2017年考研英语模拟试题三及答案解析

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2017年考研英语模拟试题三及答案解析

Section ⅠUse of English
  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  In October 2002, Goldman Sachs and Deutsche Bank 1 a new electronic market for economic indices that2substantial economic risks, such as nonfarm payroll (a measure of job availability) and retail sales. This new market was made possible by a3rating technology, developed by Longitude, a New York company providing software for financial markets,4the Parimutuel Digital Call Auction. This is “digital”5of a digital option: i.e., it pays out only if an underlying index lies in a narrow, discrete range. In effect, Longitude has created a horse race, where each “horse” wins if and6the specified index falls in a specified range. By creating horses for every possible7of the index, and allowing people to bet8any number of runners, the company has produced a liquid integrated electronic market for a wide array of options on economic indices.

  Ten years ago it was9impossible to make use of electronic information about home values. Now, mortgage lenders have online automated valuation models that allow them to estimate values and to10the risk in their portfolios. This has led to a proliferation of types of home loan, some of 11 have improved risk-management characteristics.

  We are also beginning to see new kinds of12for homes, which will make it possible to protect the value of13, for most people, is the single most important14of their wealth. The Yale University-Neighbourhood Reinvestment Corporation programme, 15 last year in the city of Syracuse, in New York state, may be a model for home-equity insurance policies that16sophisticated economic indices of house prices to define the17of the policy. Electronic futures markets that are based on econometric indices of house prices by city, already begun by City Index and IG Index in Britain and now18developed in the United States, will enable home-equity insurers to hedge the risks that they acquire by writing these policies.

  These examples are not impressive successes yet. But they19as early precursors of a technology that should one day help us to deal with the massive risks of inequality that20will beset us in coming years.

  1. [A] created [B] generated [C] initiated [D] originated

  2. [A] reproduce [B] restore [C] represent [D] resume

  3. [A] sophisticated [B] expensive [C] available [D] established

  4. [A] made [B] called [C] asked [D] read

  5. [A] in the course [B] in the event [C] in the light [D] in the sense

  6. [A] when [B] until [C] now that [D] only if

  7. [A] extent [B] range [C] line [D] area

  8. [A] for [B] in [C] on [D] up

  9. [A] virtually [B] admittedly [C] absolutely [D] originally

  10. [A] assume [B] assess [C] dismiss [D] erase

  11. [A] them [B] which [C] that [D] whom

  12. [A] management [B] insurance [C] security [D] technology

  13. [A] what [B] those [C] where [D] it

  14. [A] guarantee [B] protection[C] component [D] source

  15. [A] secured [B] sponsored [C] released [D] launched

  16. [A] look to [B] set up [C] lay down [D] rely on

  17. [A] terms [B] specifications [C] concepts [D] consequences

  18. [A] is [B] being [C] been [D] are

  19. [A] emerge [B] appear [C] stand [D] arise

  20. [A] somehow [B] anyway [C] otherwise [D] thereby

  Section ⅡReading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  The study of philosophies should make our own ideas flexible. We are all of us apt to take certain general ideas for granted, and call them common sense. We should learn that other people have held quite different ideas, and that our own have started as very original guesses of philosophers.

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  A scientist is apt to think that all the problems of philosophy will ultimately be solved by science. I think this is true for a great many of the questions on which philosophers still argue. For example, Plato thought that when we saw something, one ray of light came to it from the sun, and another from our eyes and that seeing was something like feeling with a stick. We now know that the light comes from the sun, and is reflected into our eyes. We don't know in much detail how the changes in our eyes give rise to sensation. But there is every reason to think that as we learn more about the physiology of the brain, we shall do so, and that the great philosophical problems about knowledge are going to be pretty fully cleared up.

  But if our descendants know the answers to these questions and others that perplex us today, there will still be one field of which they do not know, namely the future. However exact our science, we cannot know it as we know the past. Philosophy may be described as argument about things of which we are ignorant. And where science gives us a hope of knowledge it is often reasonable to suspend judgment. That is one reason why Marx and Engels quite rightly wrote to many philosophical problems that interested their contemporaries.

