Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word（s） for each numbered blank and mark A， B， C， D on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
By the end of the Middle Ages the technological systems called cities had long since become a central feature of Western life. In 1600 London and Amsterdam each had populations of more than 100 000， and twice that number
The Industrial Revolution
One of the most important innovations in the weaving process was
1. ［A］ resided ［B］ assembled ［C］ removed ［D］ abandoned
2. ［A］ developed ［B］ exploited ［C］ loomed ［D］ completed
3. ［A］ Nationalism ［B］ Materialism ［C］ Intelligenceism ［D］ olonialism
4. ［A］ impoverished ［B］ powerful ［C］ snobbish ［D］ compassionate
5. ［A］ cultivate ［B］ consume ［C］ display ［D］ create
6. ［A］ species ［B］ luxuries ［C］ flavors ［D］ diversities
7. ［A］ style ［B］ form ［C］ sort ［D］ variant
8. ［A］ Until ［B］ During ［C］ Upon ［D］ By
9. ［A］ terminate ［B］ accomplish ［C］ stimulate ［D］ initiate
10. ［A］ implements ［B］ apparatus ［C］ techniques ［D］ robots
11. ［A］ commenced ［B］ displaced ［C］ fulfilled ［D］ deepened
12. ［A］ guesswork ［B］ network ［C］ cyberspace ［D］ info-tech
13. ［A］ appeared ［B］ diverted ［C］ entailed ［D］ evaded
14. ［A］ estate ［B］ textile ［C］ habitat ［D］ excerpt
15. ［A］ within ［B］ before ［C］ between ［D］ onto
16. ［A］ intensified ［B］ replaced ［C］ threatened ［D］ sterilized
17. ［A］ invention ［B］ plantation ［C］ utilization ［D］ determination
18. ［A］ discovered ［B］ nominated ［C］ introduced ［D］ miniaturized
19. ［A］ ponder ［B］ design ［C］ advance ［D］ formulate
20. ［A］ prophesied ［B］ foretold ［C］ dictated ［D］ preached
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （40 points）
Biologically，there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe which appears to be utterly devoid of humor，we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury，for unlike any other bodily process，laughter does not seem serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divided world，a laughter is a unifying force. Human begins oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps，but we all share the ability to laugh. And laughter，in turn，depends on the most complex and subtle of all-human qualities: a sense of humor. Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of Charlie Chaplain's early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we come from. As that great commentator on human affairs， Dr. Samuel Johnson，once remarked，“Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.”
A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from refined tinkle to an earth-quaking roar，but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side，we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy，so we never get a lop-sided view of things.
This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so often on the brink of war，political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such circumstances，cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about wars in Gulliver's Travels. The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they can't agree which end to break an egg. We laugh because we are meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is no wonder that in totalitarian regimes any satire against the Establishment is wholly banned. It is too powerful weapon to be allowed to flourish.
The sense of humor must be singled out as man's most important quality because it is associated with laughter. And laughter，in turn，is associated with happiness. Courage， determination，initiative—these are qualities we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals of life， then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.
21. The author quotes Dr. Samuel Johnson's words to
［A］ criticize the hypocrisy of politicians.
［B］ readdress the popularity of Chaplin.
［C］ illustrate a universal appeal of humor.
［D］ ban satires in totalitarian regimes.
22. According to the author， which of the following can be a chief function of the sense of humor?
［A］ Strengthening human relations. ［B］ Keeping a correct sense of values.
［C］ Eliminating comic stereotypes. ［D］ Singling out adverse comments.
23. If one gets a lop-sided view of things， he is likely to
［A］ detach tragedy from comedy. ［B］ associate humor with laughter.
［C］ identify pain with happiness. ［D］ combine satire with irony.
24. We can infer from Paragraph 3 that
［A］ satires and ironies overemphasize less serious aspects of human life.
［B］ arrogant politicians enable others to appreciate profound actions.
［C］ many issues on trivialities may arise for lack of a touch of humor.
