  20「答案」[B]

  「解析」“教学;课程;教程”。根据文章一致性原则,“courses”与全文第一句中的“elementary science”形成呼应,而选项[A]“场地;背景”,[C]“教义,教条,主义”,[D]“(分)定额,限额,配额;定量”均不构成呼应,不符合题意。

  SectionⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A  Text 1

  篇章导读

  这篇文章采用的是一种对比的思维模式。本文讲述了关于DNA遗传技术本身涉及的道德和道义问题。作者在第1自然段引用了弗兰肯斯坦博士所创造的一个怪物,从而引出了DNA的道义问题和道德问题,并提出一个问题即我们要不要去形成一种新的道德哲学观呢。之后在第2自然段作者对该问题做出了回答,说不用,其实在一千年以前康德就说过个体不应该作为一种达到目的的手段。在第3自然段作者批判了为达到目的而把DNA技术当作手段的问题。在第4自然段作者对比性地说明了,关于个人以及国家究竟谁来控制DNA的问题,在第5自然段作者又对比了人和机械之间的差异性。文章的关键词为“alter our DNA radically”、“lifeforms”、“moral issue”、“reproduce”、“moral philosophies”等等。

  思路解析

  21「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“本文引用弗兰肯斯坦博士所说的话的目的是为了……”。此题可以定位在第1自然段,且文章1、2、3段反复强调“moral philosophies”,因此选项[D]“引入生物技术中所存在的道德问题的话题”为正确选项。而选项[A]“给出DNA技术突破的精彩的一页”,选项[B]“强调手段对达到一种永久目的的重要性”和选项[C]“显示出他是如何在一千年前创造一种新的生命形式”都与原文不相符,不是作者引用的目的

  22「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“我们从文章可以得出结论:人类克隆技术应该使用的方式是……”。正确选项为[B]“合理的并且是相当谨慎的”,从文中2、3、4自然段定位,归纳以后得出这样的选项。而选项[A]“过分和奢侈的”,选项[C]“激进的和不分青红皂白的”和选项[D]“公开的而且是热情的”都与作者在整篇文章所使用的语气不相符合。

  23「答案」[A]

  「解析」题干问:“我们从本文得知,奥尔德斯·贺胥黎持有怎样的观点?”此题可定位在第4自然段,正确选项为[A]“DNA技术应该受到个人的控制”,作者在文中对奥尔德斯·贺胥黎的观点提出了一种批判。而选项[B]“政府应该对个人少加以控制”,选项[C]“人们需要政府来保护DNA信息”,和原文的意思是相反的。选项[D]“关于人类克隆的道德观念应该被删除”与问题不符合。

  24「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“从全文最后一段推测,我们能预测下面哪项是作者在下一部分将要讲述的内容?”此题可定位于全文的最后一句。正确选项为[D]“生物技术研究的现状”。而选项[A]“反思生物技术的道德”,选项[B]“对我们的个人隐私的冒犯性的侵犯”和选项[C]“我们后代智商不可避免的改变”都无法从文章的逻辑得出这样的判断。

  25「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“根据最后一段,‘干件’和‘湿件’的关系就像……”。在文中“干件”指的是机器,“湿件”指的是人的肉体,因此选项[C]“机器和肉体的关系”为正确选项。而选项[A]“整体和个体”,选项[B]“想象和现实”和选项[D]“暂时和永远”都不能构成类比的逻辑关系。

www.59wj.com
  参考译文

  到下个世纪,我们将能从根本上改变我们的DNA,即在制造新的生命形式时对自己的理智和情感进行编码。弗兰肯斯坦博士造出他的怪物时,他曾就是否应该允许它繁殖生育而深思这样一个道德问题:“我有权利为我自己的利益而降祸于子孙后代吗?”这样的问题是否要求我们发展新的道德哲学?

  也许不是。相反,我们将重温一个历经考验的道德观念,它有时被称作“黄金法则”。一千年来最严谨的道德主义者——康德将这一观念塑造成一个“绝对命令”:己所不欲,勿施于人;要把每个人作为个体对待,而不是作为达到某种目的的手段。

  在这一道德准则下,我们应该摒弃人类的克隆技术,因为它不可避免地会使一些人成为达到另外一些人目标的手段。这些人的价值只体现在他们是我们喜爱的人的复制品或是许多身体部件的组合上,而不在于他们是有自身权利的个体。不管多么模糊,我们还应划一个界限,在这个范围内遗传工程可被用来治疗疾病和弥补缺陷,而不是用来改变决定一个人成为个体的个人特性(智商、身体特征、性别和性征)。

  生物技术的时代将给我们更充分的理由来保护个人隐私。奥尔德斯·赫胥黎在《美妙的新世界》一书中犯了一个错误:他把DNA技术授权给了个体和家庭,而没有把权力集中于国家手中。但是(事实上)国家将起到很重要的作用,那就是保证包括保险公司在内的任何人,没有我们的允许不能看到我们的遗传数据或利用它来歧视我们。

  那么我们可以迎接可能于下世纪末出现的生物技术的突破,这一技术突破可与描绘基因相媲美:标记出我们大脑中的100亿甚至更多的神经元。应用这些信息,我们有朝一日可能创造出人工智能,它们的思维和经验意识方式与人脑没有什么区别。最终我们可能在一台机器“干件”里复制出我们自己的头脑,这样的话,我们就能够不依赖生物大脑和人体这样的“湿件”而活着。20世纪信息技术的革命将由此同2l世纪的生物技术革命融为一体。当然这只是科学幻想。现在还是让我们回到现实科学中来吧。

  Text 2

  篇章导读

  本文是一篇关于睡眠方面的研究性的文章。文章第1自然段说好睡眠是相当重要的,而没有必要在考前努力地研读课本,那么关于这种古训毫无疑问是正确的,而人们没有搞清楚的是为什么睡眠对记忆有好处,我们知道它好,却不知道它为什么好。随后作者通过文章第2、3、4、5段的科学实验,进一步澄清说明睡眠的确对于记忆是有好处的。文章的关键词为“sound night‘s sleep”、“science”、“behavioral psychology”、“memory”以及“brainwave”等等。

  思路解析

  26「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“行为心理学的研究者对于什么有不同的观点?”文中第1自然段提到他们对为什么睡眠对记忆有好处持有不同的观点,因此[C]“为什么睡眠对记忆有很大的好处”为正确选项。而选项[A]“梦是如何在其过程中得到改变的”,选项[B]“睡眠和苏醒的区别”和选项[D]“好睡眠的功能”均不是他们分歧的观点。

  27「答案」[A]