  But we have got to prepare for the future, and we cannot do so rationally without some philosophy. Some people say we have only got to do the duties revealed in the past and laid down by religion, and god will look after the future. Other say that the world is a machine and the course of future events is certain, whatever efforts we may make. Marxists say that the future depends on ourselves, even though we are part of the historical process. This philosophical view certainly does inspire people to very great achievements. Whether it is true or not, it is powerful guide to action

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  We need a philosophy, then, to help us to tackle the future. Agnosticism easily becomes an excuse for laziness and conservatism. Whether we adopt Marxism or any other philosophy, we cannot understand it without knowing something of how it developed. That is why knowledge of the history of philosophy is important to Marxists, even during the present critical days.

  21. What is the main idea of this passage?

  [A] The main idea of this passage is the argument whether philosophy will ultimately be solved by science or not.

  [B] The importance of learning philosophies, especially the history of philosophy.

  [C] The difference between philosophy and science.

  [D] A discuss about how to set a proper attitude towards future.

  22. The example of what Plato thought in the passage shows that

  [A] the development of science really can solve a great many of the problems on which philosophers still argue

  [B] plato knew nothing about Physics

  [C] the scientists have achieved a lot in terms of light theory

  [D] different people have different ways of perception

  23. What field can our descendants know?

  [A] The origin of human beings

  [B] Some questions that perplex us today.

  [C] Many philosophical problems which Marx and Engels wrote rather little.

  [D] The future.

  24. How many kinds of ideas are there about the future?

  [A] Two [B] Three [C] Four [D] Five

  25. What are the functions of studying philosophies mentioned in the passage?

  [A] The study of philosophies would make our own idea flexible.

  [B] The study of philosophies would help prepare us for the future and guide our actions.

  [C] The study of philosophies would enable us to understand how things develop as to better tackle the future.

  [D] All of the above.

  Text 2

  This line of inquiry did not begin until earlier this month—more than three months after the accident—because there were “too many emotions, too many egos,” said retired Adm. Harold Gehman, chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

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  Testifying before the Senate Commerce Committee, Gehman said this part of his inquiry was in its earliest stages, starting just 10 days ago. But Gehman said he already has concluded it is “inconceivable” that NASA would have been unable or unwilling to attempt a rescue for astronauts in orbit if senior shuttle managers and administrators had known there was fatal damage to Columbia's left wing.

  Gehman told reporters after the hearing that answers to these important questions could have enormous impact, since they could place in a different context NASA's decisions against more aggressively checking possible wing damage in the days before Columbia's fatal return.

  Investigators believe breakaway insulating foam damaged part of Columbia's wing shortly after liftoff, allowing superheated air to penetrate the wing during its fiery reentry on Feb.1, melt it from inside.

  Among those decisions was the choice by NASA's senior shuttle managers and administrators to reject offers of satellite images of possible damage to Columbia's left wing before the accident. The subject dominated the early part of Wednesday's hearing.

  Gehman complained managers and administrators “missed signals” when they rejected those offers for images, a pointedly harsh assessment of the space agency's inaction during the 16day shuttle mission.

  “We will attempt to pin this issue down in our report, but there were a number of bureaucratic and administrative missed signals here,” Gehman told senators. “We're not quite so happy with the process.”

  The investigative board already had recommended that NASA push for better coordination between the space agency and military offices in charge of satellites and telescopes. The U.S. National Imagery and Mapping Agency in March agreed to regularly capture detailed satellite images of space shuttles in orbit.

  Still, Gehman said it was unclear whether even images from America's most sophisticated spy satellites might have detected on Columbia's wing any damage, which Gehman said could have been as small as two inches square. The precise capabilities of such satellites proved to be a sensitive topic during the Senate hearing.

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  26.This text is most probably taken from an article entitled “”。

  [A] Gehman's Comments on Columbia Accident

  [B] An Inquiry into Columbia Accident

  [C] Shedding Light on Shuttle's Safety

  [D] NASA's Problems Being Exposed

  27.The word “they” in the sentence “since they could place” (Para.3) denotes

  [A] “damages”[B] “answers”[C] “decisions”[D] “questions”

  28.According to the writer, what may chiefly be responsible for the Columbia accident?

