2017年考研英语模拟试题一及答案解析

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2017年考研英语模拟试题一及答案解析

Section Ⅰ Use of English
  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Scientists and philosophers of science tend to speak as if “scientific language” were intrinsically precise, as if those who use it must understand one another's meaning, 1 they disagree. But, 2, scientific language is not as different from3language as is commonly believed; it, too, is 4 to imprecision and ambiguity and hence to 5 understanding. Moreover, new theories (or arguments) are rarely,6, constructed by way of clear-cut steps of induction, deduction, and 7 (or falsification)。 Neither are they defended, rejected, or accepted in 8 straight forward a manner. 9, scientists combine the rules of scientific 10 with a generous mixture of intuition, aesthetics, and philosophical 11. The importance of what are sometimes called extralogical components of thought in the discovery of a new principle or laws is generally 12. We 13 recall Einstein's description: “To these elementary laws there leads no logical path, 14 intuition, supported by being sympathetically in 15 with experience.” But the role of these extralogical components in persuasion and acceptance (in making an argument 16) is less frequently discussed, partly because they are less 17. The ways in which the credibility or effectiveness of a 18 depends on a realm of common experiences, on extensive practice in communicating those experiences in a common language, are hard to see precisely because such19are taken for granted. Only when we step out of such a “consensual domain”—when we can stand out on the periphery of a 20 with a common language.

  1[A] even if [B] unless [C] though [D] if

  2[A] in question [B] in relief [C] in fact [D] in prospect

  3[A] standard [B] popular [C] vulgar [D] ordinary

  4[A] susceptible [B] subject [C] immune [D] related

  5[A] imperfect [B] perfect [C] impersonal [D] personal

  6[A] if so[B] if not all[C] if ever[D] if any

  7[A] verge[B] verification[C] justice[D] certainty

  8[A] so[B] such[C] too[D] very

  9[A] In brief[B] In advance[C] In practice[D] In company

  10[A] psychology[B] methodology[C] archaeology[D] theology

  11[A] community[B] communication[C] committee[D] commitment

  12[A] acknowledged[B] confessed[C] abandoned[D] refined

  13[A] may[B] ought to[C] were to[D] would

  14[A] but rather[B] no more than[C] but only[D] less more than

  15[A] pursuit[B] touch[C] proportion[D] terms

  16[A] convincing[B] wordy[C] ensured[D] unreasonable

  17[A] visual[B] informed[C] imaginative[D] visible

  18[A] statement[B] argument[C] assertion[D] style

  19[A] commodities[B] commons[C] commonalities[D] commonwealth

  20[A] community[B] person[C] country[D] nation

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  The Food and Drug Administration said Wednesday that it is trying to track down as many as 386 piglets that may have been genetically engineered and wrongfully sold into the U.S. food supply.

  The focus of the FDA investigation is pigs raised by researchers at the University of Illinois in Urbana Champaign. They engineered the animals with two genes: One is a cow gene that increases milk production in the sow. The other, a synthetic gene, makes the milk easier for piglets to digest. The goal was to raise bigger pigs faster.

  There has been no evidence that either genetically altered plants or animals actually trigger human illness, but critics warn that potential side effects remain unknown. University officials say their tests showed the piglets were not born with the altered genes, but FDA rules require even the offspring of genetically engineered animals to be destroyed so they don't get into the food supply.
  The FDA, in a quickly arranged news conference Wednesday prompted by inquiries by USA TODAY, said the University of Illinois will face possible sanctions and fines for selling the piglets to a livestock broker, who in turn sells to processing plants.

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  Both the FDA and the university say the pigs that entered the market do not pose a risk to consumers. But the investigation follows action by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in December to fine a Texas company that contaminated 500,000 bushels of soybeans with corn that had been genetically altered to produce a vaccine for pigs.

  Critics see such cases as evidence of the need for more government oversight of a burgeoning area of scientific research. “This is a small incident, but it's incident like this that could destroy consumer confidence and export confidence, ”says Stephanie Childs of the Grocery Manufacturers of America. “We already have Europe shaky on biotech. The countries to whom we export are going to look at this.”

  The University of Illinois says it tested the DNA of every piglet eight times to make sure that the animal hadn't inherited the genetic engineering of its mother. Those piglets that did were put back into the study. Those that didn't were sold to the pig broker. “Any pig who's tested negative for the genes since 1999 has been sent off to market, ”says Charles Zukoski, vice chancellor for research.

  But FDA deputy commissioner Lester Crawford says that under the terms of the university's agreement with the FDA, the researchers were forbidden to remove the piglets without FDA approval. “The University of Illinois failed to check with FDA to see whether or not the animals could be sold on the open market. And they were not to be used under any circumstance for food.”

  The FDA is responsible for regulating and overseeing transgenic animals because such genetic manipulation is considered an unapproved animal drug.