［D］ a sense of humor inevitably prompts us to take ourselves seriously.
25. To which of the following is the author likely to agree?
［A］ Satire and irony can be very harsh and cruel，not funny at all.
［B］ It is absurd to stress the quality of humor at the expense of others.
［C］ Human affairs are often an inappropriate subject for humor.
［D］ A sense of humor is the most important of all human qualities.
Let us suppose that you are in the position of a parent. Would you allow your children to read any book they wanted to without first checking its contents? Would you take your children to see any film without first finding out whether it is suitable for them? If your answer to these questions is “yes”， then you are either extremely permissive， or just plain irresponsible. If your answer is “no”， then you are exercising your right as a parent to protect your children from what you consider to be undesirable influences. In other words，by acting as a censor yourself， you are admitting that there is a strong case for censorship.
Now， of course， you will say that it is one thing to exercise censorship where children are concerned and quite another to do the same for adults. Children need protection and it is the parents' responsibility to provide it. But what about adults? Aren't they old enough to decide what is good for them? The answer is that many adults are， but don't make the mistake of thinking that all adults are like yourself. Censorship is for the good of society as a whole. Highly civilized people might find it possible to live amicably together without laws of any kind: they would just rely on good sense to solve their problems. But imagine what chaos there would be if we lived in a society without laws! Like the law，censorship contributes to the common good.
Some people think that it is disgraceful that a censor might interfere with works of art. Who is this person， they say，to ban this great book or cut that great film? No one can set himself up as a superior being. But we must remember two things. Firstly，where genuine works of art are concerned，modern censors are extremely liberal in their views—often far more liberal than a large section of the public. Artistic merit is something which censors clearly recognize. And secondly， we must bear in mind that the great proportion of books，plays and films which come before the censor are very far from being “works of art.”
When discussing censorship，therefore，we should not confine our attention to great masterpieces， but should consider the vast numbers of publications and films which make up the bulk of the entertainment industry. When censorship laws are relaxed， unscrupulous people are given a license to produce virtually anything in the name of “art”. There is an increasing tendency to equate “artistic” with “pornographic”. The vast market for pornography would rapidly be exploited. One of the great things that censorship does is to prevent certain people from making fat profits by corrupting the minds of others. To argue in favor of absolute freedom is to argue in favor of anarchy. Society would really be the poorer if it deprived itself of the wise counsel and the restraining influence which a censor provides.
26. In the first paragraph， some questions are raised to parents
［A］ to pose an irony on their utter ignorance.
［B］ to poke a fun at their irresponsibility.
［C］ to introduce the argument for censorship.
［D］ to show how children can run wild.
27. Some people assert that works of arts to be censored
［A］ might fall victim to prejudices of censors.
［B］ must subject children to bad influences.
［C］ will stand up to any liberal censorship.
［D］ can be an obstacle to making fat profits.
28. The author maintains that a censor can provide the restraining influence
［A］ in the interests of civilized people. ［B］ for the benefit of the whole society.
［C］ in response to widespread chaos. ［D］ in the name of authentic critics.
29. According to the last paragraph， “artistic” is to “pornographic” as
［A］ “absolute” to “relative”. ［B］ “prudent” to “foolish”.
［C］ “graceful” to “awkward”. ［D］ “elegant” to “obscene”.
30. Which of the following would be the best title for the passage?
［A］ Be Strict With Your Children. ［B］ Different Censor Authorities.
［C］ Censor Art Works Rigorously. ［D］ Responsibilities of Parents.
The housing market has been for two years propping up consumers' spirits while the rest of the economy lies exhausted on the floor， still trying to struggle to its feet. According to the National Association of Realtors，the national median existing-home price ended the year at ＄164 000，up 7.1 percent from 2001. That's the strongest annual increase since 1980.
Although residential real estate activity makes up less than 8% of total U.S. GDP，a housing market like this one can make the difference between positive and negative growth. Most significantly，consumer spending is 66% of GDP， and the purchase of a new home tends to have an “umbrella effect” on the homeowner's spending as he has to stock it with a washer/dryer， a new big-screen TV， and maybe a swing set for the yard.