  [A] A supposed damage to the left wing of the spacecraft.

  [B] The deliberate rejection of satellite images.

  [C] A sense of sentiment and arrogance involved.

  [D] The space agency's inaction during its mission.

  29.As mentioned in the text, the Wednesday's hearing revolved around

  [A] the precise capabilities of spy satellites in orbit

  [B] NASA's indecisions against checking upon the Columbia

  [C] NASA's rejection of satellite images offered

  [D] the coordination between NASA and military offices

  30.Which of the following can best describe Gehman's attitude towards satellite images?

  [A] Apprehensive. [B] Credulous. [C] Indifferent. [D] Cautious.

  Text 3

  Gene therapy and gene based drugs are two ways we could benefit from our growing mastery of genetic science. But there will be others as well. Here is one of the remarkable therapies on the cutting edge of genetic research that could make their way into mainstream medicine in the coming years.

  While it's true that just about every cell in the body has the instructions to make a complete human, most of those instructions are inactivated, and with good reason: the last thing you want for your brain cells is to start churning out stomach acid or your nose to turn into a kidney. The only time cells truly have the potential to turn into any and all body parts is very early in a pregnancy, when socalled stem cells haven't begun to specialize
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  Yet this untapped potential could be a terrific boon to medicine. Most diseases involve the death of healthy cells—brain cells in Alzheimer's, cardiac cells in heart disease, pancreatic cells in diabetes, to name a few; if doctors could isolate stem cells, then direct their growth, they might be able to furnish patients with healthy replacement tissue.

  It was incredibly difficult, but last fall scientists at the University of Wisconsin managed to isolate stem cells and get them to grow into neural, gut, muscle and bone cells. The process still can't be controlled, and may have unforeseen limitations; but if efforts to understand and master stemcell development prove successful, doctors will have a therapeutic tool of incredible power.

  The same applies to cloning, which is really just the other side of the coin; true cloning, as first shown with the sheep Dolly two years ago, involves taking a developed cell and reactivating the genome within, resetting its developmental instructions to a pristine state. Once that happens, the rejuvenated cell can develop into a fullfledged animal, genetically identical to its parent.

  For agriculture, in which purely physical characteristics like milk production in a cow or low fat in a hog have real market value, biological carbon copies could become routine within a few years. This past year scientists have done for mice and cows what Ian Wilmut did for Dolly, and other creatures are bound to join the cloned menagerie in the coming year.

  Human cloning, on the other hand, may be technically feasible but legally and emotionally more difficult. Still, one day it will happen. The ability to reset body cells to a pristine, undeveloped state could give doctors exactly the same advantages they would get from stem cells: the potential to make healthy body tissues of all sorts, and thus to cure disease. That could prove to be a true “miracle cure.”

  31.The writer holds that the potential to make healthy body tissues will

  [A] aggravate moral issues of human cloning

  [B] bring great benefits to human beings

  [C] help scientists decode body instructions

  [D] involve employing surgical instruments

  32.The word “rejuvenated” (Para. 5) most probably means

  [A] modified[B] recollected[C] classified[D] reactivated

  33.The research at the University of Wisconsin is mentioned to show

  [A] the isolation of stem cells

  [B] the effects of gene therapies

  [C] the advantages of human cloning

  [D] the limitations of tissue replacements

  34.Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] The principle of gene therapy is applicable to that of cloning.

  [B] The isolation of stem cells is too difficult to be feasible.

  [C] It is reasonable for all body instructions to be activated.

  [D] Cloned animals will eventually take control of the world.

  35.Towards the genetic research, the author's attitude can best be said to be that of

  [A] frustration [B] indifference[C] amazement[D] opposition

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  Text 4

  Nancy Casey was born in Chicago, Illinois, and left when she was three years old. Her family moved to Iowa and lived on 900 acres of farmland, where Nancy trained horses and ponies and helped raise all kinds of farm animals. Nancy loved animals then, and still has a big place in her heart for them. She currently has two Siamese cats, Misha and Iman. At sixteen years old, Nancy's family moved to California and Nancy became a big city girl. The public was very aware at the uncanny resemblance between the two divas, and Nancy was discovered as Liz at age eighteen.