  21. The 386 piglets wrongfully sold into food supply are from

  [A] Europe[B] an American research organization

  [C] a meat processing plant[D] an animal farm

  22. The purpose of the transgenic engineering research is to

  [A] get pigs of larger size in a shorter time

  [B] make sows produce more milk

  [C] make cows produce more milk

  [D] make pigs grow more lean meat

  23. The 4th paragraph shows that the University of Illinois 

  [A] was criticized by the FDA

  [B] is in great trouble

  [C] is required by the FDA to call back the sold piglets

  [D] may have to pay the penalty

  24. The FDA declares that the wrongfully sold piglets

  [A] may have side effects on consumers [B] may be harmful to consumers

  [C] are safe to consumers[D] may cause human illness

  25. It can be inferred from this passage that

  [A] all the offspring have their mothers' genetic engineering

  [B] part of the offspring have their mothers' genetic engineering

  [C] none of the offspring have their mothers' genetic engineering

  [D] half of the offspring have their mothers' genetic engineering

  Text 2

  Foods are overwhelmingly the most advertised group of all consumer products in the United States. Food products lead in expenditures for network and spot television advertisements, discount coupons, trading stamps, contests, and other forms of premium advertising. In other media—newspapers, magazines, newspaper supplements, billboards, and radio—food advertising expenditures rank near the top. Food manufacturers spend more on advertising than any other manufacturing group, and the nation's grocery stores rank first among all retailers.

  Through the 1970's, highly processed foods have accounted for the bulk of total advertising. Almost all coupons, electronic advertising, national printed media advertising, consumer premiums (other than trading stamps) as well as most push promotion come from processed and packaged food products. In 1978, breakfast cereals, soft drinks, candy and other desserts, oils and salad dressings, coffee, and prepared foods accounted for only an estimated 20 percent of the consumer food dollar. Yet these items accounted for about one half of all media advertising.
  By contrast, highly perishable foods such as unprocessed meats, poultry, fish and eggs, fruits and vegetables, and diary products accounted for over half of the consumer food-at-home dollar. Yet these products accounted for less than 8 percent of national media advertising in 1978, and virtually no discount coupons. These products tend to be most heavily advertised by the retail sector in local newspaper, where they account for an estimated 40 percent of retail grocery newspaper ads.

  When measured against total food-at-home expenditures, total measured food advertising accounts for between 3 and 3.7 cents out of every dollar spent on food in the nation's grocery stores. A little less than one cent of these amounts is accounted for by electronic advertising (mostly television) while incentives account for 0.6 cents. The printed media accounts for 0.5 cents and about one-third of one cent is comprised of discount coupon redemptions. The estimate for the cost of push promotion ranged from 0.7 to 1.4 cents. This range is necessary because of the difficulty in separating non-promotional aspects of direct selling-transportation, technical, and other related services.

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  Against this gross consumer must be weighed the joint products or services provided by advertising. In the case of electronic advertising, the consumer who views commercial television receives entertainment, while readers of magazines and newspapers receive reduced prices on these publications. The consumer pays directly for some premiums, but also receives nonfood merchandise as an incentive to purchase the product. The “benefits” must, therefore, be subtracted form the gross cost to the consumer to fully assess the net cost of advertising.

  Also significant are the impacts of advertising on food demand, nutrition, and competition among food manufactures. The bulk of manufacturers' advertising is concentrated on a small portion of consumer food products. Has advertising changed the consumption of these highly processed products relative to more perishable foods such as meats, produce, and dairy products? Has the nutritional content of the U.S. food consumption been influenced by food advertisings? Has competition among manufacturers and retailers been enhance or weakened by advertising? These are important questions and warrant continued research.

  26. The author's attitude toward advertising can be characterized as

  [A] admiring [B] condemning [C] uncertain [D] inquisitive

  27. The term “push promotion”(L. 3, P. 2) means.

  [A] coupon redemption [B] retail advertising

  [C] direct selling [D] advertising in trade journals

  28. The author implies that advertising costs.

  [A] should be discounted by the benefits of advertising to the consumer

  [B] are greater for restaurants than for at home foods

  [C] are much higher in the United Stated than any where else in the world

  [D] cause highly processed foods to outsell unprocessed outsell foods

  29. The purpose of the article is to

  [A] warm about rising food advertising costs

  [B] describe the costs of food advertising and the issues yet to be understood about its effects

  [C] congratulate the food industry on its effective advertising

  [D] calculate the final balance sheet for food advertising

 30. According to the passage, all of the following are definitely false EXCEPT
  [A] more food is advertised in newspapers than on television

  [B] less money is spent advertising food than automobiles

  [C] more of the food advertising budget is probably spent on push promotion than on television ads

  [D] less money is spent on food store advertising than on clothing store ads

  Text 3

  The early retirement of experienced workers is seriously harming the U.S. economy, according to a new report from the Hudson Institute, a public policy research organization. Currently, many older experienced workers retire at an early age. According to the recently issued statistics, 79 percent of qualified workers begin collecting retirement benefits at age 62; if that trend continues, there will be a labor shortage that will hinder the economic growth in the twenty-first century.

  Older Americans constitute an increasing proportion of the population, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, and the population of those over age 65 will grow by 60% between 2001 and 2020. During the same period, the group aged 18 to 44 will increase by only 4%. Keeping older skilled workers employed, even part time, would increase U.S. economic output and strengthen the tax base; but without significant policy reforms, massive early retirement among baby boomers seems more likely.