  「解析」题干问:“如实验室研究中所表明,快眼运动的特征是……”。正确选项为[A]“急剧活跃的脑电图”,此题可以定位在第2自然段,且在第3、4段又再次说明。选项[B]“被研究者很快的反应速度”,选项[C]“复杂的记忆模式”和选项[D]“前一天事件的重现”都不是快眼运动的主要特征。

  28「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“作者谈到‘人工语法’,目的是为了说明……”。正确选项为[B]“所学到的内在模式”,此题定位于原文的第3段,且在原文的第5段作者以学数学的学生为例说明,如果睡得好,大脑会发现一种内在的某种学习材料的模式。选项[A]“研究的重要性”,选项[C]“和灯泡的相似”和选项[D]“睡眠的重要性”都不是作者说到“人工语法”所要谈论的目的。

  29「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“在研究中皮埃尔·马凯领导的小组主要利用的是什么方法?”正确选项为[C]“采用一种对比和比较的方式”,这个题考察的是对2、3、4、5段的归纳,他们把各种情形的情况进行对比性的研究。选项[A]“揭示一种长期持有的古训”,选项[B]“澄清了对梦的预言”和选项[D]“把因果关系联系在一起”都不是他们所使用的主要方法。

  30「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“马凯给第二天参加大考的人有什么建议?”正确选项为[D]“在晚上好好的睡觉”,这是一个通篇的中心归纳的考察题,在晚上好好的睡觉对记忆是有好处的。而选项[A]“努力地记忆语法”,选项[B]“认真地研究课本”和选项[C]“记录自己的脑呈像”都不是他的明显建议,尽管这些错误的选项使用了原文中的某些表达和单词。

  参考译文

  大考之前,一夜酣睡要比你研读书本更有益。不管怎样,人们将其视为至理名言。科学(行为心理学)证明了这一名言。关于为何睡眠有助于大脑记忆有两种相对立的说法,但行为科学研究却不能够对其进行区分。一种理论认为,睡眠中形成永久记忆。另一种理论认为,记忆实际上是在白天形成的,只不过是在晚上对它“编辑”,并把多余的删去。

  要对两种理论进行区分,探究人在睡眠过程中大脑的情况是必要的,但又是困难的。经过十年的艰苦工作,比利时列日大学的皮埃尔·马凯领导的小组却做到了这一点。比利时小组尤其感兴趣的睡眠阶段是快速眼动(REM)睡眠。这时,大脑和身体处于活跃状态,心跳加速,血压升高,眼球在眼皮下来回移动,仿佛在欣赏电影,脑电图与清醒时相似。正是这段睡眠时间,白天发生的事才最有可能在梦中出现。

  马凯医生使用一种称为PET的电子设备对白天从事某项任务的人进行研究,并在晚上他们熟睡时进行跟踪研究。这项任务要求他们在看到六个不同位置处的灯光亮时,迅速按下电钮,越快越好。当他们学会如何去做以后,反应速度就加快了。他们不知道灯亮有时是按照一定的模式出现的——这种模式被称作“人造语法”。而反应时间的缩短正说明他们在有模式时比没有模式时学得快。

  而且,要学的东西越多(比如学习“语法”和机械性的按下电钮),大脑就越活跃。“编辑”理论无法对此进行预测,因为在任何情况下,无关刺激的数量都是一样的。试验对象在醒来时的反应时间甚至比睡觉时还快,从而消除了他们在学习,而不是没有学这一疑虑。

  因此,该小组得出结论,在快速眼动(REM)睡眠中,通过再次激活,使与记忆有关的神经连接得到加强。尤其是当大脑注意到所学材料的内在结构时,更是如此。所以,大考前夜,参加第二天数学考试的学生可以酣睡,他们知道明天需要记住的都是些基本的代数法则,而不是隔壁收音机里断断续续的话语。

  Text 3

  篇章导读

  本文主要是一篇阐述型的文章。中心是哥伦比亚号航天飞机失事的调查经过。第1自然段作者首先提出因为有太多的情感和太多的自负,所以这个调查很难进行。在第2自然段,调查组的领导人Gehman很谨慎地说,如果要真知道这个飞机的左翼出现问题的话,美国航空航天局的研究人员肯定会实施营救的,但目前问题在于美国航空航天局的研究人员有没有反对过或决定反对过进行调查,在4、5、6、7段作者讲述了在听证会上的主题即美国航空航天局拒绝接受军事部门提供的卫星照片。本文的关键词为“inquiry”、“accident”、“Gehman”、“NASA”等等。

  思路解析

  31「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“本文最可能选自标题为……的文章”。正确选项为[B]“对哥伦比亚号事件的调查”,“inquiry”和“accident”为本文的中心关键词,很显然文章的中心关键词作为整篇文章的大标题。而选项[A]“Gehman对哥伦比亚号失事的评论”,在这篇文章中作者的态度相当谨慎,就事论事,没有涉及太多的评价。选项[C]“阐述航天飞机的安全”,离题太远。选项[D]“美国航空航天局正在被揭露的问题”,文中确实讲到美国航空航天局存在问题,但只是一部分,而不能作为整体。

  32「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“在句子‘since they could place’中的‘they’所指的是……”。正确选项为[B]“回答”,对该句进行句型分析后,得出“they”指代的对象为前面的“answers”,“answer”为在听证会上的回答。选项[A]“赔偿金”,选项[C]“决定”和选项[D]“问题”都与原文语境不相符合。

  33「答案」[A]

  「解析」题干问:“根据作者,导致哥伦比亚号航天飞机失事的主要原因是……”。文中作者明确讲述了导致航天飞机失事可能主要是因为其左翼受到了损坏,因此选项[A]“一个很可能左翼受到的损坏”为正确选项。而选项[B]“故意拒绝卫星图片”,选项[C]“有一种多愁善感以及所涉及的一种自负”和选项[D]“航天机构在执行任务中的行动迟缓”都不是导致事件直接引发的原因。

  34「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“像文中所提到的,星期三的听证会的主题是……”。在4、5、6、7段反复讲到了美国航空航天局拒绝接受军事部门提供的卫星图像,此题可以定位在第5段的最后一句,“The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday‘s hearing”,该句中的“subject”指的就是美国航空航天局拒绝接受军事部门提供的卫星图像,因此选项[C]“美国航空航天局拒绝了军事部门提供的卫星图像”为正确选项。而选项[A]“轨道中情报卫星的一种精确能力”,选项[B]“美国航空航天局没有作出决定反对对哥伦比亚号的检测”和选项[D]“美国航空航天局和军事部门的合作”,尽管文中都有所提及,但却不是这次听证会所解决的问题和焦点。

