2017年考研英语模拟试题二及答案解析

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2017年考研英语模拟试题二及答案解析

Section Ⅰ Use of English
  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  There is virtually no limit to how one can serve community interests, from spending a few hours a week with some charitable organization to practically full-time work for a social agency. Just as there are opportunities for voluntary service 1 (VSO) for young people before they take up full-time employment, 2 there are opportunities for overseas service for 3 technicians in developing countries. Some people, 4 those who retire early, 5 their technical and business skills in countries 6 there is a special need.

  So in considering voluntary or 7 community service, there are more opportunities than there 8 were when one first began work. Most voluntary organizations have only a small full-time 9 , and depend very much on volunteers and part-timers. This means that working relationships are different from those in commercial organizations, and values may be different. 10 some ways they may seem more casual and less efficient, but one should not 11 them by commercial criteria. The people who work with them do so for different reasons and with different 12 , both personal and 13 . One should not join them 14 to arm them with professional experience; they must be joined with commitment to the 15 , not business efficiency. Because salaries are 16 or non-existent many voluntary bodies offer modest expense. But many retired people take part in community service for 17 , simply because they enjoy the work.

  Many community activities possible 18 retirement were also possible during one's working life but they are to be undertaken 19 seriously for that. Retired people who are just looking for something different or unusual to do should not consider 20 community service.

  1. [A] oversea [B] over sea[C] over seas [D] overseas

  2. [A] as [B] so [C] then [D] that

  3. [A] quantity [B] qualifying [C] quality [D] qualified

  4. [A] partially [B] partly [C] particularly [D] passionately

  5. [A] order [B] operate [C] offer [D] occupy

  6. [A] which [B] where [C] as [D] that

  7. [A] paying [B] paid [C] to be paid [D] pay

  8. [A] before [B] lately [C] never [D] ever

  9. [A] team [B] number [C] staff [D] crowd

  10. [A] In [B] By [C] With [D] Through

  11. [A] look at [B] comment [C] enjoy [D] judge

  12. [A] subjective [B] subject [C] objectives [D] objects

  13. [A] organization [B] organizational [C] organized [D] organizing

  14. [A] expecting [B] to expect [C] being expected [D] expected

  15. [A] course [B] cause [C] case [D] caution

  16. [A] little [B] small [C] large [D] big

  17. [A] free [B] freedom [C] money [D] something

  18. [A] before [B] on [C] in [D] at

  19. [A] much [B] very much [C] no more [D] no less

  20. [A] to be taken [B] to take [C] taking [D] being taken

  Section ⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  A class action lawsuit has been filed against a prominent Toronto doctor, by patients who allege he injected a banned substance into their faces for cosmetic purposes. The doctor had already been investigated more than three years ago for using the liquid silicone, a product not authorized for use in Canada.

  Some patients say they are now suffering health problems and think the liquid silicone may be to blame. One of those patients is Anna Barbiero. She says her Toronto dermatologist told her he was using liquid silicone to smooth out wrinkles. What she says he didn't tell her is that it isn't approved for use in Canada. “I didn't know what liquid silicone was and he just called it ‘liquid gold'.” Barbiero remembers. After her last treatment, Anna discovered Dr. Sheldon Pollack had been ordered to stop using the silicone two years earlier by Health Canada. Experts say silicone can migrate through the body, and cause inflammation and deformities.

  “My upper lip is always numb and it burns,” Barbiero says. Barbiero is spearheading a lawsuit against the doctor, who her lawyer thinks might involve up to 100 patients injected with the same material. “The fact, a physician of his stature would use an unauthorized product on a patient because he thought it was okay, is really very disturbing, ”says lawyer Douglas Elliott.
  Ontario's College of Physicians and Surgeons (OCPS) is also investigating Dr. Pollack to see if, in fact, he continued to use the silicone after agreeing to stop and whether he wrote in patient records that he used another legal product when he had used silicone. However, in a letter to the College, Dr. Pollack wrote that he had always told patients that the silicone was not approved for sale in Canada, and had warned them of the risks. And in Barbiero's case, “…… at the time of her first visit, prior to her ever receiving IGLS treatment, I specifically informed her that the material was not approved for sale in Canada by the Health Protection Branch and that I did receive the material from outside the country …… I would like to emphasize that, as is evident on Ms. Barbiero's chart, I drew a specific diagram on the chart which I carefully discussed with and explained to Ms. Barbiero as I do with every other patient to explain the nature and likelihood of possible complications and the reasons and consequences of those possible complications.”

  Dr. Pollack declined to speak to CTV News, or to have his lawyer discuss the case. None of the allegations have been proven in court. But the case raises questions about the ability of governing bodies to monitor doctors. “There's a larger message and that is: buyer beware,” says Nancy Neilsen of Cosmetic Surgery Canada. “It's incumbent on consumers to do their research.”

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  21. Doctor Sheldon Pollack was charged that

  [A] he had prescribed wrong medicine for patients by mistake

  [B] he had treated his patients with something illegal, causing bad result

  [C] he had pretended to be a prominent surgeon

  [D] he had sold an unauthorized product in large amount

  22. It can be learned from the second paragraph that “dermatologist” must be a doctor dealing with.

  [A] heart disease[B] eye disease

  [C] breathing disorder [D] disorder and disease of the skin

  23. The investigation of OCPS is to find 

  [A] whether he still has illegal treatment on his patients

  [B] how many patients have been abused

  [C] if he told his patients about the risk

  [D] how much money he got from his illegal treatment

  24. Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  [A] Barbiero took the treatment after being told the risk.

  [B] Dr. Sheldon Pollack started his work with the patients' agreement to accept the potential risk.

  [C] A famous doctor should be authorized to use something he thinks okay on patients.

  [D] Barbiero is suffering a lot.

  25. From the ending part of the passage, we can conclude that 

  [A] Barbiero will win the lawsuit

  [B] Dr. Sheldon Pollack will win the lawsuit

  [C] the cases have been dismissed

  [D] governing bodies to monitor doctor will be charged

  Text2

  What our society suffers from most today is the absence of consensus about what it and life in it ought to be; such consensus cannot be gained from society's present stage, or from fantasies about what it ought to be. For that the present is too close and too diversified, and the future too uncertain, to make believable claims about it. A consensus in the present hence can be achieved only through a shared understanding of the past, as Homer's epics informed those who lived centuries later what it meant to be Greek, and by what images and ideals they were to live their lives and organize their societies.