  Retirement at age 62 is an economically rational decision today. Social Security and Medicaid earnings limits and tax penalties subject our most experienced workers to marginal tax rates as high as 67%. Social Security formulas encourage early retirement. Although incomes usually rise with additional years of work, any pay increases after the 35-year mark result in higher social Security taxes but only small increases in benefits.

  Hudson Institute researchers believe that federal tax and benefit policies are at fault and reforms are urgently needed, but they disagree with the popular proposal that much older Americans will have to work because Social Security will not support them and that baby boomers are not saving enough for retirement. According to the increase in 401 (k) and Keogh retirement plans, the ongoing stock market on Wall Street, and the likelihood of large inheritances, there is evidence that baby boomers will reach age 65 with greater financial assets than previous generations.

  The Hudson institute advocates reforming government policies that now discourage work and savings, especially for older worker. Among the report's recommendations: Tax half of all Social Security benefits, regardless of other income; provide 8% larger benefits for each year beyond 65; and permit workers nearing retirement to negotiate compensation packages that may include a lower salary but with greater healthcare benefits. However, it may take real and fruitful planning to find the right solution to the early retirement of older experienced workers; any measures taken must be allowed to prolong the serviceability of older experienced workers.

  31.According to Hudson Institute researchers, the effect of the early retirement of qualified workers in the U.S. economy is

  [A] constructive [B] significant [C] inconclusive [D] detrimental

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  32.The older experienced workers in America tend to retire early because their prolonged service may

  [A] do harm to younger generations [B] end up with few or no benefits

  [C] give play to their potentials[D] shed light on social trends

  33.The second paragraph is written chiefly to show that

  [A] there will be an acute labor shortage in the near future

  [B] baby-boomers contribute much to the US economic output

  [C] government policies concerning older people are out-dated

  [D] older workers are enthusiastic about collecting social benefits

  34.When mentioning “the ongoing stock market on Wall Street”, the writer

 [A] is calling attention to the privileges to which baby-boomers are entitled
  [B] is calling for the government to take countermeasures against labor shortage

  [C] is refuting a notion about experienced workers' early retirement

  [D] is justifying the ineffectiveness of federal tax and benefit policies

  35.Towards the issue, what the writer is most concerned about will be

  [A] to advocate radically reforming government policies

  [B] to take into account the benefits upon retirement

  [C] to put in practice what Hudson researchers believe in

  [D] to prolong the practicability of older experienced employees

  Text 4

  Before a big exam, a sound night's sleep will do you more good than poring over textbooks. That, at least, is the folk wisdom. And science, in the form of behavioral psychology, supports that wisdom. But such behavioral studies cannot distinguish between two competing theories of why sleep is good for the memory. One says that sleep is when permanent memories form. The other says that they are actually formed during the day, but then “edited” at night, to flush away what is superfluous.

  To tell the difference, it is necessary to look into the brain of a sleeping person, and that is hard. But after a decade of painstaking work, a team led by Pierre Maquet at Liege University in Belgium has managed to do it. The particular stage of sleep in which the Belgian group is interested in is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, when brain and body are active, heart rate and blood pressure increase, the eyes move back and forth behind the eyelids as if watching a movie, and brainwave traces resemble those of wakefulness. It is during this period of sleep that people are most likely to relive events of the previous day in dreams.

  Dr. Maquet used an electronic device called PET to study the brains of people as they practiced a task during the day, and as they slept during the following night. The task required them to press a button as fast as possible, in response to a light coming on in one of six positions. As they learnt how to do this, their response times got faster. What they did not know was that the appearance of the lights sometimes followed a pattern- what is referred to as “artificial grammar”。 Yet the reductions in response time showed that they learnt faster when the pattern was present than when there was not.

  What is more, those with more to learn (i.e., the “grammar”, as well as the mechanical task of pushing the button) have more active brains. The “editing” theory would not predict that, since the number of irrelevant stimuli would be the same in each case. And to eliminate any doubts that the experimental subjects were learning as opposed to unlearning, their response times when they woke up were even quicker than when they went to sleep.

  The team, therefore, concluded that the nerve connections involved in memory are reinforced through reactivation during REM sleep, particularly if the brain detects an inherent structure in the material being learnt. So now, on the eve of that crucial test, maths students can sleep soundly in the knowledge that what they will remember the next day are the basic rules of algebra and not the incoherent talk from the radio next door.

  36.Researchers in behavioral psychology are divided with regard to

  [A] how dreams are modified in their courses

  [B] the difference between sleep and wakefulness

  [C] why sleep is of great benefit to memory

  [D] the functions of a good night's sleep

  37.As manifested in the experimental study, rapid eye movement is characterized by

  [A] intensely active brainwave traces

  [B] subjects' quicker response times

  [C] complicated memory patterns

  [D] revival of events in the previous day

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  38.By referring to the artificial grammar, the author intends to show

  [A] its significance in the study

  [B] an inherent pattern being learnt

  [C] its resemblance to the lights

  [D] the importance of night's sleep

  39.In their study, researchers led by Pierre Maquet took advantage of the technique of

  [A] exposing a longheld folk wisdom[B] clarifying the predictions on dreams

  [C] making contrasts and comparisons[D] correlating effects with their causes

  40.What advice might Maquet give to those who have a crucial test the next day?