  35「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“下面哪项最能描述Gehman对于卫星图像的态度?”此题可定位于最后一段,该段讲述了Gehman对卫星图像能否检测出破损仍旧不敢肯定,且综观全文,可以看出他的态度是相当谨慎的,因此选项[D]“谨慎”为正确选项。而选项[A]“担心恐惧的”,选项[B]“盲目轻信的”和选项[C]“冷漠的”都不能概括原文的中心和含义。

  参考译文

  在事故发生后的三个多月也就是本月初,这宗调查才开始,原因是有“太多的情绪和自负”,哥伦比亚号事故调查委员会的主席Harold Gehman如是说道。

  在参议院商业委员会前作证时,Gehman说他的这部分调查才刚刚开始,始于十天之前。但是他已经得出了一个结论:如果说宇航局的高级管理官员们知道了哥伦比亚号航天飞机的左翼有致命的故障存在,而美国航空航天局却不愿或不能对进入轨道的宇航员采取营救行动,是不能令人信服的。

  Gehman于听证会后告诉记者,关于一些重要问题的答案可能会产生巨大的影响。原因是这些答案可能在一个不同的情形下审视宇航局的决定,宇航局决定反对在哥伦比亚号返航前仔细检查可能出现的侧翼故障。

  调查人员认为哥伦比亚号起飞后不久隔热泡沫的流失损坏了飞机左翼。这导致了二月一日航天飞机返航时超高温的热空气穿过飞船的侧翼引起大火并融化了飞船的内部。

  在这些决定中,有关于宇航局管理官员拒绝接受军方所提供的关于哥伦比亚号航天飞机左翼隐患的卫星照片。这一主题占据了周三听证会的前半部分。

  Gehman抱怨说管理官员在拒绝被提供的照片时“错失了故障的征兆”,这是对宇航局在16天的航天飞机航行期间的做事不力的直接尖刻的评价。

  Gehman告诉参议员:“我们将把这件事详细地写进我们的报告,但是事故中有大量的官员和管理者错失了故障的征兆,我们对调查的进程不甚满意。”

  调查委员会曾建议美国航空航天局促成宇航局和掌管卫星及望远镜的军方部门间更好的合作。美国国家图像和测绘部在三月份已同意定期为在轨道上运行的航天飞机进行详细的卫星图像拍照。

  来自于美国军方最先进的间谍卫星的照片是否能检测出哥伦比亚号飞船侧翼上的两英寸大小的破损,Gehman对此仍旧不敢肯定。这种卫星的精确度是听证会上的敏感话题。

  Text 4

  篇章导读

  本文讲述的中心是关于接种疫苗与防止传染病的重要性。第2自然段讲述了接种疫苗后整个免疫系统的应付过程,第3自然段阐述的是接种疫苗可能存在的危险。最后一段对比分析接种疫苗所带来的好处以及不足之处。本文的关键词为“disease of epidemic”、“populace”、“vaccination”等等。

  思路解析

  36「答案」[C]

  「解析」题干问:“本文最好的标题是什么?”正确选项为[C]“疫苗:方法和内在含义”,这一选项能概括说明文章的中心。而选项[A]“接种:福音或诅咒”,漏掉了关于接种疫苗的过程,是对中心的部分概括。选项[B]“接种所用的原理”,这是第2自然段的话题。选项[D]“一个受到攻击的奇迹的治疗方法”只涉及到最后一个自然段。

  37「答案」[A]

  「解析」题干问:“天花疫苗这个举例是说明什么情况?”此题可定位于第3自然段,且第3、4自然段的主题就是使用疫苗可能会带来负面效果,因此选项[A]“使用疫苗可能会带来负面结果”为正确选项。而选项[B]“疫苗的实际使用来控制传染病”,选项[C]“疫苗在于消除某些疾病的有效性”和选项[D]“疫苗对付疾病所使用的方法”都不是这个举证所谈论的观点。

  38「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“这个短语‘ward it off naturally’最可能的意思是……”。文中第2自然段讲述了在接种疫苗后,身体自然可以跟这种疾病进行对抗。因此选项[B]“很轻松地与之对抗”为正确选项。而选项[A]“自然地将其排除”,选项[C]“很不情愿地去管理它”和选项[D]“恰当地分解它”都不符合第二段所谈论的一个原理。

  39「答案」[B]

  「解析」题干问:“根据这篇文章,下面哪项是对的?”其实纵观全文,本文的中心讲的是免疫系统可以得到特殊的训练以应对疾病的较弱形式,因此选项[B]“免疫系统可以得到特殊的训练以应对疾病的较弱形式”为正确选项。而选项[A]“挽救大多数的人必然造成少数人的死亡”,选项[C]“强制性的接种对于大众的生存是不可或缺的”和选项[D]“接种的过程仍然是一个应该解决的神秘”都不能说明原文的含义。

  40「答案」[D]

  「解析」题干问:“作者写作本文的目的是……”。作者在这篇文章的语气是客观的,因此选项[D]“为了解释和告知信息”为正确选项。而选项[A]“评论和批判”,这是议论文,评论文的模式。选项[B]“论证和辩论”是议论文的模式。选项[C]“为了带来兴趣和娱乐”,但这篇文章是科普性的文章。

  参考译文

  当传染病袭击民众时,科学家们就立即着手确认病源并想法征服疾病。通常,我们是可以取得胜利的,因为医学可以隔离寄生虫、病原菌或者造成疾病的细胞,并发现有效的消灭或抑制疾病的方法。在非常严重的情况下,比方说一个地区或国家的全体民众都可能处境极其危险,就有必要通过接种疫苗来保护全部人口,确保疾病不会蔓延。

  接种疫苗是让人体对病毒或疾病产生免疫力。万一碰上病毒或疾病,人体可以自然战胜它。将弱小或死亡的菌株在监控环境下注入病人体内,这样他体内的免疫系统就可以培养出应对来犯之敌的能力。关于如何抵抗疾病的信息被传递到免疫系统的各个部位,这个过程由基因信息在细胞间传递而自然实现。可以肯定,万一该病人以后碰上这类病毒,他的身体已全副武装并且训练有素,足以对付这一现实问题,因为已有经验了。

  但是整个过程还有隐患。有时,即使疫苗中含有的病菌是弱化了的菌种,人体也接受不了,导致免疫系统失效,以致病人死亡。天花疫苗的情况就是这样。天花传染病一度席卷全美土著居民并造成大量移民死亡,该疫苗试图消灭这种传染病。一万个接种天花疫苗的人中约有一个因接种而感染天花死亡。也就是说,如果全体美国人都要接种天花疫苗的话,就有3000人将死亡。