  Most societies derive consensus from a long history, a language all their own, a common religion, common ancestry. The myths by which they live are based on all of these. But the United States is a country of immigrants, coming from a great variety of nations. Lately, it has been emphasized that an asocial, narcissistic personality has become characteristic of Americans, and that it is this type of personality that makes for the lack of well-being, because it prevents us from achieving consensus that would counteract a tendency to withdraw into private worlds. In this study of narcissism, Christopher Lash says that modern man, “tortured by self-consciousness, turns to new therapies not to free himself of his personal worries but to find meaning and purpose in life, to find something to live for”。 There is widespread distress because national morale has declined, and we have lost an earlier sense of national vision and purpose.
  Contrary to rigid religions or political beliefs, as are found in totalitarian societies, our culture is one of the great individual differences, at least in principle and in theory; but this leads to disunity, even chaos. Americans believe in the value of diversity, but just because our is a society based on individual diversity, it needs consensus about some dominating ideas more than societies based on uniform origin of their citizens. Hence, if we are to have consensus, it must be based on a myth—a vision about a common experience, a conquest that made us Americans, as the myth about the conquest of Troy formed the Greeks. Only a common myth can offer relief from the fear that life is without meaning or purpose. Myths permit us to examine our place in the world by comparing it to a shared idea. Myths are shared fantasies that form the tie that binds the individual to other members of his group. Such myths help to ward off feelings of isolations, guilt, anxiety, and purposelessness—in short, they combat isolation and the breakdown of social standards and values.

  26.In the eyes of the author, the greatest trouble with the US society may lie in

  [A] the non-existence of consensus on the forms of the society should take

  [B] the lack of divergence over the common organizations of social life

  [C] the non-acceptance of a society based on individual diversity

  [D] the pervasive distress caused by national morale decline

  27.The asocial personality of Americans may stem from

  [A] the absence of a common religion and ancestry

  [B] the multiracial constituents of the US society

  [C] the want of a shared myths they possess in life

  [D] the counterbalance to narcissistic personality

  28.Homer's epics is mentioned in Paragraph 1 in order to

  [A] exemplify the contributions made by ancient poets

  [B] illustrate the role of shared fantasies about society

  [C] show an ideal stage of eternal social progress

  [D] make known myths of what a society ought to be

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  29.The author concludes that only shared myths can help Americans

  [A] to bring about the uniformity of their culture

  [B] to regain their consensus about a common experience

  [C] to stay away from negative feelings in their life

  [D] to counteract the effects of consensus about society

  30.It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that Christopher Lash is most probably

  [A] a reform advocate[B] a senior psychologist

  [C] a reputed poet[D] a social historian

  Text 3

  Earthquake survivors trapped in rubble could one day be saved by an unlikely rescuer:a robotic caterpillar that burrows its way through debris. Just a few centimeters wide, the robot relies on magnetic fields to propel it through the kind of tiny crevices that would foil the wheeled or tracked search robots currently used to locate people trapped in collapsed buildings.

 The caterpillar's inventor, Norihiko Saga of Akita Prefectural University in Japan, will demonstrate his new method of locomotion at a conference on magnetic materials in Seattle. In addition to lights and cameras, a search caterpillar could be equipped with an array of sensors to measure other factors—such as radioactivity or oxygen levels—that could tell human rescuers if an area is safe to enter.
  The magnetic caterpillar is amazingly simple. It moves by a process similar to peristalsis, the rhythmic contraction that moves food down your intestine. Saga made the caterpillar from a series of rubber capsules filled with a magnetic fluid consisting of iron particles, water, and a detergent-like surfactant, which reduces the surface tension of the fluid. Each capsule is linked to the next by a pair of rubber rods. The caterpillar's guts are wrapped in a clear, flexible polymer tube that protects it from the environment.

  To make the caterpillar move forwards, Saga moves a magnetic field backwards along the caterpillar. Inside the caterpillar's “head” capsule, magnetic fluid surges towards the attractive magnetic field, causing the capsule to bulge out to the sides and draw its front and rear portions up. As the magnetic field passes to the next capsule, the first breaks free and springs forward and the next capsule bunches up. In this way, the caterpillar can reach speeds of 4 centimeters per second as it crawls along.

  Moving the magnetic field faster can make it traverse the caterpillar before all the capsules have sprung back to their original shapes. The segments then all spring back, almost but not quite simultaneously.

  Saga plans to automate the movement of the caterpillar by placing electromagnets at regular intervals along the inside of its polymer tube. By phasing the current flow to the electromagnets, he'll be able to control it wirelessly via remote control. He also needs to find a new type of rubber for the magnetic capsules, because the one he's using at the minute eventually begins to leak.

  But crawling is not the most efficient form of locomotion for robots, says Robert Full of the University of California at Berkeley, an expert in animal motion who occasionally advises robotics designers. “If you look at the energetic cost of crawling, compared to walking, swimming or flying, crawling is very expensive,” he says. Walking, on the other every step, energy is conserved in the foot and then released to help the foot spring up.

  Saga acknowledges this inefficiency but says his caterpillar is far more stable than one that walks, rolls on wheels or flies. It has no moving parts save for a few fluid-filled rubber capsules. Biped robots and wheeled robots require a smooth surface and are difficult to miniaturize, and flying robots have too many moving parts. “My peristaltic crawling robot is simple—and it works,” he says.

  31. From this passage, we can learn that

  [A] A robotic caterpillar can crawl by a pair of rubber rods

  [B] When a caterpillar moves, the magnetic field moves backwards along it

  [C] The environment couldn't influence a robotic caterpillar's guts, which are wrapped in a capsule

  [D] Crawling is very stable and efficient, and when it moves, only a few elements are needed

  32. According to this passage, which is not TRUE about the construction of the robotic caterpillar?

  [A] A robotic caterpillar is made from a series of rubber capsules filled with a magnetic fluid.

  [B] Iron particles, water, and a detergent-like surfactant form a magnetic fluid.

  [C] Each capsule filled with a magnetic fluid is linked to a pair of rubber rods.

  [D] In order to keep stable condition, the caterpillar's guts are wrapped in a clear, flexible polymer tube.

  33. The meaning of the word “peristalsis” in paragraph three is similar to.

  [A] swimming [B] flying [C] crawling [D] walking

  34. Comparing the robotic caterpillar and the other robots, which of the following is not true?
  [A] A smooth surface is indispensable to biped robots and wheeled robots.

  [B] Flying robots are very inconvenient when moving, because they have too many moving parts.

  [C] The robotic caterpillar only has rubber capsules filled with a magnetic fluid.

  [D] It's incapable for wheeled robots to locate trapped people because they are impossible to miniaturize.

  35. The passage is mainly about

  [A] why a robotic caterpillar can find trapped people

  [B] how a robotic caterpillar work

  [C] the instruction of the magnetic caterpillar

  [D] how a robotic caterpillar peristalsis

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  Text 4

  When a disease of epidemic proportions rips into the populace, scientists immediately get to work, trying to locate the source of the affliction and find ways to combat it. Oftentimes, success is achieved, as medical science is able to isolate the parasite, germ or cell that causes the problem and finds ways to effectively kill or contain it. In the most serious of cases, in which the entire population of a region or country may be at grave risk, it is deemed necessary to protect the entire population through vaccination, so as to safeguard lives and ensure that the disease will not spread.

