SectionⅠ Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word（s）for each numbered blank and mark A，B，C，and D on ANSWER SHEET 1. （10 points）
A budget approved by the European Parliament for the
Minutes after receiving a from ministers to the signing to give time to work out a ， Veil told Britain's Financial Secretary to the Treasury， Nicholas Ridley，she had adopted the budget.
Ridley told reporters speaking to Veil by telephone， “She has adopted it，and she is absolutely that the ministers should write to her in this way without consultation.”
EEC sourcesmost member states would probably to make full payments to the budget as adopted， and the conflict was likely to well into next year.
The ministers' letter to Veil， after a meeting in Brussels Tuesday， of serious consequencesthe budget were adopted.
“The council of ministers appeals to you to put off the adoption of the 1982 budget
The adoption six months of tortuous negotiations between the 434-member Assembly and EEC budget ministers over 1982 .
was blocked in the by parliament's addition earlier this month of some ＄250 million much of it for jobs programs.
The number of people out of
1. ［A］ undergoing B］ confronting C］ plunging ［D］ converting
2. ［A］ consecutive B］ consequent ［C］ sequential ［D］ preceding
3. ［A］ bulk ［B］ plea ［C］ honor ［D］ grant
4. ［A］ delay ［B］ detain ［C］ prolong ［D］ extend
5. ［A］ cooperation ［B］ combination ［C］ compromise ［D］ coincidence
6. ［A］ since ［B］ before ［C］ after ［D］ as
7. ［A］ furious ［B］ cautious ［C］ apprehensive ［D］ nervous
8. ［A］ urgent ［B］ crucial ［C］ prior ［D］ durable
9. ［A］ said ［B］ questioned ［C］ told ［D］ addressed
10. ［A］ contradict ［B］ deny ［C］ refuse ［D］ concede
11. ［A］ stretch ［B］ last ［C］ gear ［D］ proceed
12. ［A］ outlined ［B］ drafted ［C］ polished ［D］ compiled
13. ［A］ warned ［B］ disposed ［C］ dreamt ［D］ conceived
14. ［A］ even if ［B］ if ［C］ so that ［D］ for
15. ［A］ until ［B］ while ［C］ although ［D］ since
16. ［A］ characterized ［B］ followed ［C］ stimulated ［D］ brought
17. ［A］ spending ［B］ provisions ［C］ survey ［D］ slogan
18. ［A］ Clash ［B］ Agreement ［C］ Option ［D］ Abundance
19. ［A］ end ［B］ dawn ［C］ event ［D］ dark
20. ［A］ reach ［B］ shape ［C］ impulse ［D］ work
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions: Reading the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A， B， C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. （40 points）
Federal Reserve Board Chairman Alan Greenspan laid forth the intellectual basis for the likely continued aggressive easing in monetary policy in the weeks ahead in his semi-annual monetary policy report to Congress.
The broader point in his prepared testimony is that the improved information and production controls evident in the new economy induce companies to respond more quickly and in tandem to changes in their business. Mistakes are still made as is evidenced by the unwanted buildup of inventories at the end of last year，but any mistakes are more aggressively addressed than in the past， as is evidenced by manufacturers' recent slashing of production. Moreover， the increasingly dramatic shifts in economic activity are particularly hard on confidence. Consumers and businesses literally freeze up due to the heightened uncertainty， and run from any perceived risks and curtail their spending and investment. If confidence deflates by enough，then a recession will ensue.
Confidence has also been under extraordinary pressure in recent months due to surging energy prices and weaker stock prices. Higher energy bills have acted much like a tax increase， save the checks are largely being written to foreign energy producers. The lower stock prices are having a magnified impact due to the dramatic increase in stock wealth since the mid-1990s.
The conduct of monetary policy must adjust to all of this，and thus respond more quickly and aggressively than in the past in an effort to shore up confidence. This explains the dramatic and unprecedented action （at least by a Greenspan-led Federal Reserve）to cut the federal funds rate target by 100 basis points in January: This also suggests that substantially more easing is on the way in the weeks ahead. Just when and by how much will depend on whether confidence continues to fall.
The chairman made a point to note that policymakers have significant latitude to ease policy aggressively since inflation remains low and tame. Despite surging energy prices，inflation and inflation expectations remain contained.