  值得庆幸的是,在20世纪70年代初,天花病毒就已被消灭,也结束了对全美婴儿的强制接种。不过,该病若卷土重来,就还要实行强制接种,这必将造成由接种而带来更多的意外死亡。本是一件好事的接种工作背后隐藏着不少谩骂和非议。

  Part B

  本部分内容请参见Part B(二)答案解析及参考译文

www.59wj.com
  Part C

  篇章导读

  本文的中心内容为如何改进公众对科学研究的认识。文章首先提出了虽然不同领域间的相互受益在科学界被广为认同,但公众却不清楚这一事实,之后阐述了改进公众对科学认识的时机已经成熟并讲述了如何提高公众对科学研究的认识,最后作者以农业为例,说明了其它学科领域的研究对生物医学进步所起的作用。

  思路解析

  46.本句的句子主干结构为“……the scientific community could build a more effective case for public support of all science……”,其中“Because……is strong”为because引导的原因状语从句,“by articulating……”为方式状语,在该方式状语中how引导“articulate”的宾语从句。

  47.本句的句子主干结构为“……we can work to enhance public appreciation of scientific research……”,其中“by showing……”为方式状语,在该方式状语中how引导“show”的宾语从句。

  48.本句为简单句。句子的主干结构为“……it may appear to have made few significant contributions to biomedical advances……”,在该句中“related to human nutrition”为形容词短语作后置定语,修饰前面的“those.”

  49.本句的主句为“it was……that”的强调句型,其中“at the turn of the century”为时间状语,该时间状语包含一个when引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰前面的“the turn of the century”,该定语从句为连词and连接的并列结构。

  50.本句为主从复合句。句子的主干结构为“……it is the latest discoveries……that reveal its true importance to biomedicine”,该主句为“it was……that”的强调句型,“that have been made in agricultural research”为that引导的限制性定语从句,修饰前面的“discoveries.”

  参考译文

  “所有的研究都带来生物医学的进步”这一古训同样适用于科学界。不同领域间的相互受益在科学界被广为认同,但公众或公共政策制定者未必清楚这一事实。(46)因为公众对资助生物医学研究的支持很大,科学界需要通过宣传其他学科的研究如何有利于生物医学的发展,才可能很有效地向公众证明其支持所有学科的理由。

  改进公众对科学认识的时机已经成熟。一项最近的全国科学基金会调查显示,美国人仍继续支持科研开支。此外,民意投票也表明科学家和科学界领导人享有极高的公众威望。(47)我们不应该由于公众对科学缺乏理解而伤感。我们能够向公众展示各个研究领域的密切关系和对生物医学进步的作用,从而努力提高公众对科学研究的认识。决定性的任务是要用简单易懂的表达向公众传达,所有科学领域的研究都会带来个别和整体的利益。

  以农业研究为例。(48)表面上看,除了与人类营养直接相关的方面以外,农业研究对生物医学的发展几乎没有做出什么显著的贡献。然而这种观点不正确。在营养学方面,维生素的发现就极好地证明了农业和生物医学研究的互相联系。(49)本世纪初,维生素的概念还未出现,营养学还未作为一门科学存在的时候,恰好是在农业化学部门中第一次真正地证实了维生素。单谷种植实验证实了维生素A和B的存在,某些矿物(铁和铜)的重要作用也在稍后被证实,而这些发现奠定了现代人类营养研究的基础。

  (50)但是,尽管有这样的直接联系,正是在农业研究中已取得的最新发现才揭示了该研究对于生物医学的重要性。救命的抗生素如链霉索是在土壤微生物中发现的。最初的胚胎移植是在奶牛上完成的,而相关的研究加深了对人类生殖的理解。

  SectionⅢWriting

  参考范文

  Part A

  51.

  Dear Sir,

  I write this letter to inquire about the post your company advertised in the newspaper yesterday. I intend to apply for the job vacancy of the manager‘s secretary. I’m very interested in the job.

  I think I have the needed qualifications for the position in your business. I‘m good at short hand, and my spoken English is much fluent. And above all, I have enough experience for the job because I once worked as a secretary in another foreignowned enterprise. I strongly believe I’m extremely well qualified for the job.

  I‘ve learned your company enjoys good reputation and shows great promise worldwide. I wish to get an interview opportunity. I’m expecting an early reply from your company.

  Sincerely,

  Tom

  Part B

  52.

  This cartoon presents in front of us a sharp contrast between two types of neighbors. The two pet neighbors greet each other politely and amiably while the two lonely human neighbors seem to ignore each other. When we take a walk in any of the cities in the modern society, we can often observe such a sad scene in which social interactions have been grievously diminishing.

  There are more and more urban residents who love raising pets. Pet-keeping is becoming increasingly pervasive because a pet may be a companion for old people, a friend for young couples, and a playing toy for children. Believe it or not, pets are such an inseparable part in their daily life that they often devote lots of energy, time and money to taking care of the needs of their loved animals. Small wonder, such devotion to pet-raising points to a truth of great importance today—loneliness in a busy world.

  Since most people have to live on an on-the-move lifestyle, they are probably denied opportunities to share their feelings with their friends and relatives. Whereas pets will be good listeners. Where there are so many dishonesties going around, they must stay with a dog, which is likely to be faithful to them. It seems that an individual is being ridiculous if he starts conversations with his neighbors, so he often has no alternative but to enjoy the company of pets. That‘s why the scene depicted in the cartoon is not uncommon in our daily life.

  Our life would be, of course, enjoyable if we have pets. But we would enjoy much more meaningful life if the two human neighbors started a talk to each other in a friendly way, just like the two dogs.

  范文译文

  这幅漫画向我们展示了两类邻居之间的鲜明对比。做邻居的两只宠物友好而亲切地彼此问候而做邻居的两个孤单的人却互相视而不见。在现代社会里,这样的情景在我们漫步时随处可见。

  如今越来越多的人喜欢饲养宠物。由于宠物能够成为老人的伙伴,年轻夫妇的朋友以及小孩的玩具,饲养宠物也越来越屡见不鲜。尽管难以置信,宠物已经成为人们日常生活中必不可少的部分。人们常常倾心倾力的为心爱的宠物费尽精力、时间和金钱,为它们所需的一切着想。这些并不足为奇,但这样的投入也正反映了当今社会的一个重要事实——在这匆匆世界里的无尽孤独。

  由于我们在生活中“来去匆匆”,可能没有机会与亲友进行情感交流,可宠物却是忠实的倾听者。由于生活中到处是尔虞我诈,我们只能够与身边最忠实的小狗相依为伴。与邻居攀谈会显得荒诞不经,那么我们只能与宠物在一起。难怪我们在日常生活中常常会遇到漫画中所勾画的情景。