  The process of vaccination allows the patient's body to develop immunity to the virus or disease so that, if it is encountered, one can ward it off naturally. To accomplish this, a small weak or dead strain of the disease is actually injected into the patient in a controlled environment, so that his body's immune system can learn to fight the invader properly. Information on how to penetrate the disease's defenses is transmitted to all elements of the patient's immune system in a process that occurs naturally, in which genetic information is passed from cell to cell. This makes sure that, should the patient later come into contact with the real problem, his body is well equipped and trained to deal with it, having already done so before.

  There are dangers inherent in the process, however. On occasion, even the weakened version of the disease contained in the vaccine proves too much for the body to handle, resulting in the immune system succumbing, and, therefore, the patient's death. Such is the case of the smallpox vaccine, designed to eradicate the smallpox epidemic that nearly wiped out the entire Native American population and killed massive numbers of settlers. Approximately 1 in 10,000 people who receives the vaccine contract the smallpox disease from the vaccine itself and dies from it. Thus, if the entire population of the United States were to receive the Smallpox Vaccine today, 3000 Americans would be left dead.

  Fortunately, the smallpox virus was considered eradicated in the early 1970s, ending the mandatory vaccination of all babies in America. In the event of a re-introduction of the disease, however, mandatory vaccinations may resume, resulting in more unexpected deaths from vaccination. The process, which is truly a mixed blessing, may indeed hide some hidden curses.

  36.The best title for the text may be

  [A] “Vaccinations: A Blessing or A Curse”

  [B] “Principles of Vaccinations”

  [C] “Vaccines: Methods and Implications”

  [D] “A Miracle Cure Under Attack”

  37.What does the example of the Smallpox Vaccine illustrate?

  [A] The possible negative outcome of administering vaccines.

  [B] The practical use of a vaccine to control an epidemic disease.

  [C] The effectiveness of vaccines in eradicating certain disease.

  [D] The method by which vaccines are employed against the disease.

  38.The phrase “ward it off naturally” (Paragraph 2) most probably means

  [A] dispose of it naturally [B] fight it off with ease

  [C] see to it reluctantly [D] split it up properly

  39.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] Saving the majority would necessarily justify the death of the minority.

  [B] The immune system can be trained to fight weaker versions of a disease.

  [C] Mandatory vaccinations are indispensable to the survival of the populace.

  [D] The process of vaccination remains a mystery to be further resolved.

  40.The purpose of the author in writing this passage is

  [A] to comment and criticize [B] to demonstrate and argue

  [C] to interest and entertain[D] to explain and inform

 Part B
  Sample one

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  We are seeing a series of paradoxes at the turn of the millennium. On the one hand, globalization means that national frontiers are becoming increasingly meaningless, but on the other, we are being swept by a wave of parochialism, with countries clinging to the notion of sovereignty.41)But there are so many factors in the world that make this position increasingly meaningless. Governments no longer have complete control over their economic and monetary policies, and many multinationals now have greater profits than individual country's GDP.

  The end of the cold war has brought its own dangers and we need to find a new balance of power in the world. It has also spawned many conflicts. Governments must be prepared to surrender some authority to global and regional institutions or we risk world disorder. It is tragic that, just when we need a strong international organization, the United Nations is starved of funds and often sidelined by its own member states. What happened in East Timor was unforgivable because it was foreseeable. Angola has been another sad instance of international vacillation. 42)

  I do think world war is less likely for the present, although I worry about the proliferation of nuclear weapons at one end and lethal small arms at the other. 43)

  Another worry stems from the huge economic imbalances in a world where the richest 20 per cent have 86 per cent of global GDP, and the 20 poorest countries only one per cent.

  Humanitarian aid is no more than a palliative. 44)The international implications of, for example, the collapse of Africa are unthinkable. There must be a new concept of security based not just on military and defense matters but on economic and social concerns too. 45)

  The global pendulum has swung too far towards a total dependence on market forces, but finding some point of balance in the middle is extremely difficult. I am by nature optimistic, but in my gloomier moments I sometimes think the only solution will be an invasion from outer space-then at last everyone would unite!

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  [A]As long as more than a million people continue to live in direct poverty we can never hope to achieve national or international stability.

  [B]We need an international body with teeth-morally and in action. Perhaps the UN should be given its own force.

  [C] Many members of the UN have only become nation states in the last few decades, so I can understand why they are so keen to hang on to their independence.

  [D]It is terrifying the way that power is increasingly disseminated to small, completely ruthless groups like terrorists, drug traffickers and local warlords. The great imponderable is that some nut could create a nuclear explosion. Or that some essentially local conflict could escalate out of control. You cannot isolate instability: it gets exported.

  [E]The mainly purpose of founding the United Nations is preventing aggressions and wars. It is hard to attribute the success to the United Nations although no new world war broke out since its establishment. The United Nations is always helpless of preventing the regional wars.

  [F]The notion of sovereignty is more and more strong while the influence of the United Nations is weaker and weaker.

  [G]Western countries must increase their development aid programmes, not out of charity but for reasons of self-interest.

  Sample Two

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] But the latest big revision to the statistics, published by the Commerce Department at the end of July, told a different story. It showed that personal savings rates are still on a downward trend, and have fallen particularly sharply in the past 18 months.
  [B] Bill Clinton likes to boast that America's economy is in its best shape for 30 years. In many ways he is right: the expansion has hummed along for more than six years, inflation is low, and unemployment has tumbled to 4.8%, a level not seen since the 1960s. Yet there is one glaring difference between today's economy and the glory days of a generation ago: saving, or rather the lack of it.

  [C] Personal saving is only one factor in America's overall rate of thrift. Firms make a contribution through corporate saving (in fact, many economists reckon the distinction between household and corporate saving is a rather arbitrary one), and the government, too, plays a big role. The bigger the deficit, the more it drags down overall savings rates.

  [D] At one level, this revision cleared up a bit of a mystery. Economists had been surprised at the lack of a “wealth effect”: people did not seem to be spending much more, despite huge appreciation in the value of their stock market assets. The new statistics show much higher consumption.

  [E] The picture is not pretty. Since the mid-1970s the long-trend in household saving has been downwards. Recently it appeared that this picture might be changing: personal saving rates in the mid-1990s appeared flat, or even on a slightly upward trend.

  [F] Last year Americans put only 4.3% of their disposable income in the piggy bank, just about half as much as their parents salted away in 1967. Unless this trend towards profligacy is stemmed, and preferably reversed, America's “miracle economy” will rest on shaky foundations. Less obvious, however, is how to do it.

  [G] A decade ago, America's abysmal savings rates could be explained to a large extent by government profligacy. But now that the big and deficit has been tamed, and which the prospect of a balanced budget by 2002, it is time to turn attention to Americans themselves.

  Order:

  B→

  41→

  42→

  43→

  44→

  45→

  D

  Sample Three

  Directions:

  You are going to read a text about stupidity for dummies, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list AF for each numbered subheading (4145)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Sternberg, an expert in intelligence testing, contends that, contrary to public belief, stupidity is not the opposite of smartness. He points out that many of the singularly idiotic acts that come to public attention are the work of people who are, in fact, highly intelligent. He argues instead that stupidity is more properly viewed as the opposite of wisdom-which he sees as the ability to apply knowledge to achieve a common good. His “imbalance theory of foolishness” suggests that there are aspects of life as a smart person that actually foster stupidity. Which is to say, it sometimes takes a really smart person to do something truly stupid. Sternberg recently took the time to answer some of our stupid questions.