  In high school, Nancy was quite popular. She was a cheerleader, a school princess, she took tap, jazz, ballet and played basketball. Her junior year, she met her high school sweetheart and was married a year after graduation. At the time, she was offered a screen test from Warner Brothers films, but Nancy decided marriage was the more important choice.

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  Nancy studied interior design at UCLA, and worked as a contract designer doing commercial work for restaurants, hotels and homes. Her interest in design took her to places like Paris and France to study art and architecture. Along the way, she had also worked as a legal secretary in law firms, but her most interesting work has been as the Elizabeth Taylor LOOKALIKE.

  In 1988, a friend of Nancy's suggested that she send in her photo to a celebrity LOOKALIKE agent. She was immediately called as Liz for corporate functions. The timing couldn't have been more perfect. At the time, Liz was in the public eye with a new fragrance, book and husband. Work poured in for Nancy.

  Nancy does not mistake her own identity and that of her character Liz. Since Nancy has looked like Elizabeth Taylor her whole life, she has become accustomed to being stared at, or mistaken for the star. However, Nancy says that working as a LOOKALIKE has given her the opportunity to feel what it must be like to be a celebrity for a day. LOOKALIKE work has also helped her to play the role. Working in this field has brought many new and wonderful things to Nancy's life. She is grateful to the friends she has met, places she has traveled to and the opportunity to get a glimpse into the entertainment world of film, television and performing.

  Nancy recalls the time she met her inspiration. She's a true survivor, her compassion for others in need, her loyalty, her unique and full life while always in the public eye and her ability to cope with judgment and scrutiny, is amazing, to say the least. I have met her briefly and found her to be very earthy, with a great sense of humor. She's a very tiny woman for the great amount of clout and power that she possesses.

  Nancy feels her similarities to Elizabeth are a gift. Nancy has worked almost fulltime as a celebrity LOOKALIKE for film, television, print, commercials and on the corporate circuit. As a professional actress she has appeared on numerous television shows such as The Joan Rivers Show, Entertainment Tonight, Dream On, Hard Copy and Inside Edition. Her film credits include Dave, Postcards from the Edge, Sister Act H and Repossessed.

  36.It can be known from this passage that Nancy

  [A] changed her name

  [B] misses the horses on the Iowa farmland

  [C] has two cats with similar looks

  [D] has a strong affection for animals

  37.Which of the following is true according to the passage?

  [A] Nancy once turned down a film producer's invitation.

  [B] Nancy regards marriage the most important thing.

  [C] Nancy never engages herself in advertising.

  [D] Nancy wrote an autobiography.

  38.It can be inferred from the passage that Taylor 

  [A] never got married all her life[B] married at least twice

  [C] got divorced in 1988[D] got divorced at least twice

  39.What does the phrase “play the role” in the 5th paragraph probably mean?

  [A] Being a celebrity.[B] Being a look alike.

  [C] Being an actress.[D] Playing a role in a film.

  40.Nancy's comment on Taylor is one of

  [A] flattery[B] contempt[C] appreciation[D] depreciation

 Part B
  Sample One

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 4145, choose the most suitable one from the list AG to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  Americans wear black for mourning. Chinese wear white. Westerners think of dragons as monsters. Chinese honor them as symbols of God. Chinese civilization has often shown such polarities with the West, as though each stands at extreme ends of a global string. 41)

  His findings go far toward explaining why American cultures seem so contentious and Chinese cultures so passive, when compared to each other. More importantly, the research opens the way for the peoples of the East and the West to learn from each other in fundamental ways. 42)said Kaiping Peng, a former Beijing scholar, who is now a UC Berkeley assistant professor of psychology.

  “Americans have a terrible need to find out who is right in an argument,” said Peng. “The problem is that at the interpersonal level, you really don't need to find the truth, or may be there isn't any.” Chinese people, said Peng, are far more content to think that both sides have flaws and virtues, because they have a holistic awareness that life is full of contradictions. They do far less blaming of the individual than do Americans, he added.