  我们的生活因有了宠物自然有了很多欢乐。然而假如那两个邻居能够像两只小狗一样开始友好地交谈,我们的生活还会有更多的欢乐。

  举一反三

  本文的标题提示为“邻居”。图中的两对邻居虽然都可以称为“邻居”,但是彼此的亲密程度却截然地相反。诚然,在现代社会中,尤其在城市生活中,饲养宠物的现象值得我们注意。不少人投入了大量的精力去照顾其心爱的动物。图画的作者并不是要我们去洞察宠物的多少,而是要表达更加深层的内涵,即由于生活方式的改变,人们之间亲近的情感变得疏远,继而移情于动物身上。

  本文第一自然段简要描述了画面的内容,点出了整篇文章的关键词概念。第二自然段的分析紧扣画面内容,列举了种种社会人喜欢宠物的现象,第三自然段阐述了生活方式变化,而“狗”际关系替代了人际关系。最后一个自然段自然地给出了整篇文章的结论。

  整篇文章主要采用的是分析性的阐述思维方法,先表明了作者的观点,之后进行具体的论证。围绕着“邻居”、“狗”、“宠物”、“生活方式”、“人际关系”、“现代社会”、“情感”等关键词概念展开。

  就类似话题,如“现代生活方式变迁”、“人际关系”、“人际沟通”等话题等可以模仿本文的思路写作。此外,就本篇命题作文也可以其他的角度入手,如“社会的诚信”等。而且可以使用对比的思维模式来安排文章的结构,即把“人”邻居与“狗”邻居进行对比。

  Part B (二)答案解析及参考译文

  Sample One

  思路解析

  41「答案」[F]

  「解析」空格前面的句子说“From these sources it became apparent that the character of myths varied widely,not only by geographical region but also by historical period.”,空格后面的句子说“He argued that the relatively simple Greek myth of Persephone reflects the economics of a basic agricultural community,whereas the more involved and complex myths found later in Homer are the product of a more developed society.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该是在讲神话的特点,并且会提到某位学者。选项F中说“German scholar Karl Offried Muller followed this line of inquiry in his Prolegomena to a Scientific Mythology,1825.”,这与前后句子的意思连贯,所以应该选F.虽然选项[A]、[C]、[D]中也都提到了学者,但是,其意思与前后句子不连贯,所以不能选用。

  42「答案」[A]

  「解析」空格前面的句子说“These languages,scholars concluded,belonged to an Indo-European language family……”,空格后面的句子说“For example,an expression like‘maiden dawn’for‘sunrise’resulted first in personification of the dawn,and then in myths about her.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该会提到“Indo.European language”。并且会说明人们的误解。选项[A]中说“German-born British scholar Max Muller concluded that the Rig-Veda of ancient India—the oldest preserved body of literature written in an IndoEuropean language…… Muller attributed all later myths to misunderstandings that arose from the picturesque terms in which early peoples described natural phenomena.”,这与前后句子的意思连贯。并且也提到了“Indo-European language”,所以应该选[A].

  43「答案」[D]

  「解析」空格后面的句子说“Similarly,British anthropologist Sir James George Frazer proposed a threestage evolutionary scheme in The Golden Bough.”,由此可知:所填的句子应该是在讲学者们的研究方法。选项[D]中说“This approach can be seen in the work of British anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor.…Tylor organized the religious and philosophical development of humanity into separate and distinct evolutionary stages.”,这与后面句子的意思连贯,所以应该选[D].

  44「答案」[B]

  「解析」空格后面的句子说“This approach reached its most extreme form in the socalled functionalism of British anthropologist A.R.Radcliffe.Brown,who held that every myth implies a ritual,and every ritual implies a myth.”,由此可知:前面的句子应该会介绍某种理论,并且会提到“myth”和“ritual”。选项[B]中说“The myth and ritual theory,as this approach came to be called,was developed most fully by British scholar Jan E1len Harrison.……”,这与后面句子的意思连贯,所以应该选[B].选项[D]虽然也提到了某种方式,但是与后面句子的意思不连贯,所以不能选用。

  45「答案」[C]

  「解析」空格前面的句子说“In the 20th century,investigators began to pay closer attention to the content of the narratives themselves.”。由此可知:所填的句子应该是讲现代的研究。只有选项[C]中表达的“Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud held that myths—like dreams—condense the material of experience and represent it in symbols.”是现代的研究,所以应该选[C].

  参考译文

  由于可以从其他文化中获得越来越多的素材,所以欧洲的学者开始承认神话学传统具有更大的综合性。古代印度和伊朗的经文提供的证据尤其有价值,比如《薄伽梵歌》经文以及《亚吠陀》经文。根据这些资料,我们可以很清楚地了解到:神话人物差别很大,不只是由于地理位置所导致的,而且还是由于历史时期所导致的。(41)德国学者卡尔·奥特弗雷德·穆勒在其1825年出版的《科学神话绪论》一书中遵循了这种研究理论。他认为,希腊有关珀尔塞福涅的相对简单的神话反映了初级农业社会人们的忧虑,但是后来在荷马史诗中发现的更复杂神话反映的是更发达社会的问题。

  学者们也试图以某种方式把全世界各种各样的神话联系起来。从18世纪晚期到19世纪早期,为了解释欧洲和近东各种各样语言之间的惊人相似性,对语言的比较性研究导致假设母语的复兴。学者们得出这样的结论:这些语言属于一种印欧语系。研究神话的专家也探究一种原始神话,这种神话可能隐藏于所有欧洲神话之中。(42)德国裔英国学者马克斯·穆勒得出结论:古代印度的《梨俱吠陀》文集反映的是一种最原始的印欧神话——《梨俱吠陀》文集是现存的用印欧语记载的量古老作品。穆勒把后来的所有神话归结为人们的误解,这些误解源于早期人们用来描述自然现象的生动语言。比如,用“少女的黎明”来表示“日出”最初使得黎明人格化,后来演变成有关少女的神话。

  19世纪末期,英国的博物学家查尔斯·达尔文提出的进化理论对神话的研究产生了重要影响。学者们研究神话的历史,就像他们为了研究遥远的古代遗迹而研究化石表露的地质构造一样。(43)在英国的人类学家爱德华·伯纳德·泰勒的作品中可以发现这种方式。在《原始文明》一书(1871年出版)中,泰勒把人类的宗教和哲学发展系统地分成单独并且不同的进化阶段。同样,英国的人类学家詹姆士·乔治·弗雷泽尔在《珍贵的树枝》一书中提出了一个“三阶段进化示意图”。根据弗雷泽尔的示意图,起初,人们把自然现象归结为反复无常的超自然力量(魔法),后来,把它们解释为上帝的意愿(宗教),最后,把它们归类为理性的研究(科学)。