  [A] Memorizing grammar with great efforts.

  [B] Study textbooks with close attention.

  [C] Have their brain images recorded.

  [D] Enjoy their sleep at night soundly.

Part B
  Sample One

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Here I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a teacher? Probably no two people would draw up exactly the same lists. But I think the following would be generally accepted.

  First, 41)But it does rule out such types as the overexcitable, melancholy, frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated, and overbearing: I would say too, that it excludes all of dull or purely negative personality.

  Secondly, 42)Closely related with this is the capacity to be tolerant-not, indeed, of what is wrong, but of the frailty and immaturity of human nature which induce people, and again especially children, to make mistakes.

  Thirdly, 43)This does not mean being a saint. It means that he will be aware of his intellectual strengths, and limitations, and will have thought about and decided upon the moral principles by which his life shall be guided. There is no contradiction in my going on to say that a teacher should be a bit of an actor. That is part of the technique of teaching, which demands that every now and then a teacher should be able to put on an act—to enliven a lesson, correct a fault, or award praise. Children, especially young children, live in a world that is rather larger than life.

  On the other hand, 44)He must be pretty resilient, teaching makes great demands on nervous energy. And he should be able to take in his stride the innumerable petty irritations any adult dealing with children has to endure.

  Finally, 45)There are three principle objects of study: the subject, or subjects, which the teacher is teaching; the methods by which they can best be taught to the particular pupils in the classes he is teaching; and - by far the most important-the children, young people, or adults to whom they are to be taught. The cardinal principle of British education is education of the whole person, and that it is best acquired through full and active co-operation between two persons, the teacher and the learner.

  [A]it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have a genuine capacity for sympathy—in the literal meaning of that word; a capacity to tune in to the minds and feelings of other people.

  [B]a teacher must be capable of infinite patience. This, I may say, is largely a matter of selfdiscipline and self-training, because none of us were born like that.

  [C]the teacher's personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. This does not rule out people who are physically plain, or even ugly, because many such have great personal charm.

  [D]A teacher must remain mentally alert, He must be quick to adapt himself to any situation, however improbable (they happen!) and able to improvise, if necessary at less than a moment's notice

  [E]A teacher should be humorous sometimes like a best friend sitting down across from you in your living room having a chat about what's going on in your life.

  [F]I think a teacher should have the kind of mind, which always wants to go on learning. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect; there is always something more to learn about it.

  [G]I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest.

  Sample Two

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45,you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

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 [A] See yourself as successful. If I could plug into the minds of my patients and listen to the statements they make to themselves, I am convinced that the majority of them would be negative: “I'm running late again as usual.” “My hair looks terrible this morning.”“That was a stupid remark I made—she probably thinks I'm a dummy.”Since thousands of these messages flash across our brains every day, it is small wonder that the result is a diminished self-image.
  [B] Author and editor Norman Cousins wrote: “People are never more insecure than when they become obsessed with their fears at the expense of their dreams.” There is no doubt that if we can envision beneficial things happening, they have a way of actually occurring.

  [C] Stevens finally had a heart-to-heart talk with herself:“I realized that I simply wasn't a wit or an intellectual and that I could succeed only as myself. I began listening and asking questions at parties instead of trying to impress the guests. When I spoke, I tried to contribute, not to shine. Almost at once I started to feel a new warmth in my social contacts. They liked the real me better.” If we are true to our instincts, most of us will find that we naturally develop certain trademarks. The discovery and expression of that uniqueness is one reason we are on this planet. Resisting conformity and developing some small eccentricities are among the steps to independence and self-confidence.

  [D] Many of us get interested in a field, but then the going gets tough, we see that other people are more successful, and we become discouraged and quit. But it is of then the boring, repetitive sharpening of our skills that will ultimately enable us to reach our goal.

  [E] Horace Bushnell, the great New England preacher, used to say, “Somewhere under the stars God has a job for you to do, and nobody else can do it.” Some of us must find our place by trial and error. It can take time, with dead ends along the way. But we should not get discouraged because others seem more skilled. Usually it is not raw talent but drive that makes the difference.

  [F] One daily exercise for building self-confidence is called “imaging” or “visualization”。 In order to succeed, you must see yourself succeeding. Picture yourself approaching a difficult challenge with poise and confidence. Athletes often visualize a move over and over in their minds; they see themselves hitting the perfect golf or tennis shot. When we burn such positive images into our minds deeply enough, they become a part of the unconscious, and we begin to expect to succeed.

  [G] Break away from other people's expectations. It is a liberating step when we decide to stop being what other people want us to be. Although opera singer Rise Stevens performed onstage with great poise, the self-confidence she felt before audiences evaporated in social situation. “My discomfort,” she says, “came from trying to be something I was not-a state in the drawing room as well as onstage. If a clever person made a joke, I tried to top it and failed. I pretended to be familiar with subjects I knew nothing of.”