  (41)What attracted you to the study of stupidity?

  The roots of the book were in my wondering about what's up with people who have very high intelligence in the traditional sense, but seem to be out to lunch in another sense.

  (42)The difference between stupidity, foolishness, dumbness and, say, plain boneheadedness:

  The book is really about foolishness, which is the opposite of wisdom. There are many smart people who are unwise.

  (43)Do you see stupidity as an objective behavior or ,as one of your contributors does, a subjective judgment that reflects more on the observer?

 Stupidity is not in the behavior, nor in the eyes of the observer. It is in the interaction between the person and the situation. Different kinds of situations elicit different behavior from people.
  (44)“The best way to avoid stupidity is not to be afraid of looking stupid”

  People often fail to learn because they do not want to look stupid. As a result, they make or repeat mistakes they could have avoided.

  (45)Of course, some would suggest that certain stupid behaviors are categorizable as something else. Some would say philandering or shoplifting, for example, are products of something other than stupidity.

  I think it is a combination of the fallacies I mentioned: Egocentrism, omniscience, omnipotence and invulnerability. Many smart people are philanderers.

  Everyone has weaknesses. The issue in terms of the book is what they do about these weaknesses—whether they find ways to make up for them or whether they allow them to destroy their lives.

  [A] The foolish part is in the belief that one need only consider one's own feelings about the matter and not the feelings of others, especially the partner (egocentrism); that it is not okay for others but that one knows all about these things so it is all right for oneself (omniscience); that one can basically do whatever one wants because of who one is (omnipotence); and that, unlike others suckers, one never will get caught (invulnerability)。

  [B] How did Richard Nixon ever get involved in Watergate and the subsequent coverup? What was Bill Clinton thinking when he kept repeating the same mistakes in his personal life? More recently, how did the intelligent people who ran Enron think they would get away with a shell game? There are lots of examples. And the truth is, some of them are in my own life, too. None of us is immune.

  [C] For example, Clinton was very smart in most domains of his life, but in some kinds of interpersonal situations with women, he appears not to have been. The Enron bloodsuckers may have been perfectly fine in their home lives, but given the chance to rip off a corporation, they went for it. Problem is, we may see how sensibly we behave, on average, so that we are not alert for the kinds of situations where we act foolishly.

  [D] Unfortunately, no. It usually takes others to point it out to us. Or, looking back, we often marvel at how we could have been oblivious to our stupidity. But the problem is that smart people often use their intelligence to find ways to immunize themselves or isolate themselves from feedback. For example, they may hire toadies who just tell them what they want to hear.

  [E] Also, sometimes when they make mistakes, people try to cover them up so as not to appear to have been stupid and then look even stupider when the coverup comes to light. That, of course, is what happened to Nixon and Clinton, and to many, many others, such as currency traders who have tried to cover up losses or high-level executives at software companies who have tried to cover up improprieties.

  [F] The book is not about stupidity in the classical sense, which is usually thought of as a very low IQ. So I would distinguish the “mental retardation” kind of stupidity from the kind of foolishness this book discusses. The problem is that smart people often do not realize how susceptible they are to being foolish, as any number of world leaders have gone out of their way to show.

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  Sample Four

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about Backlogs of History. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] Passion for personal and familial archival collection.

  [B] Reception of a hospital delivery bill.

 [C] Overabundance of trivial personal documents.
  [D] Explosion of public documents.

  [E] It is imperative to put archival policies into perspective.

  [F] What tactics should be adopted in document-saving?

  One morning a few years ago an envelope arrived from my parents containing the bill from New Rochelle Hospital for my delivery, in 1952. The contents of a basement or attic were being culled, and the bill had turned up in one of the many cardboard reliquaries that have long lent a kind of ballast to my childhood home. The hospital's total charge for a five-day stay including drugs and phone calls, came to $187.86. I was amazed at the cost, to be sure. But I was also struck by something else: that among all those decades' worth of family documents my parents had looked through, the delivery bill was the only thing they thought of sufficient interest to pass along.

  41

  At some point most of us realize that having a personal archival strategy is an inescapable aspect of modern life: one has to draw the line somewhere. What should the policy be toward children's drawings and report cards? Toward personal letters and magazine clippings? People work out answers to such questions, usually erring, I suspect, on the side of over-accrual of rubbish documents. Almost everyone seems to save— or “curate,” as archaeologist says—issues of National Geographic. That is why in garbage landfills copies of that magazine are rarely found in isolation; rather, they are found in herds, when an entire collection has been discarded after an owner has died or moved.

  42

  I happen to be an admirer of the archiving impulse and an inveterate archivist at the household level. Though not quite one of those people whom public-health authorities seem to run across every few years, with a house in which neatly bundled stacks of newspaper occupy all but narrow aisles, I do tend to save almost everything that is personal and familial, and even to supplement this private hoard with oddities of a more public nature—a calling card of Thomas Nast's, for instance, and Kim Philby copy of the Joy of Cooking.

  43

  I cannot help wondering, though, whether as a nation we are compiling archives at a rate that will exceed anyone's ability ever to make sense of them. A number of observers have cited the problem of “information overload” as if it were a recent development, largely the consequence of computers. In truth, the archive backlog has been a problem for millennia. Historians obviously have problems when information is scarce, but it's not hard to see a very different problem emerging as source material becomes spectacularly overabundant.

  44

  Leave aside the task of assessing an entire epoch and consider what is required in purely physical terms to preserve even a single prominent person's lifetime documentary output. Benjamin Disraeli's correspondence survived down to the level of what today would be an E-mail message: “My darling, I shall be home for dinner at 1/2 pt 7. In haste, Your, Dis.” Woodrow Wilson left so much behind that the historian Arthur S. Link spent his entire career at Princeton University annotating and publishing Wilson's personal papers, in sixty-nine volumes.

  45

  Is it preposterous to begin thinking of some of our archives as the new tels? Tels are the mounds that layer upon layer of former cities make; they are everywhere in the Middle East, harboring the archaeological record of thousands of years of human history. But there are too many of them for more than a few ever to be excavated systematically and understanding what's in even those few takes decades if not centuries.

  Don't get me wrong: I am not proposing that we discard any thing at all. One rarely knows in advance what will turn out to be of interest or importance and what should have gone directly into the oubliette. It is always delightful when something is discovered. But information does have its natural predators, and it may be that sometimes natural processes work out for the best.

 Part C
  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Immigrants adoption of English as their primary language is one measure of assimilation into the larger United States society. Generally languages define social groups and provide justification for social structures. Hence, a distinctive language sets a cultural group off from the dominant language group. (46)Throughout United States history this pattern has resulted in one consistent, unhappy consequence discrimination against members of the cultural minority Language differences provide both a way to rationalize subordination and a ready means for achieving it.