  英国学者威廉?罗伯逊·史密斯的研究报告——登载于1889年的《有关闪族人的宗教的演讲》一文中——也对弗雷泽尔产生了影响。通过史密斯的作品,弗雷泽尔开始认为,许多神话源于古代农业社会人们的宗教仪式习惯,对这些人来说,植物的年轮意义非凡。(44)英国学者简·艾伦·哈里森把“神话和宗教仪式理论”发展得最完美,正如这种方式后来被命名的。应用从法国社会学家埃米尔·德克海姆的作品中获得的见解,哈里森认为,所有神话都源于一个社会的共同宗教仪式。这种方式在英国人类学家A·R·拉德克利夫·布朗所谓的实用主义中达到了极点,拉德克利夫·布朗认为,每一种神话都预示着一种宗教仪式,而每一种宗教仪式也暗示着一种神话。

  18世纪和19世纪有关神话的大多数分析表现出一种把神话归纳成要点的趋势——无论是自然、历史事件还是宗教仪式的季节性循环。一旦叙述中的奇特要素被删除,那么这种要点就可能得到保留。在20世纪,研究人员开始更密切地关注叙述本身。(45)奥地利心理分析家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德认为,神话浓缩了经验素材,然后用符号把它表现出来,就像梦一样。

  Sample Two

  正确排序

  41.[B]  42.[E]  43.[D]  44.[C]  45.[A]

  篇章导读

  本文是一篇“对比与比较”型文章。作者在第1自然段提出了宇宙中外层空间探索生命体的话题。在第2、3、4自然段分析了哲学、生物学对此话题的观点。在第5、6自然段对比性的提出了与上文相反的观点。最后自然地给出了最后一段的结论。

  思路解析

  41「答案」[B]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,本语段的话题为“哲学对于其他生命状态的探索”。其二,本语段的第1个句子中的“we are not alone”紧密地承接了第1自然段的内容。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了总分关系,即“改变观点”和“世界观”。

  42「答案」[E]

  「解析」其一,本语段的话题为“生物学对于其他生命状态的阐释”。其二,本语段的第1个句子中的“biologists”和“molecules”承接了上一段最后一句的内容,即“chemical steps”。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了对比与比较关系,即“哲学与生物学对于外层生命状态的观点”。

  43「答案」[D]

  「解析」其一,本语段的话题为“进化”。其二,本语段的第1个句子承接了上一个段落的内容。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了“比较”关系,段首的“similar reasoning”为逻辑连接表达。

  44「答案」[C]

  「解析」其一,本语段的话题为“生物学上对进化的相反观点”。其二,本语段开头部分的“view”和“self-organization”承接了上一段的内容。其三,本段与上一个段落构成了对比关系,段首的“however”为逻辑连接表达。

  45「答案」[A]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,本语段的话题为“问题的争议”。其二,本语段的第1个句子承接了上一个自然段最后一句的内容,“issues (争议)”与“rival paradigms(争议)”构成了衔接性的照应。其三,本段与上文构成了总结关系,而且从最后一个段落来看,也能构成上下文的一致和连贯。

  参考译文

  [G]一旦发现地球之外有生命,不仅会改变科学,也会改变我们的宗教,我们的信仰体系,以及我们整体的世界观。因为,寻找地球以外的生命,从某个角度来看,其实是人类对自我的寻找——我们是什么?在无垠的宇宙中,我们扮演什么角色?

  41.[B]与大众观点相反,人类对“我们在宇宙中可能不是孤独的”这方面的揣测,其实和哲学本身一样古老。这一方面的推理,有几个基本步骤,建立在古希腊哲学家德谟克利特的原子论上。第一:自然律是有普遍性的。第二:地球本身没有什么特别、专宠之处。第三:有可能发生的事,大自然就倾向于让它发生。哲学归哲学,物理方面的细节还需要填补。天文学家愈来愈趋向于这个假设:宇宙间适合生物生存的行星可能有很多。虽然如此,学者仍然不了解造成生命起源的化学变化步骤。

  42.[E]从前的生物学家认为生命是非常态的——分子排列是从亿兆分之一机率中产生的意外排比结果。因此,同样的意外在宇宙别处重复发生的可能性趋近于零。这个观点来自于热力学第二定律。这条定律预测宇宙正走向死亡——缓慢地,不可避免地崩解到完全的混乱。生命现象违反这个趋向,只因为这纯属统计上的偶然现象。

  43.[D]同样的推理也适用于进化论。按照正统的说法,达尔文式的物竞天择是完全盲目的。人类观感上认为从微生物演变到人类的过程是“进步”,这只是我们的优越感作祟。进化的路线只不过是在无数的可能方向中随机进行。果真如此,就没有所谓的方向,没有所谓内在的前进力量。尤其是,没有推动意识与智慧前进的动力。假如地球被一颗小行星击中,所有的高等生物都被摧毁了。那么,下一轮的演化,几乎可以肯定不会产生有智慧的生物,更不会有类似人类这种生物的诞生。

  44.[C]可是,也有人持相反的看法,而且声势越来越强,直接挑战到正统生物学。这种看法就是:经由自我组织的过程,可以自动产生出复杂的结构。如果物质与能量有内在的倾向,能自我扩张,导向复杂的结构,那么生命的形成以及随后而来的智能的演化,可能性就大幅升高了。“自我组织”论是否适用于生物学引起激烈的辩论。可是我们可以看出来,尽管整个宇宙可能走向死亡,但在自然的本质中还是可能有进步的趋向。这两种互相冲突的理论模式,孰是孰非?在地球以外如果也存在其它生命,尤其是有智慧的生命,就是最关键的证据。

  45.[A]这些问题也和传统的宗教教条直接冲突。许多人仍然坚持相信生命的起源必须经由独特的神意行使。可是,万一地球上的生命不是独一无二的,那么“神迹创造生命”之说就站不住脚了。如果在火星上发现生命,哪怕是一只不起眼的细菌,只要能证明它是独立于地球生命之外而产生的,就能大力支持自然起源说。

  [F]从历史上来看,任何有关地球以外生命的讨论,都被罗马天主教视为异端邪说。哲学家布鲁诺在1600年被绑在木桩上烧死,原因之一就是他猜想可能有其他有生命的世界存在。凡是一神论的宗教,都很强调要相信人类与神的特殊关系。如果一旦发现有外星生物存在,尤其是这些生物在智慧与精神方面比人类更先进,这种一厢情愿的看法,就会不攻而破。