The main factor in housing's continued strength is a classic economic example of zero-sum boom: the persistent weakness everywhere else. As the 2003 recovery continues to be more forecast than reality. Falling stock prices raised investor appeal for U.S. Treasury Bonds， which in turn， allowed most interest rates to drift even lower. But there are not many signs that there's a bubble ready to burst.
December's new record in housing starts，for example，was nicely matched by the new record in new home sales. If you build it，they will buy and even if an economic pickup starts to reduce housing's relative attractiveness，there's no reason why modest economic growth and improved consumer mood can't help sustaining housing's strength. “The momentum gained from low mortgage interest rates will carry strong home sales into 2003，with an improving economy offsetting modestly higher mortgage interest rates as the year progresses，”said David Lereah， chief economist at the National Association of Realtors.
Just as housing has taken up much of the economic slack for the past two years， both as a comforting investment for fretting consumers and a driver of consumer spending itself， a big bump elsewhere in the economy in 2003 could be housing's downfall. If stocks roar back this spring，capital inflows could steal from the bond market， pushing up long-term interest rates. Or Alan Greenspan and the Fed could do the same to short-term rates，as a way to hit the brakes on a recovery that is heating up too fast. In other words，if everything possible goes wrong for housing， homeowners should have plenty to compensate them in terms of job security and income hikes.
31. The author draws a contrast between the housing market and the rest of the economy to show
［A］ the role of real estate activity. ［B］ the statistics on home prices.
［C］ the boom of housing market. ［D］ the degree of consumer spirits.
32. According to the writer， what may be chiefly responsible for the “umbrella effect” （Paragraph 2）?
［A］ Sustainable bond markets. ［B］ Robust housing market.
［C］ Bubbly stock markets. ［D］Ill-natured consumers.
33. By the expression “zero-sum boom” （Paragraph 3）， the writer means
［A］ housing's continued strength and the persistent weakness may cancel each other out.
［B］ there are signs that improved consumer mood fails to help sustain housing's strength.
［C］ stock price' negative growth will ultimately offset housing market's positive strength.
［D］ higher mortgage interest rates are compatible with the recovery of the economy.
34. It is implied in the passage that the economy in the year 2003 may
［A］ grow moderately. ［B］ struggle to its feet.
［C］ heat up too fast. ［D］ continue to boom.
35. What is the writer's attitude toward future housing market?
［A］ Carefree. ［B］ Optimistic.
［C］ Composed. ［D］ Gloomy.
In promising to fuse media as diverse as television， telephone communication， video games， music and data transmission， the era of digital convergence goes better than yesterday's celebrated “information superhighway”. Yet achieving this single technology is far from straightforward. There are currently three major television broadcast standards， and they are all incompatible with each other. But this is nothing compared to the many technologies supporting the Internet， each with a different bandwidth and physical media. The problems faced in designing platforms and communication systems that will be accepted across the world can appear insuperable.
Even once global standards are assured， however， a further obstacle lies in wait. The Internet is plagued by long， erratic response times because it is a pull-technology， driven by patterns of user demands. Push technology， on the other hand， reverses the relationship: servers simply send information to passive users， as in television and radio. But if some form of combination between one-way television flow and interactive Internet is to be the basis of our future media， it is hard to see how it could be operated. Moreover， the problem of fusing Internet with television is also one of defining the services offered. Information， entertainment and relaxation appear at first to be quite different needs. Serious doubts remain over whether consumers will be interested in having to make the sort of mental effort associated with computing while also settling down in front of a sitcom.
Besides the issue of consumer habits， infrastructure costs are set to be immense， and will have to be met by national states or the private sector before being passed on to users. Platforms do not necessarily have to be expensive. The mobile phone is a good example of how something that is technologically sophisticated can almost be given away， with its cost recovered through service charges. Users are then coerced through clever marketing to upgrade to newer phones with more features to reinforce their dependence.