The Federal Reserve's economic projections for this year provided as part of the testimony support this non-recessionary view. Real GDP is expected to grow by between 2% and 2.5% between the fourth quarter of 2000 and the fourth quarter of this year. Since this is below the economy's potential growth，the jobless rate will rise to approximately 4.5% by year's end. Inflation will moderate somewhat in response.
Recession risks are rising and as high as they have been since the last downturn almost a decade ago. The key buffer between a soft economy and a recessionary one is confidence， and today's testimony by the Federal Reserve chairman clearly indicates that policymakers will be as aggressive as they need to be to ensure that confidence erodes no further. With just a bit of luck they will succeed.
21. The best title for this passage may be
［A］ Greenspan's Testimony. ［B］ A New Economy.
［C］ New Monetary Policy. ［D］ A Confidence Builder.
22. Which of the following can best be applied to the Fed Reserve's conduct of monetary policy? ［A］ Boldness. ［B］ Confidence.
［C］ Caution. ［D］ Moderateness.
23. According to the passage， the new economy is characterized by
［A］ aggressive investment in stock markets.
［B］ swift response of the chairman to recessions.
［C］ wider latitude to ease monetary policy.
［D］ better information and production controls.
24. All of the following may contribute to the deflation of confidence EXCEPT
［A］ lower stock markets. ［B］ less production controls.
［C］ surging energy prices. ［D］ more risk perceptions.
25. Which of the following is the writer most likely to agree with?
［A］ The Fed has determined to ease the monetary policy by the widest margin.
［B］ Making a monetary policy is comparable to conducting a scientific experiment.
［C］ It is of great importance to build up confidence at times of economic recessions.
［D］ Higher energy bills have acted much like addressing mistakes in a testimony.
In my early childhood I received no formal religious education. I did， of course， receive the ethical and moral training that moral and conscientious parents give their children. When I was about ten years old， my parents decided that it would be good for me to receive some formal religious instruction and to study the Bible， if for no other reason than that a knowledge of both is essential to the understanding of literature and culture.
As lapsed Catholics，they sought a group which had as little doctrine and dogma as possible， but what they considered good moral and ethical values. After some searching， they joined the local Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Although my parents did not attend Meetings for Worship very often， I went to First Day School there regularly， eventually completing the course and receiving an inscribed Bible.
At the Quaker School， I learned about the concept to the “inner light” and it has stayed with me. I was，however，unable to accept the idea of Jesus Christ being any more divine than， say， Buddha. As a result， I became estranged from the Quakers who，though believing in substantially the same moral and ethical values as I do， and even the same religious concept of the inner light， had arrived at these conclusions from a premise which I could not accept. I admit that my religion is the poorer for having no revealed word and no supreme prophet，but my inherited aversion for dogmatism limits my faith to a Supreme Being and the goodness of man.
Later， at another Meeting for Worship， I found that some Quakers had similar，though not so strong， reservations about the Christian aspects of their belief. I made some attempt to rejoin a Meeting for Worship，but found that， though they remained far closer to me than any other organized religious group，I did not wish to become one again. I do attend Meeting for Worship on occasion， but it is for the help in deep contemplation which it brings rather than any lingering desire to rejoin the fold.
I do believe in a “Supreme Being” （or ground of our Being， as Tillich would call it）. This Being is ineffable and not to be fully understood by humans. He is not cut off from the world and we can know him somewhat through the knowledge which we are limited to the world. He is interested in and concerned for humankind， but on man himself falls the burden of his own life. To me the message of the great prophets， especially Jesus， is that good is its own reward，and indeed the only possible rewards are intrinsic in the actions themselves. The relationship between each human and the Supreme Being is an entirely personal one.
It is my faith that each person has this unique relationship with the Supreme Being. To me that is the meaning of the inner light. The purpose of life， insofar as a human can grasp it， is to understand and increase this lifeline to the Supreme Being， this piece of divinity that every human has. Thus， the taking of any life by choice is the choice in the closing of some connection to God， and unconscionable. Killing anyone not only denies them their purpose，but corrupts the purpose of all men.
26. This passage is primarily intended to
［A］ explain the roots of his pacifism.
［B］ persuade a friend to convert to Quakerism.
［C］ interpret traditional doctrines and dogmas.
［D］ recall his parents' religious teachings.
27. What is the author's attitude towards the Quakers in terms of their belief?
［A］ Slight contempt. ［B］ Reserved consent.
［C］ Strong support. ［D］ Great disapproval.
28. The author argues that we should seek great understanding of
［A］ our own pacific doctrines. ［B］ our worship for the Supreme Being.