  Order:

  D→

  41→

  42→

  43→

  44→

  45→

  C

  Sample Three

  Direction:

  You are going to read a text about the season for relief, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-45)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Winter's harsh weather, shorter hours of daylight and family demands can all aggravate feelings of stress. According to Dr. Paul Rosch, president of the American Institute of Stress, one Midwestern headache clinic reported that complaints of tension and migraine headaches increased 40 percent from Thanksgiving to Christmas, compared with other six-week periods during the year.

  Many physicians are now trained in techniques to relieve tension and stress. But which strategies do they themselves use? Here top health professionals reveal their favorite stressbusters. Six in all, they are:
  (41) Soothe with food. When nutritional biochemist Judith Wurtman is stressed out, she does what a lot of people do this time of year: she reaches for food. But in her case, it's a healthy rice cake or two.

  (42) Run from your problem. Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper handles his own stress with a daily afterwork run.

  (43) Check your perspective. Driving in for a busy day as a MayoClinic stress-management expert, psychologist John Taylor saw the oil-maintenance light pop on in his minivan. He faced a nonstop schedule of patients and had to pick up his three-year-old after work. “I felt myself tense up,” recalls Taylor, who then tried his quick stress-busting strategy. He asked himself: Is this a matter of life or death? No. The oil could safely be changed the next week.

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  (44) Look to the light side. On his way to the hospital where his father was to undergo surgery, author and educator Joel Goodman shared a hotel courtesy van with the anxious relatives of several patients. The driver began telling his stressed-out passengers a few jokes. “Then he did some magic tricks that had my mother and me laughing,” Goodman says. “In that five-minute ride he taught us that humor can relieve our stress.” The surgery was successful.

  (45) Take a timeout. A major cause of anxiety is an overloaded schedule. It's one source of stress you can ward off by preparing ahead.

  Say a little prayer. Psychologist and medical scientist Joan Bprysenko of Boulder, Colo., maintains that since most people spend too much time agonizing over the past or worrying about the future, the key to lessening stress is learning how to live emotionally in the present.

  “It helps to have some ritual to do this,” says Borysenko. For her the most relaxing ritual is “each morning when I pray”。 Prayer has been shown to reduce the impact of stress hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline.

  But remember, says Borysenko, doctors can't turn on their patient' “internal healing system”。 That inner clam is up to you. So you're sick of stress, heal thyself.

  [A] Williams counts himself among the 20 percent of adults whose susceptibility to anger is high enough to threaten their health. But everyone can try his approach to handling the stressors that set anger off—and it needn't be in a work environment.

  [B] “Aerobic exercise is the best way to dissipate stress and make the transition into family time,” says the expert. But, he cautions, don't let exercise itself become a stress. Even moderate activity—such as a daily 30 minute walk can improve health and mood. “That's why I tell my patients to be sure to walk their dog every day,” he says with a chuckle, “even if they don't have one.”

  [C] “My research suggests that carbohydrates raise levels of the mood-regulating brain chemical serotonin, which exerts a calming effect on the entire body,” says the M.I.T research scientist. “So symptoms of stress—such as anger, tension, irritability and inability to concentrate—are eased.”

  [D] He tells patients to do only those tasks that would have serious consequences if left undone. “Will you die if you don't do the laundry?” he asks. Taking at least half an hour a day to do something you enjoy, he notes, lets you recharge you batteries. Especially around the holidays, skip some routine chores to make time for family and friends.

  [E] When cardiologist Ray Rosenman was associate chief of medicine at San Francisco's Mount Zion Hospital, he would block off half an hour a day on his schedule. “If an emergency came up, I moved patients into that slot,” says Rosenman, co-author of Type A Behavior and Your Heart. “Or used that half-hour to return calls or go through my mail. You can't control everything, but you can control your schedule to create some breathing space for yourself.”

  [F] He was so moved by his experience that he researched laughter's power. “A good laugh relaxes muscles, lowers blood pressure, suppresses stress-related hormones and enhances the immune system,” he says. In his workshops he tells clients to ask themselves how their favorite comedian would see this stressful situation.
  Sample Four

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about employment in Japan. Choose the most suitable heading form the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] Women and Japanese companies

  [B] Why men sometimes resign form Japanese companies

  [C] Permanency in employment in Japan

  [D] The social aspect of work

  [E] The salary structure

  [F] The recruitment strategy of foreign firms

  Every autumn, when recruitment of new graduates and school leavers begins, major cities in Japan are flooded with students hunting for a job. Wearing suits for the first time, they run from one interview to another. The season is crucial for many students, as their whole lives may be determined during this period.

  41

  In Japan, lifetime employment is commonly practiced by large companies. While people working in small companies and those working for subcontractors do not in general enjoy the advantages conferred by the large companies, there is a general expectation that employees will in fact remain more or less permanently in the same job.