  Traditionally, English has replaced the native language of immigrant groups by the second or third generation. Some characteristics of today's Spanish-speaking population, however, suggest the possibility of a departure from this historical pattern. Many families retain ties in Latin America and move back and forth between their present and former communities. (47)This “revolving door” phenomenon, along with the high probability of additional immigrants from the south, means that large Spanish-speaking communities are likely to exist in the United States for the indefinite future.

  This expectation underlies the call for national support for bilingual education in Spanish-speaking communities' public schools. Bilingual education can serve different purposes. (48)However, in the 1960s, such programs were established to facilitate the learning of English so as to avoid disadvantaging children in their other subjects because of their limited English. More recently, many advocates have viewed bilingual education as a means to maintain children's native languages and cultures. The issue is important for people with different pole to separatism at the other. To date, the evaluations of bilingual education's impact on learning have been inconclusive. The issue of bilingual education has, nevertheless, served to unite the leadership of the nation's Hispanic communities. (49)Grounded in concerns about status that are directly traceable to the United States history of discrimination against Hispanics, the demand for maintenance of the Spanish language in the schools is an assertion of the worth of a people and their culture. If the United States is truly a multicultural nation—that is, if it is one culture reflecting the contributions of many—this demand should be seen as a demand not for separation but for inclusion.

  More direct efforts to force inclusion can be misguided. For example, movement to declare English the official language do not truly advance the cohesion of a multicultural nation. They alienate the twenty million people who do not speak English as their mother tongue. They are unnecessary since the public's business is already conducted largely in English. (50)Further, given the present state of understanding about the effects of bilingual education on learning, it would be unwise to require the universal use of English. Finally, it is for parents and local communities to choose the path they will follow, including hoe much of their culture they want to maintain for their children.

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  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  You are going to write a letter to your university newspaper editor. And your letter should include the following points.

  1) Introduce the activities of volunteers in your university,

  2) State its importance,

  3) Your own practice

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  52.

  The Widening of College Enrollment

  Directions:

  Study the following graphs and write an essay in 160—200 words

  Your essay must cover these three points

  1)Effect of the country's rapid growth of GDP on its higher education,

  2)Possible reason for the effect,

  3)Your prediction of the tendency of the development of China's higher education

  Chart I Grouth of GDP

  (in billion yuan)

  Chart 2 Students Studying at College

  (in million)

  Chart 3 College Enrollment (in million)

答案解析:

 Section I Use of English
  1.「答案」 D

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。从此空所在句后半句“……there are opportunities for overseas service……”中的“overseas service”可知,此空应填“overseas”。D overseas可做形容词“外国的,海外的”;也可做副词“在海外”。本句前一个overseas是副词,后一个overseas是形容词。

  2.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本句意为:“正如年轻人在参加全职工作前有机会参加海外志愿服务一样,发展中国家的合格技术人员也有机会参加海外服务。”just as……so意为“正如……也。”可见B为正确答案。

  3.「答案」 D

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“合格的技术人员”,此处应选择D qualified“有资格的,合格的”。

  4.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查副词。根据句意,“一些人,尤其是那些退休早的人”,此处表示强调。故C particularly“特别地,尤其地”为正确答案。

  5.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查词动词的用法。本句意为“一些人,尤其是那些退休早的人,在有特殊需求的国家提供他们的技术和商业技能。”skills“技能”前面只能用 offer“提供”。

  6.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本题考查关系副词where的用法。countries,表示地点,where用于表示地点的词语之后,意为“在那;该处”,故选择B where.

  7.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本题考查过去分词的用法。所选词应该与or前的voluntary对应,因此,B paid“付费的”为正确答案,做定语。

  8.「答案」 D

  「解析」 此处是一个more than的比较结构,现在和以前做比较。本句意为“所以在考虑义务或付费的社区服务时,现在比一个人刚开始工作时有更多的机会。”D ever“曾经”符合句意,故D为正确答案。

  9.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“大多数义务性的组织只有少数全职员工”。C staff“全体职工,全体人员”为最佳答案。

  10.「答案」 A

  「解析」 本题考查介词。in some ways是固定搭配,意为“在某些地方”。故A为正确答案。

  11.「答案」 D

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。下文by commercial criteria(根据商业准则)提示此处选择D judge“判断,评价”。B comment意为“评论”,不合适。

  12.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。根据句意,“为了不同的理由和目的”。C objective“目标,目的”符合句意。故C为正确答案。A subjective意为“主观的”;B subject意为“主题”;D objects意为“物件,对象”。

  13.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本题考查形容词的用法。根据both……and……结构,此处所选词应与前面personal“个人的”相对应,均为形容词,故B organizational“组织的”为正确答案。

  14.「答案」 A

  「解析」 本题考查动词+ing作宾语补足语的用法。A expecting为宾语补足语,表示伴随状况;B to expect表示谓语的目的。根据句意,A更贴切。因此,A为正确答案。

  15.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本题考查词汇知识。本句意为“他们必须为这项事业承担义务,而不是为了商业效益。”故B cause“事业,事件”为答案。

  16.「答案」 B

  「解析」 本题考查词汇的用法。salary“薪水”应当用大小来修饰。同时根据上下文,义务工作的报酬不可能高。故B small为正确答案。

  17.「答案」 A

  「解析」 本题考查词汇的固定搭配。for free表示“无偿的”。故A为正确答案。

  18.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查介词的用法。根据句意,所选词表示的含义应与后面during one's working life“在工作期间”相对。on retirement表示退休时;in retirement表示退休后。故C为最佳答案。

  19.「答案」 D

  「解析」 本题考查固定短语的用法。根据句意“在工作期间的活动也要认真进行”。D no less意为“不少于,多达”,符合句意,是正确答案。

  20.「答案」 C

  「解析」 本题考查非谓语动词作动词宾语的用法。consider要求其后面动词用ing形式,作宾语。故C为正确答案。

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  译文

  为社区服务是没有限度的,你可以每个星期在某个慈善机构工作几小时,也可以全职为某个社会机构工作。正如年轻人在参加全职工作前有机会参加海外志愿服务一样,发展中国家的合格技术人员也有机会参加海外服务。一些人,尤其是那些退休早的人,在有特殊需求的国家提供他们的技术和商业技能。

  所以在考虑义务或付费的社区服务时,现在比一个人刚开始工作时有更多的机会。大多数义务性的组织只有少数全职员工,在很大程度上依赖志愿者和兼职者。这意味着工作关系与商业机构中的有所不同,而且价值观也可能不同。在某些方面,他们的关系似乎更随便,而且效率不高,但是人们不应用商业标准来评价他们。与他们一起工作的人都是由于不同的——或是私人的或是团体的——原因和目的而来工作的。一个人加入到他们当中,不要想着带给他们专业经验;他们必须为了这项事业承担义务,而不是为了商业效益。由于报酬很少,或者根本没有报酬,许多志愿团体提供少量的经费。不过很多已经退休的人无偿地参加社区服务,仅仅是因为他们享受这份工作。

 许多退休以后的社区活动在退休之前也会经历,不过退休后会更认真地做这些工作。如果退休的人们正在找一些新鲜事做,那不要选择社区服务的工作。
  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.「答案」 B

  「解析」 第一段第一句:患者对一位多伦多的著名医生(指文章后面提到的Dr. Sheldon Pollack)提起了集体诉讼,指责他使用违禁材料为他们做面部美容。第三段第一句提到患者Barbiero说她的上唇麻木、有烧灼感。因此可以确认选项B正确。

  22.「答案」 D

  「解析」 Dermatologist(皮肤科医生)。derma是皮肤的意思,也可以作为词缀构成其他词。这句话意为:她(Barbiero)说她的多伦多的医生告诉她,他(医生)在使用液体硅胶弄平皱纹。根据语境可以判断出正确答案为选项D.