  Sample Three

  篇章导读

  本文谈论的中心是缓解压力的方法。使用的主要思维方式是“一般——特殊型”。从各个侧面谈论了如何有效地缓解压力。注意在做此类题型时,一般不要从专有名词的照应角度去看。从这种角度去看往往会落入命题干扰的“陷阱”。语义的一致性是最基本的原则。

  思路解析

  41「答案」[C]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题概念来看,选项中的“carbohydrates(碳水化合物)”与原文中的“food”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据说明的就是食物对于缓解压力的作用。其三,注意本段中上下义词的关系分析。

  42「答案」[B]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题概念来看,选项中的“aerobic exercise”与原文中的“run”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据说明的就是锻炼对于缓解压力的功能。其三,注意本语段“锻炼”概念在原文的表达方式分析。

  43「答案」[D]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,归纳本选项中的内容,不难看出写作的主要目的是为了说明调整看待问题角度的好处。其二,注意作者在本语段的写作中大量使用了疑问句,分析其在段落中的功能或作者表达的深层含义。其三,本语段与原文的已知部分共同作为论据支持了该段标题的论点。

  44「答案」[F]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题概念来看,选项中的“laughter”、“comedian”与原文中的“the light side”、“joke”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据阐明了轻松看待问题的效果。其三,注意分析本语段中“幽默”概念的相关表达。

  45「答案」[E]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“some breathing space”与原文中的“a timeout”等构成了篇章的词汇衔接关系。其二,从论点和论据的论证关系来看,本论据说明的就是留给自己休息时间对减轻压力的重要性。其三,注意分析各个发展段落与全文第1、2自然段之间的内在的、分析性的思维关系。

  干扰分析

  选项[A]分析。本选项的意义为:有20%的成年人发脾气的频率高得足以威胁他们的健康,威廉斯认为他便是这些人中的一个。但是每个人都可以试一下他应付引人发怒的刺激因素的方法——且不只局限在工作环境中。虽然就压力和健康的话题来说,与原文有一定的相关性,但是本选项从功能来看不能为原文论点提供充分的论证。

  参考译文

  冬日恶劣的天气、白昼时间的缩短和家庭的需求等都可能加剧人的压力感。据美国压力学院院长保罗·罗施博士透露,美国中西部某头痛诊所曾报道,与一年中其它的六周时间段相比,在从感恩节到圣诞节这六周时间里,感到紧张和周期性偏头痛的人增加了40%.

  目前许多医生在接受缓解紧张和压力方面的技术培训。但他们自己又使用哪些方法呢?在这里,一些优秀的健康专家与我们分享他们最喜欢用的缓解压力的方法。方法共有六种,它们是:

  (41)食物镇静法。当营养生化学家朱迪思·沃尔特曼受到压力困扰时,她所做的和这个季节里其他人所做的没什么两样:吃些东西。但她吃的是一两块有益于健康的米糕。[C]“我的研究结果表明,碳水化合物能提高大脑中调节情绪的化学血清素的水平,这对整个人体都起到镇静作用,”这位麻省理工学院的科学家说,“因此压力的症状诸如愤怒、紧张、易怒、无法集中精力等便被缓解了。”

  (42)跑步避开你的问题。肯尼思·H·库珀医生用每天下班后跑步的方法应付自己所面临的压力。[B]这位专家认为:“增氧健身运动是驱除压力和从工作过渡到家庭生活的最佳方法。”但他提醒说,不要让运动本身变成压力。即使轻度的活动——譬如说每天散步半个小时——也有利于强健体魄,调节情绪。“这便是我告诉患者务必每天遛狗的原因,”他笑着说,“即使他们没有狗。”

  (43)调整看问题的方法。梅奥诊所应付压力专家,心理学家约翰·泰勒驾车驶入医院准备投入一天紧张的工作时,他看到他微型汽车的汽油更换指示灯啪地一声打开了。他面对的是不间断会见病人的日程表,下班后还要去接三岁的孩子。“我感到非常紧张”,他回忆说,接着他试用他驱赶压力的方法。他问自己,这是生死攸关的问题吗?不是,油完全可以下个星期去换。[D]他告诉患者只做那些不做就会造成严重的事情。“你不洗那些衣服就会死去吗?”他问。他特别提出,每天应留半小时做你喜欢做的事情,给自己重新充电。尤其是在假日里,放下一些日常的家务事,为与家人和朋友相处留些时间。

  (44)朝轻松的方面看。作家兼教育家乔尔·古德曼和几位忧虑的病人亲戚们一起乘坐一辆旅馆免费接客车。司机开始给饱尝压力的乘客们讲笑话。“后为他变了几个小戏法使我和母亲笑了起来。”古德曼说,“在乘车的五分钟内,他教会我们幽默可以缓解压力”。[F]古德曼被自己这段经历所打动,对笑的力量进行了研究。他认为:“开心的笑可以放松肌肉、降低血压、抑制与压力有关的荷尔蒙的分泌并增强免疫系统。”在他的研讨会上,他让客人们自问他们最喜欢的喜剧演员会如何看待这个让人感到压力的处境。

  (45)给自己留出休息时间。超负荷的日程表是导致忧虑的主要原因。这种压力的产生可以通过提前做准备加以阻止。[E]心脏病学专家雷·罗森曼在旧金山芒特·蔡恩医院做内科副主任时,他每天在日程表中留出半小时。“如果有急论,我就把这段时间留给病人,”《甲种行为与你的心脏》的合著者罗森曼说,“不然我就用这半小时回电话或翻看信件。你虽然不可能控制所有的事情,但你可以控制你的日程表,给自己留出一点休息的时间。”

  做点祷告。科罗拉多州博尔德市的心理学家和医学科学家琼·博里森科主张,因为大多数人花费太多时间为过去感到极度痛苦或为将来感到忧虑,所以减轻压力的关键在于学会如何使现在的生活富有激情。

  “要做到这一点,依靠某种仪式是有益处的,”博里森科说。她感到最放松的时候是“我每天早晨所祈祷时”。祷告已显示出可使新甲肾上腺素和肾上腺素这类造成压力的荷尔蒙减少。

  但要记住,博里森科说,医生无法打开病人的“内在愈合系统。”那种内在的平静只有通过你自己的努力才能达到。如果你饱受压力之苦,就自己行动起来吧。

  Sample Four

  篇章导读

  本文为一篇“一般——特殊型”思维的文章。文章主要谈论的是枫树的传说。篇章具体谈论了传说、加拿大人对枫树的喜爱、枫树的象征意义和枫树一词的词源探索等方面。

  思路解析

  41「答案」[E]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.”与原文段落的“The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales”构成同义转述的关系。其二,从分析性思维的角度来看,本段详尽地谈论了一个被受欢迎的传说。其三,本语段承接了上文所引出的关于枫树传说的话题。