  42

  Wages are set according to educational background or initial field of employment, ordinary graduates being employed in administration, engineers in engineering and design departments and so on. Both promotions and wage increases tend to be tied to seniority, though some differences may arise later on as a result of ability and business performance. Wages are paid monthly, and the net sum, after the deduction of tax, is usually paid directly into a bank account. As well as salary, a bonus is usually paid twice a year.

  43

  Many female graduates complain that they are not given equal training and equal opportunity in comparison to male graduates. Japanese companies generally believe that female employees will eventually leave to get married and have children. It is also true that, as well as the still-existing belief among women themselves that nothing should stand in the way of child-rearing, the extended hours of work often do not allow women to continue their careers after marriage.

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  44

  Disappointed career-minded female graduates often opt to work for foreign firms. Since most male graduates prefer to join Japanese firms with their guaranteed security, foreign firms are often keen to employ female graduates as their potential tends to be greater than that of male applicants.

  45

  Some men, however, do leave their companies in spite of future prospects, one reason being to take over the family business. The eldest sons in families that own family companies or businesses such as stores are normally expected to take over the business when their parents retire. It is therefore quite common to see a businessman, on succeeding to his parents' business, completely change his professional direction by becoming, for example, a shopkeeper.

  On the job, working relationships tend to be very close because of the long hours of work and years of service in common. Social life in fact is frequently based on the workplace. Restaurants and nomiya, “pubs”, are always crowded at night with people enjoying an evening out with their colleagues. Many companies organize trips and sports days for their employees. Senior staff often play the role of mentor. This may mean becoming involved in the lives of junior staff in such things as marriage and the children's education.

  Part C
  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)

  The “standard of living” of any country means the average persons share of the goods and services which the country produces. A country's standard of living, therefore, depends first and foremost on its capacity to produce wealth. (46) “Wealth” in this sense is not money, for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy: “goods” such as food and clothing, and “services” such as transport and entertainment.

  A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors, most of which have an effect on one another. Wealth depends to a great extent upon a country's natural resources, such as coal, gold, and other minerals, water supply and so on. (47) Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have a fertile soil and a favorable climate; other regions possess none of them.

  Next to natural resources comes the ability to turn them to use. (48) Some countries are perhaps well off in natural resources, but suffered for many years from civil and external wars, and for this and other reasons have been unable to develop their resources. Sound stable political conditions, and freedom from foreign invasion, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily, and to produce more wealth than another country equally well served by nature but less well ordered. Another important factor is the technical efficiency of a country's people. Industrialized countries that have trained numerous skilled workers and technicians are better placed to produce wealth than countries whose workers are largely unskilled.

  (49) A country's standard of living does not only depend upon the wealth that is produced and consumed within its own borders, but also upon what is indirectly produced through international trade. For example, Britain's wealth in foodstuffs and other agricultural products would be much less if she had to depend only on those grown at home. Trade makes it possible for her surplus manufactured goods to be traded abroad for the agricultural products that would otherwise be lacking. (50) A country's wealth is, therefore, much influenced by its manufacturing capacity, provided that other countries can be found ready to accept its manufactures.

  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  You bought a new color TV set made in Guangdong, but it is in poor quality. You want to write a letter to the store and have the set repaired or changed. Your letter should cover the following points:

  1) the picture is not clear enough, and sometimes channel buttons don't work well,

  2) sometimes there is even so sound, and the color is not stable,

  3) Customer First, Service Best.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign up your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1)describe the drawing,

  2)analyze the meaning and

  3)give an example

  You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2(20 points)
答案解析:

Section I Use of English
  1「答案」A  2「答案」C  3「答案」D

  4「答案」B  5「答案」A  6「答案」C

  7「答案」B  8「答案」A  9「答案」C  

  10「答案」B  11「答案」D

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  「解析」词义辨析题。D commitment是个多义词,这里philosophical commitment意为“哲学上的承诺”。A community“社团社会,(政治)共区的全体居民,公众;共有,共同性,一致;群落”;B communication“交际;通信,通讯,传达,(意见等的)交换,交流,交往;(疾病的)传染;传达的信息,信”;C committee“委员会”。

  12「答案」A

  「解析」词义辨析题。acknowledged“认可,确立;承认,供认”。B confessed“承认错误,认识到”;C abandoned“放弃,离开(某人、某物或某地)而不返回,抛弃;完全屈从于;完全放弃;放任,纵情”;D refined“精炼,加工;从(某物)中除去杂质;提纯”。

  13「答案」A

  「解析」语义逻辑题。may或许在该句中更妥当。B ought to“应该”;C were to“(虚拟语气)得做”;D would“会”。

  14「答案」C

  「解析」语义逻辑题。因为前面有no logical path,所以加but only进行对应,强调对比性。A but rather搭配不正确;B no more than“仅仅,只不过”;D less more than“几乎,差不离”。

  15「答案」B

  「解析」词义辨析题。(in) touch (with)“与……相接触”。A (in) pursuit (of) “寻找,追求”;C (in) proportion (to)“与……成比例”;D (in) terms (of) “就……来说,用……话来说,根据”。