  In studies of interpersonal argument, for example, when subjects were asked to deal with contradictory information stemming from conflict between a mother and a daughter or a student and a school, Peng found that Americans were “noncompromising, blaming one side—usually the mother— for the causes of the problems, demanding changes from one side to attain a solution and offering no compromise” in dealing with the conflict.

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  43)

  In tests of scientific thinking, however, the Chinese came up short. Asked to determine which statement was true—whether, for instance, smoking makes people gain or lose weight—Chinese respondents took the middle road, even when they believed one statement to be less true than another.

  44)

  He believes that this tendency to find the middle way has hampered Chinese efforts to seek out scientific truth through aggressive argumentation, the classic Western method for forging a linear path through contradictory information, which results in identifying right and wrong answers.

  Dialectical thinking also has a Western version, which Americans often consider the highest, most sophisticated form of reasoning, said Peng. This type of reasoning allows people to proceed from thesis to antithesis, to synthesis.

  45)

  [A]In Chinese folk wisdom, by comparison, people do not attempt to work through the contradictions, following a cultural tradition which holds that reality is “multilayer, unpredictable and contradictory,” and is in a constant state of change, Peng said.

  [B]“It can hardly be right to move to the middle when you have just read evidence for a less plausible view. Yet that is what the Chinese subjects did,” said Peng.

  [C]The Chinese could learn much from Western methods for determining scientific truth, and Americans could profit enormously from the Chinese tolerance for accepting contradictions in social and personal life.

  [D]Compared to this angry, blaming American stance, the Chinese were paragons of compromise, finding fault on both sides and looking for solutions that moved both sides to the middle.

  [E]The best way is to use both one style for science and another for relationships. Maybe that will be the real benefit of multiculturalism.

  [F]“They should stop blaming each other, poor people and immigrants, and talk about what we can do as a society to become more tolerant,” said Peng.

  [G] Now a University of California, Berkeley, Psychologist has discovered deeper polarities between Chinese and American cultures—polarities that go to the heart of how we reason and discover truth.

  Sample Two
  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 4145,you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list AG to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)

  [A] Foremost on every potential buyer's list of concerns is debt. The average South Korean Company is leveraged four times over its equity, which is why so many are desperate to liquidate assets. But because Korea's currency lost half its value last year, many Korean executives believe—mistakenly—that foreign buyers will find their wares attractive in spite of their debts, analysts says.

  [B] Despite such aversion to foreign ownership, some deals are going through. Directors of Bank of Asia are believed to have approved the sale of a stake in their midsize bank to Dutch bank ABNAmro. For the Bank of Thailand, the central bank, the ABNAmro deal will send a much needed signal that the country is welcoming foreign capital.

  [C] “The attitude of Koreans is that only foreigners will pay the price they are as king,” says Daniel Harwood of ABNAmro Asia in Seoul. But foreigners are looking at these business and saying “How can I make a profit,” not “Oh, it's cheap, and I'll buy it.” No one will take over these companies unless they can restructure.

  [D] Survival is usually uppermost in the minds of companies with their backs to the wall, even if that entails being reduced to a minority stake. In Thailand, however, most ailing companies seem loathe to admit that their conditions may be fatal. “They aren't realistic,” says Henry Conell, Goldman Sachs' Hong Kong based partner in charge of direct investment in Asia. “Nobody is about to say to them, you will be gone.”

  [E] In south Korea, interest from foreigners has focused more on the country's manufacturers. But, the number of actual purchases, like those in Thailand, is small. In any event, big ticket cross border mergers and acquisitions are bound to take time. Indeed, analysts say the main reason for the dearth of deals so far is due to diligence: foreign investors must thoroughly familiarize themselves with companies they might buy. “You can't do this stuff overnight,” says a senior official at a large Western bank in Seoul.

  [F] Still, the number of deals is growing by the day. On February 19, Samsung Heavy Industries simultaneously sold its excavator division to Sweden's Volvo Construction Equipment and its forklift operation to the United States' Clark Martirial Handling. Earlier, the chemical giant Hanwha group sold two affiliates to its Japanese and German partners. Despite the slow start, no one doubts that the bargains at Korea Inc. are for real.