Whatever the outcome， it is obvious that technology will play an increasing part in our everyday lives. Beyond technology， digital convergence embraces the services， industrial practices and social behavior that form modern society. We have in our hands the technology to construct the most sophisticated machines ever built， but if they are unusable， simply because of their operating instructions， then recent lessons have taught us they will not survive. Whatever we design must be simple， reliable and useful. Perhaps this is where artificial intelligence will come in.
36. By digital convergence， the writer means
［A］ diversification of communication systems.
［B］ integrating a wide range of means of media.
［C］ adaptation of global standards to consumer habits.
［D］ detaching entertainment from communications.
37. In pointing out the problems faced in digital convergence， the author mainly employs the technique of
［A］ cause and effect analysis. ［B］ argumentation and comments.
［C］ contrast and comparison. ［D］ enumeration and elaboration.
38. By referring to the mobile phone， the author intends to show
［A］ a solution to costs involved in the technology.
［B］ the importance of catering to customers' needs.
［C］ a trick imposed on users by telephone companies.
［D］ the necessity of adding more features to phones.
39. The author asserts that the success of digital convergence will ultimately depend upon
［A］ considerable reduction of infrastructure costs.
［B］ standardization of communications systems.
［C］ practical designs by artificial intelligence.
［D］ dismissal of conventional consumer habits.
40. Towards the technology of digital convergence， the author's attitude can best be said to be one of
［A］ suspicion. ［B］ optimism.
［C］ frustration. ［D］ pessimism.
Part B 本部分内容请参见211页
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （10 points）
All U.S. nuclear weapons production facilities are presently closed down，and if the various agreements are adhered to， those facilities will never be required except for one critical capability. All modern nuclear weapons use uranium （铀）， plutonium（钚）， and tritium（氚）. Uranium and plutonium have very long half-lives， and there is large surplus of these materials.
Tritium， however， has a relatively short half-life of about 12.6 years，so about 5 percent of the amount on hand must be replaced each year to maintain the current inventory. （46） Because of the large retirement of nuclear weapons by the United States in compliance with early agreements and national policy， tritium from retired weapons has been used to make up that lost through natural decay . （47） However，in about 10 to 15 years，depending on future negotiations，the United States will need a guaranteed supply of tritium to maintain its stockpile at whatever level is agreed on .
In anticipation of this future need to produce tritium，Defense Office Executive is pursuing two technologies. One uses a nuclear reactor that could also produce electricity whose sale would recover not only the capital cost of the reactor but also its annual operational cost. （48）Unfortunately，the present Administration has a definite bias against nuclear power， so an alternative method is also being pursued even though it is agreed that it will cost twice as much as a reactor and use as much electricity as a reactor would produce . This technology uses an accelerator to produce high-energy protons that in turn produce neutrons.
The main argument for the accelerator is that it produces no conventional nuclear wastes. （49）Proponents readily admit that it will produce radioactive materials， but with a relatively short half-life compared with that of wastes from spent nuclear fuel . The fact that the accelerator will require the equivalent of a nuclear power plant to supply its electricity is ignored.
（50）Proponents also neglect to mention that about 22 percent of all electrical energy generated in the United States comes from nuclear power plants，so that 22 percent of the power used by the accelerator will generate conventional nuclear wastes，in addition to those the accelerator produces . There is an alternative to either the reactor or the accelerator， which is simply to buy the required tritium from Canada or Russia.
Section Ⅲ Writing
Yesterday you learnt in a newspaper ad that there is a job vacancy in a foreign-owned company. A secretary for the manager is needed. Write a letter to its personnel department，and
1） show your desire for the position，
2） present your qualifications，
3） and express your wish for an job interview.
A. Study the following account of a personal experience carefully and write an essay in no less than 200 words.
B. Your essay must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1） Elaborate your impressions on the story told.
2） And point out its implications in our life.
You should write about 200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （20 points）