［C］ our own inner lights. ［D］ our connections to religious groups.
29. Which of the following aspects of religious thought would the author definitely reject?
［A］ His parents' moral instructions.
［B］ Moral values conveyed in the inner light.
［C］ Dogmatism of the Quakerism.
［D］ The revealed word of the Supreme Being.
30. If offered a reward for doing a good deed， the author would
［A］ neither take nor refuse the reward.
［B］ make any excuse at all to avoid taking the reward.
［C］ reject the reward indignantly.
［D］ accept it only as a token of good feelings.
Whoever said that victory has many fathers and defeat is an orphan， surely had never heard of the World Trade Organization （WTO）.In the case of the hapless multilateral trade body and its long suffering representatives， the total failure of the opening meeting of the so-called Millennium trade round has lots of people boasting of their role in the violent physical struggle. Well. That's just brilliant. They are proud of being part of a movement that wants to wreck the most important engine of economic growth， prosperity and overall global rising living standards we have—the freedom of trade and movement of people and goods between nations.
The 135-member WTO is composed of sovereign governments wishing to further this goal and ease the settlement of international trade disputes. From the sounds emanating from Seattle， though， it would now seem the WTO has now replaced the Trilateral Commission and the Freemasons as candidate No.1 to take over the world.
Everybody has his favorite
The debate now is over just how effective this anti-globalist coalition will turn out to be. In the heat of the moment， it always looks as though the world as we know it is coming to an end. But the overwhelming likelihood is that we have not actually seen a replay of the anti-Vietnam War movement， which had much clearer focus， obviously，though its consequences were far-reaching. How long，after all，can you protest against cheap imports when those same imports are all over your house?
No， the real reason for the disaster in Seattle is political， and reports coming out of the meeting point to President Clinton as a major culprit. Which may be both good and bad. Taking the long view， other trade rounds have had difficult beginnings，too. It took years to get the Uruguay Round under way， which finally happened in 1986. Thankfully，we will soon be electing another president， and it should be someone whose actions match his rhetoric.
Still，it is a disgrace that the world's greatest trading nation，i.e. the United States，is currently led by a man whose motivations are so narrowly political and egocentric that he has now wrecked any chance of entering the history books as a champion of free trade.
31. According to the passage， the failure of the Seattle meeting is chiefly caused by
［A］ anti-globalist and pro-globalist conflicts.
［B］ President Clinton's wrong initiatives.
［C］ the strong protests from diverse groups.
［D］ the police's failure to maintain order.
32. We can learn from the beginning of the passage that
［A］ different forces contributed to the failure of the Millennium trade round.
［B］ many people bragged of their presence at the Millennium trade round.
［C］ there existed a range of violent debates as to the prospects of the WTO.
［D］ only a few members were proud of their membership of the WTO.
33. One of the WTO's goals as mentioned in the passage is to
［A］ serve as arbiters in international trade disputes.
［B］ ensure cheap export and import of goods unnecessarily.
［C］ bring about the globalization of world's trades.
［D］ encourage free trade and goods exchanges worldwide.
34. By saying that “It's an image that will boggle the mind for years to come，”（the last sentence in Paragraph 3） the author means that
［A］ the WTO is likely to have a negative image in people's mind in the future.
［B］ the WTO will have trouble changing people's way of thinking in the future.
［C］ the startling scene will probably linger in people's mind in the years to come.
［D］ people will lose whatever confidence they hold in the future of the WTO.
35. The author is obviously critical of President Clinton for
［A］ his failing to match his words with his actions.
［B］ his handling the matter in a wrong perspective.
［C］ his lacking historical knowledge about the WTO.
［D］ his overemphasizing the economic role of the WTO.
“Popular art” has a number of meanings，impossible to define with any precision， which range from folklore to junk. The poles are clear enough， but the middle tends to blur. The Hollywood Western of the 1930's for example， has elements of folklore， but is closer to junk than to high art or folk art. There can be great trash， just as there is bad high art. The musicals of George Gershwin are great popular art， never aspiring to high art. Schubert and Brahms， however， used elements of popular music—folk themes—in works clearly intended as high art. The case of Verdi is a different one: he took a popular genre—bourgeois melodrama set to music （an accurate definition of nineteenth-century opera）and，without altering its fundamental nature， transmuted it into high art. This remains one of the greatest achievements in music，and one that cannot be fully appreciated without recognizing the essential trashiness of the genre.