  23.「答案」 A

  「解析」 第四段第一句话意为:安大略医学院正在调查Dr.Pollack,以便弄清楚他在同意停用后是否还在继续使用硅胶,以及他是否在使用硅胶的同时却在患者的病历上写上别的合法产品的名称。因此,选项A正确。

  24.「答案」 D

  「解析」 答案可从第三段第一句明显看出。从文章看,A、B属于当事双方各执一词,还没有定论。C项之中没有提及。

  25.「答案」 C

  「解析」 最后一段第二、三句意为:任何主张在法庭上都没有被采纳,但是这个案子提出了一个政府是否有能力监管医生的问题。因此可知选项C正确。

  译文

  许多病人对多伦多一位著名医生提起了集体诉讼,他们宣称,这名医生把一种禁止使用的物质注射进他们的面部以达到美容的目的。这名医生三年前曾因使用一种在加拿大未经批准使用的液态硅胶产品而接受过调查。

  一些病人说他们的健康受到损害,并认为液态硅胶是病因,其中一位病人是Anna Barbiero,她说她的多伦多皮肤科医生告诉她说,他正在使用液态硅胶来拉平皱纹。她还说,他并没有告诉她,这种物品被禁止在加拿大使用。Barbiero回忆说:“我并不知道液态硅胶是什么……他只是称它为‘液体黄金'.”在做了最后一次治疗后,安娜才发现两年前加拿大健康协会已经明令禁止Sheldon Pollack医生使用液态硅胶了。专家说,硅胶会在体内迁徙,造成炎症和畸形。

  Barbiero说:“我的上唇一直麻木、有灼烧感。”她率先发起了对这名医生的法律诉讼,她的律师认为,这名医生很可能与近100名被注射了这种同样物质的病人有关。Douglas Elliott律师说:“事实是像他这样一位有声望的医生竟然对病人使用一种未经认可的产品,这的确令人困惑。”

  安大略内外科医师学院也正在对 Pollack医生进行调查,以弄清他事实上是否在同意停止使用液态硅胶之后仍然在使用它,以及他是否在病历中记录他使用了另一种合法产品,而他实际上使用的是硅胶。然而,在写给该学院的一封信中,Pollack医生写到:他一直告诉病人硅胶未被批准在加拿大销售,而且他也提醒他们使用它的危险。就Barbiero的情况而言,“……她第一次来我的诊所时,即在她还没有接受IGLS治疗前,我特地告知她,这种材料未经加拿大健康保护局批准在加拿大销售,我是从国外弄到它的……我想强调指出的是,也如同Barbiero女士的治疗计划图上所显示的那样,我在上面仔细地画了一张草图,和她认真讨论了细节。如同对待其他病人一样,我跟Barbiero女士讨论并做了解释……解释了并发症的类别、可能性、原因以及这些可能的并发症后果。”

  Pollack医生拒绝对加拿大电视台(CTV)发表讲话,也不让自己的律师谈论此事,迄今所有指控都未经法庭认证。但是这个案件引发了人们对于政府监管部门对医生的监督能力发生了怀疑。加拿大化妆外科协会的Nancy Neilsen说:“该案件的意义要大得多,即:顾客须小心!消费者有义务探查真相。”

  Text 2

  26.「答案」A

  「解析」本文开篇就讲述了美国社会当前面临的最严重问题是人们无法对社会以及在社会中的生活达成一致意见,因此A“对社会应当采取的社会形态缺乏一致性的意见”为正确选项。而选项B“对社会生活当中的共有组织缺乏分歧”,选项C“不接受基于个体多样性的社会”和选项D“由于国家道德衰败所导致的广泛存在的沮丧”都不是美国社会所面临的最大问题。

  27.「答案」B

  「解析」本文第二自然段已经说明了美国是一个多移民的国家,而在第一自然段作者所说的也是关于美国社会的多样性,并且这一思想在第三自然段又给予了重申和说明。而选项A“缺乏共同的宗教和祖先”,选项C“缺乏在生活中所拥有的共享的神话”和选项D“对自我陶醉的个性是一种抵触”都不符合题干的要求。

  28.「答案」B

  「解析」提到荷马史诗的目的是为了说明一种共享神话对社会形态的重要作用,关于神话或关于共享这个话题在文中是反复说明的。只有通过过去才能得到一种共同的思想,才能对社会形态达成一种共识,因此B为正确选项。而选项A“举证古代诗人做出的贡献”,选项C“说明社会永久发展的一种理想阶段”以及选项D“让‘社会应该是什么'的神话为人们所知”都不是作者列举荷马史诗的目的。
  29.「答案」C
  「解析」关于美国人在生活中有负面情绪的问题在文章的二、三段都有明显的提及,尤其是全文的最后一句。而选项A“导致他们文化的统一性”,选项B“重新获得关于共有经历的一致意见”和选项D“抵触关于社会的一致意见所带来的影响”都不符合原文的事实。

  30.「答案」D

  「解析」本题可以从两个角度来考虑:第一,作者谈论只有了解过去的历史才能为我们将来的思维做出一种果断和明确的判断;第二,整篇文章所讲的是一个社会方面的问题。因此D“一个社会历史学家”是最符合文章的选项。而选项A“一个改革的鼓吹者”,选项B“一个资深的心理学家”和选项C“一个很有名望的诗人”都不符合题意。

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  译文

  目前我们社会最痛心的就是缺乏对“社会应该是什么”以及“社会生活应该是什么”这类问题的一致意见。现阶段,不可能从社会获得这种一致意见,或者不可能从“社会应该是什么”的幻想中获得这样的一致意见。对于一致意见,现在太现实并且多样性太强,而未来又太不确定,所以不可能对它做出可信的断言。因此,目前的一致意见只能通过对过去共有的理解才能获得,就像荷马史诗告知几个世纪之后的人们一致意见对于希腊人来说意味着什么,他们又是依靠什么样的想像和理想生活和构造社会。