  16「答案」A

  「解析」词义辨析题。convincing“有说服力的,令人心服的;使某人确信,使某人明白;令人信服的”。B wordy“话多的,罗嗦的;冗长的”;C ensured“确保的,保证的,相保的”;D unreasonable“没有理由的;超越情理地,不合理地,过分地”。

  17「答案」D

  「解析」词义辨析题。visible“看得到的,可见的;能注意到的,能确定的,明显的”,符合题意。A visual“视觉的,用于视觉的”;B informed“信息灵通的;有知识的,见闻广的,了解情况的”;C imaginative“有想像力的;模仿的,仿效的,模拟的”。

  18「答案」B

  「解析」词义辨析题。argument“争论,争辩,争吵;辩论;论据,论点,理由;概要,梗概,主题”。A statement“陈述,声明,声明书;财务报表”;C assertion“论断;主张,断言;维护,坚持”;D style“文体,文风,语调;风格,作风;风度,体面,时髦;式样,类型,记时方式;称号,称呼”。

  19「答案」C

  「解析」词义辨析题。commonalities“共同特征,共性;公共,普通;(总称)老百姓”符合题意。A commodities“商品,日用品;农产品,矿产品”;B commons“公共的,公有的,共用的,共同的,普通的,一般的;通常的,平常的;粗俗的,低劣的;共通的;通的”;D commonwealth“公民,团体,联邦,国家”。

  20「答案」A

  「解析」词义辨析题。community“社团”符合题意。B person“个人;(贬)家伙;人身,身体;本人,自身;容貌,外表,风度”;C country“国家,国土;国民,造民;家乡,故乡,祖国,国籍所属国家;乡下,农村;土地”;D nation“民族;国家;部落,部落联盟”。C 与D 没区别,故都被排除。

  译文

  科学家和科学哲学家说起话来就好像“科学语言”是内在的精确的,而使用它的人们应该理解各自的意思,即使他们并不同意对方的观点。但是,事实上,科学语言并没有一般所认为的与普通语言有那么大的不同。它也会不准确,意思含糊不清,并因此导致理解不完全。此外,新理论(或论点)极少是由步骤清晰的归纳、演绎、论证(或证伪)得出的。它们也不是通过直接的方式得到证明、****或接受。实际上,科学家将科学方法的规则与大量的直觉、审美和哲学的观念相结合。人们承认在发现新原则和规律的过程中思想中非逻辑成分所起到的重要作用。我们会想起爱因斯坦的话:“通向基本规律的不是一条逻辑的道路,仅仅是来自于经验的直觉。”不过人们较少讨论非逻辑成分在说理和让人接受一个论点(让论点变得可信)中所起的作用,这部分是由于它们不太可见。论点的可信度取决于是否有相同的经历以及是否用相同的语言交流这些经历,这些都很难准确的看到,因为这些共同点都被认为是理所当然的。只有当我们走出这个“同感领域”——当我们以共同的语言站在一个集体的边缘时——我们才能看得更准确。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.B 第一段大意:美国食品药品管理局(FDA)正在追踪386头仔猪(piglets),这些仔猪可能受过转基因实验,并且已经被错误地销售到了食品供应市场。第二段第一句讲到,FDA调查的焦点是位于Urbana Champaign的伊利诺伊大学的科研人员培育的猪。因此可以断定这些仔猪来自于美国科研机构。

  22.A 第二段第二句讲到:他们(科研人员)用两种基因对动物进行基因工程实验。一种是牛的基因,促使母猪多产奶;另一种是合成基因,使母猪产的奶更容易被仔猪消化。但这并不是实验的最终目的。接着,下一句讲到:目的(goal)是更快地培育更大的猪,这才是实验的最终目的,因而A项为正确答案。
  23.D 第四段大意:美国食品药品管理局(FDA)在一个新闻发布会上宣称,伊利诺伊大学因其售猪行为将面临处罚(sanctions)和罚款(fines)。选项D意为:将可能被迫交纳一笔罚金,这与上面的意思相同,只是表达方法不同。

  24.C 粗略浏览全篇,似乎都是对动物转基因实验的不利内容,选项C容易被忽略。FDA的举措只是为防范未知的可能危害。第五段第一句明确表示,FDA和伊利诺伊大学均声称进入市场的仔猪不会对消费者构成威胁。此题需要仔细读懂问题和选项,注意关键细节。

  25.B 第七段大意:伊利诺伊大学称,FDA对每头仔猪做了8次检验以确保它们没有转基因遗传,检出的则被送回用于研究。因此,可以推测出选项B正确,即部分后代(offspring)具有母猪的遗传基因。选项A全部肯定、选项C全部否定,显然都错误。根据本文无法确认选项D所给的如此精确的比例。

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  译文

  食品和药物管理署(FDA)星期三说,他们正在追踪386头已经过基因改变的小猪,由于某种错误它们被卖到美国,流入食品市场。

  FDA调查的焦点是伊利诺伊大学Urbana Champaign校园的研究人员所养育的猪。他们改变了这些猪的两种基因:一种是能够增加母猪产奶的奶牛基因,另一种是合成基因,它可以使乳汁变得使小猪容易消化,其目的是使小猪长得更大、更快。