  [G] Thai businesses' unwillingness to sell hasn't been helped by the government's own ambivalence. While Finance Minister Tarrin Nimmanahaeminda is committed to attracting foreign money to Thailand, Deputy Prime Minister Supachai Panitchpakdi seems less so. “We don't want foreign firms to come and buy out our businesses. We want them to come, buy shares, and operate firmsand sell them after making profits,” he told the local media recently. “This will give Thais a chance to buy them back.”

  Order:

  D→

  41→

  42→

  43→

  44→

  45→

  F

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  Sample Three

  Direction:

  You are going to read a text about New Rules for Landing a Job, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list AF for each numbered subheading (4145)。 There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  When Nick A. Corcodilos started out in the headhunting business 20 years ago, he had a keen eye for tracking talent. From his base in Silicon Valley he would send allstar performers to bluechip companies like Xerox, IBM and General Electric. But while he would succeed in his part of the hunt, the jobseekers he located would often fail in theirs. They were striking out before, during or after the interview.

  So instead of simply accounting for talent, Corcodilos began advising job candidates as well. He helped improve their success ratio by teaching them to pursue fewer companies, make the right contacts and deliver what companies are looking for in an interview. In his mythbusting book, Ask the Headhunter (Plume, 1997), Corcodilos has reinvented the rules of the job search, from preparation to interview techniques. Here are his six new principles for successful job hunting:
  (41) Your resume is meaningless.

  Headhunters know a resume rarely gets you inside a company. All it does is outline your pastlargely irrelevant since it doesn't demonstrate that you can do the work the hiring manager needs done.

  (42) Don't get lost in HR.

  Headhunters try to get around the human resources department whenever possible.

  (43) The real matchmaking takes place before the interview.

  A headhunter sends a candidate into an interview only if he or she is clearly qualified for the position. In your own job hunt, make the same effort to ensure a good fit. Know the parameters of the job when you walk into the interview. Research the company, finding out about its culture, goals, competitors.

  Remember, the employer wants to hire you.

  “A company holds interviews so it can find the best person for the job,” Corcodilos says. The manager will be ecstatic if that person turns out to be you because then he or she can stop interviewing and get back to work.

  (44) Pretend the interview is your first day at work.

  Most people treat an interview as if it were an interrogation. The employer asks questions, and the candidate gives answers. Headhunters go out of their way to avoid that scenario.

  (45) Got an offer? Interview the company.

  When an employer makes an offer, he does more than deliver a title and a compensation package he also cedes part of his control over the hiring process.

  Once you get that offer, “You have the power,” says Corcodilos, to decide whether, and on what terms, you want to hire that company.

  [A] Consider how Corcodilos coached Gerry Zagorski of Edison, N.J., who was pursuing an opening at AT & T. Zagorski walked over to the vice president's marker board and outlined the company's challenges and the steps he would take to increase its profits. Fifteen minutes later, as Zagorski wrote down his estimate of what he would add to the bottom line, he looked up at his interviewer.

  [B] One of the best ways to learn about a company is to talk to people who work there. Kenton Green of Ann Arbor, Mich., used this technique while completing a doctoral program in electrical engineering and optics at the University of Rochester: “I would find an article published by someone in my field who worked at a company I was interested in. Then I'd call that person and ask to talk, mention my employability and discuss the company's needs. One of two things happened: I'd either get an interview or learn we weren't a good match after all.”

  [C] “Most HR departments create an infrastructure that primarily involves processing paper,” Corcodilos says. “They package, organize, file and sort you. Then, if you haven't gotten lost in the shuffle, they might pass you on to a manager who actually knows what the work is all about. While the typical candidate is waiting to be interviewed by HR, the headhunter is on the phone, using a back channel to get to the hiring manager.”

  [D] “At the outset of the interview, the employer controls the offer and the power that comes with it,” Corcodilos says. “But upon making an offer, he transfers that power to the candidate. This is a power few people in that situation realize they have. It's the time for you to explore changing the offer to suit your goals and fully interview the company.”