  大多数社会从悠久的历史、共同的语言、共同的信仰以及共同的祖先那里获得一致意见。他们赖以生活的神话就是基于所有这些东西。但是,美国是一个移民国家,这些移民来自于许多国家。近来,得到强调的是:以自我为中心的、自我陶醉的个性已经成为美国人的特性,正是这种个性导致了美国缺少安宁,因为这种个性妨碍了我们达成一致意见,而这种一致意见会抵制退回到私有社会的趋势。在研究自我陶醉的过程中,克里斯托夫。拉西说,现代人“由于受自我意识的折磨,转而求助新的疗法。他这样做并不是为了使自己摆脱个人的苦恼,而是为了弄清生活的意义和目的,是为了寻找盼望的东西。”由于整个国家的道德衰败,所以存在普遍的忧虑,我们国家早期的幻想和目的失去了理性。

  与严格的宗教或政治信仰相反,正如在极权主义社会所发现的那样,我们的文化是一种存在巨大个性差异的文化,至少在原则上和理论上是这样;但这导致了不和,甚至是混乱。美国人赞成多样性的价值观,但这只是因为我们的社会是一个以个体的差异为基础的社会,这个社会需要对一些主要的想法取得一致意见,而不是对以公民的相同来源为基础的社会取得一致意见。因此,如果我们要取得一致意见,那么这种一致意见应该基于一种神话——有关一种相同经历的幻想,一种使我们能够成为美国人的征服历程,就像对特洛伊的征服成就了希腊人一样。只有一种共有的神话才能减轻人们的这种恐惧:生活是没有意义或目的的。通过把它比作一种共有的观念,神话使得我们检验我们在世界上的位置。神话是共有的幻想,这些幻想构成了一种纽带,而这种纽带把个体同他所在群体的其他成员联系在一起。这样的神话帮助消除了孤立、内疚、焦虑以及漫无目的的感觉——简而言之,这些神话防止了孤立以及社会的道德标准和价值观的衰败。

  Text 3

  31. 「答案」B

  「解析」由第四段第一句可以看出,磁场会向后移动从而使机器虫移动。由第三段可知A、C错。crawling是一种效率不高的运动方式,所以D错。

  32. 「答案」C

  「解析」由第三段倒数第二句可以得出,囊与囊之间由一对橡胶棒连接,而不是囊与橡胶棒连接,所以C错。其他选项文中均提到。

  33. 「答案」C

  「解析」根据全文可以推断出peristalsis就相当于crawling.

  34. 「答案」D

  「解析」轮式机器人只是不能搜寻夹缝中的受困者,而不是不能搜寻所有的受困者。

  35. 「答案」A

  「解析」全文可以看出整篇文章就是在解释为什么磁性机器虫能够找到受困者,介绍它的原理也是为此目的服务的。

  译文

  有一天,被困在瓦砾堆中的地震幸存者会被一个意想不到的援救者拯救:可以在碎石中打洞的机器人履带装置。这种机器人只有几厘米宽,依靠磁场驱动穿过极小的缝隙。它比现在使用的用于定位倒塌建筑物中受困人的滚轮或追踪搜索机器人更具优越性。

  此履带装置的发明人,日本秋田县立大学的Norihiko Saga将会在西雅图举行的磁力材料研讨会上展示他的新的移动技术。除了灯和照相机,搜索履带装置还能装备一系列传感器,测量其他数值——例如放射性或含氧量——这会告诉救援人员此地是否可以安全进入。

  磁力履带装置惊人的简单。他移动起来就像食物进入人的肠子后有节奏的蠕动。Saga使用一系列装满含有铁粒子、水和类似洗洁剂的表面活性剂(它可以减小液体的表面张力)的橡胶容器制造了这种履带装置。每一个容器都由一对橡胶棒与相邻的容器相连。容器内部由一根透明、有弹性的聚合管包裹,将其与外界隔开。

  为了使履带装置向前移动,Saga将磁场沿着履带装置向后移动。在履带装置的“主”容器内,磁力液体涌向磁场,致使容器向外突出,并且使其前后部分抬起。当磁场移动到下一个容器时,第一个容器摆脱束缚,向前弹出,同时下一个容器隆起。这样,当履带装置向前爬动时,它可以达到每秒4厘米的速度。
  更快地移动磁场会使它在所有的容器都弹回原位之前经过整个履带装置。所有的容器几乎在同时弹回。

  Saga打算通过在聚合管的内部在相等的间隔放置电磁铁使履带装置的运动自动化。通过调整送到电磁铁的电流,他可以通过遥控器来无线控制它。他还需要找到一种新型的用于磁力容器的橡胶,因为他现在所用的橡胶在用过一段时间之后会渗漏。

  不过加州大学伯克利分校的Robert Full认为爬行并不是机器人最有效的移动方式。他是动物行动专家,但偶尔也为机器人设计者提供建议。“如果你将爬行的能量消耗与步行、游泳或者飞行相比较,爬行的能耗量很高。”他说。走路时,每当你换步时,能量就存储在脚部,然后释放来帮助脚弹起。

  Saga承认爬行的能耗量高,不过他指出他的履带装置远比行走、车轮滑动或飞行的装置稳定得多。两足的机器人和带轮的机器人需要平滑的表面,而且体积难以变小,而飞行机器人的移动部件太多。他说:“我的蠕动爬行机器人很简单——而且很有效。”

  Text 4

  36.「答案」C

  「解析」这一选项能概括说明文章的中心。而选项A“接种:福音或诅咒”,漏掉了关于接种疫苗的过程,是对中心的部分概括。选项B“接种所用的原理”,这是第二自然段的话题。选项D“一个受到攻击的奇迹的治疗方法”只涉及到最后一个自然段。

  37.「答案」A

  「解析」此题可定位于第三自然段,且第三、四自然段的主题就是使用疫苗可能会带来负面效果,因此选项A“使用疫苗可能会带来负面结果”为正确选项。而选项B“疫苗的实际使用以控制传染病”,选项C“疫苗在于消除某些疾病的有效性”和选项D“疫苗对付疾病所使用的方法”都不是这个举证所谈论的观点。

  38.「答案」B

  「解析」文中第二自然段讲述了在接种疫苗后,身体自然可以跟这种疾病进行对抗。因此选项B“很轻松地与之对抗”为正确选项。而选项A“自然地将其排除”,选项C“很不情愿地去管理它”和选项D“恰当地分解它”都不符合第二段所谈论的一个原理。

  39.「答案」B

  「解析」其实纵观全文,本文的中心讲的是免疫系统可以得到特殊的训练以应对疾病的较弱形式,因此选项 B“免疫系统可以得到特殊的训练以应对疾病的较弱形式”为正确选项。而选项A“挽救大多数的人必然造成少数人的死亡”,选项C“强制性的接种对于大众的生存是不可或缺的”和选项D“接种的过程仍然是一个应该解决的神秘”都不能说明原文的含义。

  40.「答案」D

  「解析」作者在这篇文章的语气是客观的,因此选项D“为了解释和告知信息”为正确选项。而选项A“评论和批判”,这是议论文、评论文的模式。选项B“论证和辩论”是议论文的模式。选项C“为了带来兴趣和娱乐”,但这篇文章是科普性的文章。

.