  迄今并没有证据显示经过基因改变的植物或动物事实上已造成人类疾病,但是批评家警告说,潜在的副作用目前还不清楚。大学官员说,他们的试验显示,小猪出生时并没有带有转基因,但是FDA章程要求即使转基因动物的后代也要被消灭,以保证它们不流入食品市场。

  在《今日美国》的督促下, FDA于星期三匆忙组织了一次新闻发布会,并宣布说:伊利诺伊大学因为将这些小猪卖给家畜中间商,而中间商又将它们转卖给肉食加工厂而面临制裁和罚款。

  FDA和大学都说,进入市场的猪肉对消费者不会有危险。该项调查是继美国农业部于12月对一家用转基因的玉米污染了50万蒲式耳大豆的德州公司进行了罚款后开始的,而这些转基因玉米原本是用来生产一种猪用疫苗的。

  批评家说,这些案例说明,政府对科研的这一新兴领域还需要更仔细的监管。美国食品制造业协会的Stephanie Childs说:“这只是一件小事,正是这种小事有可能破坏消费者的信任和出口诚信。我们已经因生物技术使欧洲不安,我们的出口国正在关注这件事。”

  伊利诺伊大学说,他们对每头小猪的DNA进行了8次试验,以确保小猪没有从它们的母亲那里继承转基因物质。那些发现带有转基因的小猪被重新用于研究,而那些没有转基因物质的小猪才卖给了中间商。主管研究的副校长Charles Zukoski说:“自1999年以来,试验呈阴性的小猪都卖到了市场。”

  但是FDA副专员Lester Crawford说,该大学和FDA的协议条款规定,没有FDA批准,研究人员不允许擅自处理这些小猪,而“伊利诺伊大学并没有就这些小猪是否可以销售进入市场事宜与FDA协商。不管在任何情况下,它们都不能被用作食物。”

  FDA负责控制和监管转基因动物,因为这种基因产品被认为是一种未经批准的动物药品。

  Text 2

  26.「答案」D

  「解析」理解全篇及最后一段连续几个问题,可以看出作者所用的是一种探究的态度。

  27.「答案」C

  「解析」由第四段最后一句话可知。

  28.「答案」A

  「解析」The “benefits” must, therefore, be subtracted from the gross cost to the consumer to fully assess the net cost of advertising. 因此,顾客所得的“利益”必须从用在广告上的整个费用中扣除掉,从而完全准确地确定广告的净花费。

  29.「答案」B

  「解析」参照文章大意。

  30.「答案」C

  「解析」注意题目中的definitely false, A与文意相反,B、D文中没有提到,C中on push promotion花费从0.7美分到1.4美分,而on television则less than one cent,所以可能是也可能不是,符合题意。

  译文

  食品在美国是所有消费产品中做广告做得最多的。食品用于网络电视和电视直播广告、折扣券、赠品券、竞赛和其他形式的有奖广告的花费比别的产品都多。在其他媒体——报纸、杂志、报纸增刊、公告栏和广播——食品广告的花费也是最高的之一。食品制造商在广告上的花费比其他任何制造商都多,而杂货店在零售商中又是最多的。

  在70年代,受过复杂工艺处理的食品占到了总广告量的大部分。几乎所有的优惠券、电子广告、全国性平面媒体广告、消费奖励(不是赠品券)和大多数推广活动都来自经过加工和包装的食品。在1978年,早餐麦片、软饮料、糖果和其他甜点、油和色拉调料、咖啡以及熟食只占到总食品消费的20%。但这些项目占到了总广告量的一半左右。

  相反,易****的食品,如未经加工的肉、禽、鱼、蛋、水果和蔬菜,以及奶制品超过了家用食品消费总量的一半。不过这些产品在1978年所占的广告份额不到8%,而且几乎没有折扣券。这些产品在零售业的广告量最大,一般是在地方报纸上,这占到了报纸零售杂货广告的40%。
  与家用食品总消费相比,食品广告的总费用占到全国食品杂货销售额的3%至3.7%.电子广告(主要是电视)所占不到1%,奖金占到了0.6%。平面媒体占到了0.5%,而折扣券占到了约0.3%.用于推广活动的花费约占0.7%至1.4%.这一数值很难确定,因为很难将直接销售的非促销方面区分出来,如运输、技术和其他相关服务。

  必须将广告提供的联合产品和服务与总消费者相比较。电子广告的消费者收看电视广告,得到了娱乐。同样,报纸、杂志的读者可以以优惠价格购买这些产品。消费者直接为某些赠品付费,但也接受非食物商品来刺激他们购买该产品。因此,这些“利益”必须从消费者的总成本中扣除,以便全面分析广告的净成本。

  广告在食品需求、养生和食品厂商竞争等方面的影响也很巨大。制造商将广告的大部分集中于一小部分消费食品。与更容易变质的食品,如肉、农产品、奶制品等相比,广告是否改变了这些经过复杂加工的产品的消费情况呢?美国人在食品消费中的营养构成是否受到了食品广告的影响?广告有没有增加或减少制造商和零售商之间的竞争?这些是重要的问题并且需要继续研究。

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