As an example of such a transmutation，consider what Verdi made of the typical political elements of nineteenth-century opera. Generally in the plots of these operas，a hero or heroine—usually portrayed only as an individual， unfettered by class—is caught between the immoral corruption of the aristocracy and the doctrinaire rigidity or secret greed of the leaders of the proletariat. Verdi transforms this naive and unlikely formulation with music of extraordinary energy and rhythmic vitality，music more subtle than it seems at first hearing. There are scenes and arias that still sound like calls to arms and were clearly understood as such when they were first performed. Such pieces lend an immediacy to the otherwise veiled political message of these operas and call up feelings beyond those of the opera itself.
Or consider Verdi's treatment of character. Before Verdi， there were rarely any characters at all in musical drama， only a series of situations which allowed the singers to express a series of emotional states. Any attempt to find coherent psychological portrayal in these operas is misplaced ingenuity. The only coherence was the singer's vocal technique: when the cast changed， new arias were almost always substituted，generally adapted from other operas. Verdi's characters，on the other hand， have genuine consistency and integrity. Even if， in many cases， the consistency is that of pasteboard melodrama，the integrity of the character is achieved through the music: once he had become established. Verdi did not rewrite his music for different singers or countenance alterations or substitutions of somebody else's arias in one of his operas，as every eighteenth-century composer had done. When he revised an opera，it was only for dramatic economy and effectiveness.
36. By referring to Schubert and Brahms， the author suggests that
［A］ the works produced in the 18th century can be all considered as trash.
［B］ the achievements of the two artists overshadow that of Verdi.
［C］ popular music could be applied to compositions intended as high art.
［D］ the term of popular music is susceptible to many definitions.
37. According to the passage， the immediacy of the political message in Verdi's operas stems from the
［A］ audience's familiarity with earlier operas.
［B］ vitality and subtlety of the music employed.
［C］ portrayal of heightened emotional outlets.
［D］ individual talents and skills of the singers.
38. It can be concluded from the passage that the author regards Verdi's revisions to his operas with
［A］ approval for the intentions that motivated the revisions.
［B］ regret that the original musicals and texts were altered.
［C］ concern that the revisions changed plots of the originals.
［D］ disappointment， for the revisions seem largely irrelevant.
39. It can be inferred that the author views the independence from social class of the heroes and heroines of 19th century operas as
［A］ a plot refinement which could be the achievement only by Verdi.
［B］ an idealized but accurate portrayal of bourgeois lifestyles.
［C］ a plot convention with no real connection to political reality.
［D］ a symbolic representation of the social position of aristocrats.
40. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the first paragraph of the passage as a whole?
［A］ It compares and contrasts several achievements that are thoroughly examined later in the passage.
［B］ It defines terms and relationships that are challenged in an argument later in the passage. ［C］ It provides a host of concrete examples from which generalizations are drawn later in the passage.
［D］ It leads to an assertion that is supported by examples and manifestations later in the passage.
Part B 本部分内容请参见211页
Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. （10 points）
Information channeling is undergoing remarkable progress in various sectors of society in industrial activities，public services and，more recently，in daily living.
In the sector of industrial activities，automation is continuing with the aim of increasing productivity—introduction of computers for process control by the manufacturing industry，and introduction of numerically controlled machine tools，industrial robots，computer-aided design systems and， more recently，flexible manufacturing system by processing and assembling industries.
（46）. Rapid automation and efficiency improvement are also being achieved in the sector of commodity distribution through the introduction of advanced point of sales systems.
Information channeling is being utilized actively in the field of public services. （47） （48） . Regarding education， computerized systems including the CAI （computer assisted instruction） system and CMI（ computer managed instruction） system are presently being put to trial operation.
In the sector of administration，efficiency of clerical work is being improved through the introduction of computers， and huge volumes of administrative data are more recently being stored in data base systems. （49）
Daily living is also a sector in which information channeling is taking firm root. （50） . In concert， research is being directed at developing technologies related to automation in the home.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You have bought a brand-new computer in a store. But much to your disappointment，it could not be properly operated when you got it back. Write a letter to the manager，
1） launching your complaints，
2） describing the problems，
3） and making some suggestions.
The Problem of Piracy
A. Study the following picture carefully and write an essay in no less than 200 words.
B. Your essay must be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:
1） interpret the following picture，
2） point out the harmfulness of piracy，
3） and suggest a few counter-measures.