  42「答案」[D]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的内容为原文主题句的同义表达。注意不能选择错误的选项[F].其二,从分析性思维的角度来看,本段详尽讨论了Nokomis在枫树的帮助下战胜了wendigos恶魔的过程。其三,本语段与上一个段落共同阐述了传说的故事内容。

  43「答案」[A]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项的内容为原文信息的推理和归纳,即枫树对加拿大文化的影响。其二,从分析性思维的角度来看,本段作者着重谈论了加拿大人对枫树的喜爱。其三,本语段与上段最后的句群有很好的一致性。

  44「答案」[C]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“contemplation”概念为原文“suspect”、“speculate”等概念的归纳。其二,从分析的角度来看,本段作者着重谈论了自己对于枫树在世界范围分布的看法和观点。其三,本语段与上一个段落共同阐述了人们对枫树看法。

  45「答案」[B]

  「解析」本题的选择可以至少从以下三个角度考虑。其一,从本语段话题角度来看,选项中的“token”概念为原文“imagination”、“emblem”“poem”、“symbol”等等概念的归纳。其二,从分析性思维的角度来看,作者探索了枫树成为加拿大象征的来源。其三,本语段内使用的是总分逻辑。此外注意最后两个自然段之间话题的一致性和语义的连贯性。

  参考译文

  (1)对加拿大人来说,秋天篝火中燃烧的枫树冒出的烟气就是薰香。糖枫树给人带来扑鼻的香气,耀眼的色彩和令人咂舌回味的甘甜,它促使我写下这篇文章,告诉大家我最喜爱的一个神话以及“maple”(枫树)一词的独特词源。

  (2)在奥吉布瓦族印第安人的民间传说里,枫树总会赫然显现出来,占有重要的地位。每年熬制枫糖的时节就“在‘枫树月’里”。在奥吉布瓦人的心目中,最原始的女性形象是一个聪明的老奶奶,名叫诺柯米丝。有一个关于四季轮回的传说讲到,一群叫温迪格的食人恶鬼在秋天的乡野追赶诺柯米丝。温迪格们是在滴水成冰的严寒里生长起来的。它们侵入人体时,人的心脏就冻成冰块。在这个故事里,温迪格们代表将要来临的冬天。它们正在追逐可怜的诺柯米丝,要把她杀死吃掉,因为她像夏天一样已经衰老。

  (3)诺柯米丝知道,她若是被抓则必死无疑,于是她运用智谋蒙蔽那群冷酷的恶鬼。她躲进一片红色、橙色、深黄色的枫树林里。树林长在一挂瀑布旁边,瀑布的水雾使树林的轮廓变得模糊。当那些口滴馋涎的温迪格们透过水雾费力地窥探时,以为看见了一团熊熊的烈火,以为自己追逐的猎物正在烈火中燃烧。其实诺柯米丝老奶奶只不过是被她的枫树朋友用红得发亮的叶子掩蔽起来了。于是温迪格们不追了,它们流着口水,喘着粗气,口水顷刻结成了冰,呵气顷刻凝成了霜;它们就这样走了,去寻找更容易捕获的猎物。那些枫树由于救了大地母亲诺柯米丝的命而得到了上天的特别恩赐:它们的生命液将永远甘甜,加拿大人将汲取这汁液来获取营养。

  (4)枫树和枫糖浆甜蜜地进入了加拿大式幽默之中。魁北克省人以“sirop d‘erable”亲切地称呼枫糖浆,而对各种含有黏乎乎葡萄糖液的仿制枫糖浆,总要加上一个带强烈贬意的词,把这种含糖的“冒牌货”叫作“sirop de Poteau”,意为“电线杆糖浆”或“死树糖浆”。

  (5)有人说,枫糖浆只是北美洲才有,我认为这种说法不可信。中国有近百种枫树,比世界上任何国家都多。加拿大只有十个原生的品种。诚然,北美洲有幸成为汁液最甜、流量最多的糖枫故乡。可是,要是说在中国几千年的历史上,善于创新的中国人从来没有采过枫树的汁液,没有尝过它的味道,我们能相信吗?我想他们是尝过的。那些最早跨过白令海峡“陆桥”来北美洲和南美洲繁衍生息的原始印第安人,有没有可能带来关于枫糖浆的知识呢?中文里有没有表述枫糖浆的古老词语呢?中国文学里有没有提到枫糖浆呢?我这个不懂中文的人对这些问题有些望而怯步,但也不是找不到答案。

  (6)有一点是肯定的,枫树总是牵动着我们民族的想象力。早在1700年,枫叶就被用作“新法兰西”殖民地的徽记了。到了19世纪中期,枫叶已成为英属加拿大省份的徽记了。1867年秋季,多伦多市一个名叫亚历山大·缪尔的小学教师疲惫地走在市区的一条大街上,整个路面覆盖着一层松软的落叶,踩在脚下发出扑哧、扑哧的声响。他走着走着,突然间一片枫叶落到他的外衣袖子上,粘住了。当天晚上,他在家写下一首诗,并谱了曲,以庆祝加拿大自治领成立。缪尔创作的这首名为《永远的枫叶》的歌曲,受到公众的热烈欢迎,它还把枫叶这个象征物与加拿大紧密地联系在一起。

  (7)“maple”(枫树)来自古英语表述枫树的词,“mapeltreow”。“maple”的原始日尔曼语词根是mapl-.这是一个复合词根,我相信它的第一部分m-就是那几乎遍及全世界的ma,即人类最早发出的声音之一,也就是婴儿撅起嘴唇要吮吸母乳时发出的声音。Ma这个词根在世界上许多语言里都有,构成了几千个词,如“mama”(妈妈)、“mammary”(****的)、“maia”(母亲[源于希腊神话])、“Amazon”(亚马逊族女武士)等。在这里,它可以使mapl-指“有营养的母亲树”,也就是说,一棵有着营养丰富的枫液的树。这个复合词根的第二部分apl-,是印欧语系的abel的变体,意为“任何树产的水果”,它也是英语中另一个表示水果的词“apple”(苹果)的词源。因此,这种原始的类比法就使枫叶的汁液与另一种有营养的汁液——母乳——相媲美了。

www.59wj.com 如果觉得《2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二》模拟试题,kaoyan不错,可以推荐给好友哦。
本文Tags: 考研 - 考研英语 - 模拟试题,kaoyan,
在百度中搜索相关文章:2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二
在谷歌中搜索相关文章:2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二
在soso中搜索相关文章:2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二
在搜狗中搜索相关文章:2011年考研英语模拟题及答案和参考译文二
相关分类导航|
热门推荐|