.

www.59wj.com

  译文

  当传染病袭击民众时,科学家们就立即着手确认病源并想法征服疾病。通常,我们是可以取得胜利的,因为医学可以隔离寄生虫、病原菌或者造成疾病的细胞,并发现有效的消灭或抑制疾病的方法。在非常严重的情况下,比方说一个地区或国家的全体民众都可能处境极其危险,就有必要通过接种疫苗来保护全部人口,确保疾病不会蔓延。

  接种疫苗是让人体对病毒或疾病产生免疫力。万一碰上病毒或疾病,人体可以自然战胜它。将弱小或死亡的菌株在监控环境下注入病人体内,这样他体内的免疫系统就可以培养出应对来犯之敌的能力。关于如何抵抗疾病的信息被传递到免疫系统的各个部位,这个过程由基因信息在细胞间传递而自然实现。可以肯定,万一该病人以后再碰上这类病毒,他的身体已全副武装并且训练有素,足以对付这一现实问题,因为已经有经验了。

  但是整个过程还有隐患。有时,即使疫苗中含有的病菌是弱化了的菌种,人体也接受不了,导致免疫系统失效,以致病人死亡。天花疫苗的情况就是这样。天花传染病一度席卷全美土著居民并造成大量移民死亡,该疫苗试图消灭这种传染病。一万个接种天花疫苗的人中约有一个因接种而感染天花死亡。也就是说,如果全体美国人都要接种天花疫苗的话,就有三千人将死亡。

  值得庆幸的是,在20世纪70年代初,天花病毒就已被消灭,也结束了对全美婴儿的强制接种。不过,该病若卷土重来,就还要实行强制接种,这必将造成由接种而带来更多的意外死亡。本是一件好事的接种工作背后隐藏着不少谩骂和非议。

  Part B

  Sample One

  41.「答案」C

  「解析」此空白处前面阐述了全球化和地方主义的冲击的矛盾,而后面紧接着说各国政府无力完全控制其经济政策,这就表明,作者是反对地方保护主义的。但是后面句首用了“but”作转折词,可见,作者并没有旗帜鲜明地提出反对意见,所以用一个较为缓和的句式会比较适合。因此选C.

  42.「答案」B
  「解析」第二段,承接上文,指出在冷战结束的情况下,联合国等国际组织应该发挥更大的作用,但是下文话锋一转,用东帝汶和安哥拉两个例子来表现联合国在国际行动中的软弱无力,再结合上面所提到的“我们需要一个强大的国际组织”,顺其自然地就得出了“希望联合国强劲有力”的结论,选项B正好符合了这一意境。

  43.「答案」D

  「解析」作者在这一段的前半部分极力渲染了武器扩散的恐怖情形,而从下一段的字里行间我们可以了解到,作者想表达的意思其实就是:诸如战争、毒品、贫穷等不稳定的因素是会扩散和蔓延的,并不是与世隔绝的。在全球化的浪潮下,谁也无法“独善其身”。选项D在上下文衔接上很自然贴切,是正确选项。

  44.「答案」G

  「解析」此处空白是段落中的句子,从上句可知,本段主要讨论在世界经济财富占有悬殊的背景下,人道主义援助的目的和作用,而下句的例子则说明“非洲一旦崩溃,对国际社会的影响之大是无法想像的”。从这些我们可以推断出,西方国家所谓的“援助”,并非出于“人道”的崇高目的,而是为了维护自己的财富和利益,弄清上下文的逻辑推理关系,就很容易选出正确选项G了。

  45.「答案」A

  「解析」第三、四、五段在逻辑上是前后呼应的,作者采用“花开两朵、各表一支”的写作手法,一方面指出武器、毒品是无法隔绝的,另一方面呼吁贫穷也是会蔓延的。战争和贫困就好比罪恶的双生子,不离不弃、如影随行,相应的,第五段和第三段的结尾也应该相互呼应,因此选A是正确的。

  译文

  在千年之交我们看到了许多自相矛盾的东西。一方面,全球化意味着国家的边界正在逐渐丧失意义,但另一方面,我们受到了狭隘观念的强烈影响,有些国家坚持着主权的观念。在过去的几十年,许多国家才刚成为联合国的成员,所以我能够理解为什么它们那么强调它们的独立性。但是世界上的许多因素使这种想法越来越站不住脚了。政府不再完全掌控其经济和货币政策,而且许多跨国公司的利润比有的国家的国民生产总值还多。

  冷战的结束带来了新的危机,我们需要在世界上寻找新的平衡。它造成了许多新的争端。政府必须准备将一部分权力交给世界性和地区性的机构,否则我们的世界将会出现混乱。遗憾的是,当我们需要一个强有力的国际组织时,联合国却缺乏资金而且受其成员的影响而裹足不前。在东帝汶发生的事情是不可原谅的,因为这是可以预见的。安哥拉是另一个不安定因素。我们需要一个武装到牙齿的国际机构——既在道德上也在行动上。也许联合国应该有它自己的军队。

  尽管我担心核武器和致命小型武器的扩散,但我的确认为现在爆发世界战争是不可能的。小的、残暴的恐怖主义者、毒贩和地方军阀得到了越来越多的武力,这一状况很可怕。让人无法想像的是有的疯子会制造核爆炸。或者有的地方冲突会恶化到无法控制。我们无法将不安定因素隔离:它会向外扩散。

  另一个担忧来自于世界上巨大的经济不平衡。世界上最富有的20%的国家拥有全球86%的国内生产总值,而最贫困的20%的国家仅占1%。

  人道主义援助只能减轻危害。西方国家应该增加它们的发展援助计划,这并不是为了慈善,而是为了它们自身的利益。如果非洲崩溃了,其国际影响是难以估量的。必须有一种新的安全观念,它建立在经济和社会问题基础之上,而不是军事和国防问题上。只要还有超过一百万人继续生活在赤贫之中,我们就不能指望实现国家和全球的稳定。

  世界正在朝着对市场的完全依赖前进,要找到一个中心点很困难。我天生乐观,但在我心情沮丧的时候我会认为惟一的解决方法就是有外星人入侵——那时地球上的人们就会团结起来了!

 Sample 2

  41.「答案」F

  「解析」这一段承接的一段具体是讲美国的储蓄现状。

  42.「答案」C

  「解析」这一段解释了除了个人储蓄之外其他影响总储蓄量的因素。

  43.「答案」G

  「解析」主要讲政府对于储蓄的影响。

  44.「答案」E

  「解析」在先选出第45题的正确答案是A后可以确定这一题的内容应该与A的内容是相反的。A讲个人储蓄率下降,E正好是讲个人储蓄率有所上升。

  45.「答案」A

  「解析」这一段中的“revision”一词是关键,它正好与下一段的第一句话相呼应。

.

.

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