  [E] “The guy's jaw was on the floor,” Corcodilos says. “He told Zagorski that finishing the interview wouldn't be necessary. Instead, the VP brought in the rest of his team, and the meeting lasted for two hours.”

  [F] “A resume leaves it up to employers to figure out how you can help their organization,” Corcodilos says. “That's no way to sell yourself.”
  Sample Four

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about explorations into maple lores. Choose the most suitable heading from the list AF for each numbered paragraph (4145)。 The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] The influence of maples on the Canadian culture.

  [B] The token of maples in Canada.

  [C] Contemplation of global distribution of maples.

  [D] The triumph of Nokomis over the devils with the help of maples.

  [E] The popularity of the maple in a favorite myth.

  [F] The maple signals the approach of fall.

  The maple smoke of autumn bonfires is incense to Canadians. Bestowing perfume for the nose, color for the eye, sweetness for the spring tongue, the sugar maple prompts this sharing of a favorite myth and original etymology of the word maple.

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  41

  The maple looms large in Ojibwa folk tales. The time of year for sugaring off is “in the Maple Moon.” Among Ojibwa, the primordial female figure is Nokomis, a wise grandmother. In one tale about seasonal change, cannibal wendigoscreatures of evil  chased old Nokomis through the autumn countryside. Wendigos throve in icy cold. When they entered the bodies of humans, the human heart froze solid. Here wendigos represent oncoming winter. They were hunting to kill and eat poor Nokomis, the warm embodiment of female fecundity who, like the summer, has grown old.

  42

  Knowing this was a pursuit to the death, Nokomis outsmarted the cold devils. She hid in a stand of maple trees, all red and orange and deep yellow. This maple grove grew beside a waterfall whose mist blurred the trees' outline. As they peered through the mist, slavering wendigos thought they saw a raging fire in which their prey was burning. But it was only old Nokomis being hidden by the bright red leaves of her friends, the maples. And so, drooling ice and huffing frost, the wendigos left her and sought easier prey. For their service in saving the earth mother's life, these maples were given a special gift: their water of life would be forever sweet, and Canadians would tap it for nourishment.

  43

  Maple and its syrup flow sweetly into Canadian humor. Quebeckers have the standard siropd' erable for maple syrup, but add a feisty insult to label imitation syrups that are thick with glucose glop. They call this sugary imposter sirop de Poteau “telephone pole syrup” or dead tree syrup.

  44

  The contention that maple syrup is unique to North America is suspect, I believe. China has close to 10 species of maple, more than any country in the world. Canada has 10 native species. North America does happen to be home to the sugar maple, the species that produces the sweetest sap and the most abundant flow. But are we to believe that in thousands of years of Chinese history, these inventive people never tapped a maple to taste its sap? I speculate that they did. Could ProtoAmericas who crossed the Bering land bridge to populate the Americas have brought with them a knowledge of maple syrup? Is there a very old Chinese phrase for maple syrup? Is maple syrup mentioned in Chinese literature? For a nonreader of Chinese, such questions are daunting but not impossible to answer.

  45

  What is certain is the maple's holdfast on our national imagination. Its leaf was adopted as an emblem in New France as early as 1700, and in English Canada by the mid19th century. In the fall of 1867, a Toronto schoolteacher named Alexander Muir was traipsing a street at the city, all squelchy underfoot from the soft felt of falling leaves, when a maple leaf alighted to his coat sleeve and stuck there. At home that evening, he wrote a poem and set it to music, in celebration of Canada's Confederation. Muir's song, “The Maple Leaf Forever,” was wildly popular and helped fasten the symbol firmly to Canada.

  The word “maple” is from “mapeltreow”, the Old English term for maple tree, with “mapl”—as its ProtoGermanic root, a compound in which the first “m”—is, I believe, the nearly worldwide “ma”, one of the first human sounds, the pursing of a baby's lips as it prepares to suck milk from mother's breast. The “ma” root gives rise in many world languages to thousands of words like “mama”, “mammary”, “maia”, and “Amazon.” Here it would make “mapl” mean “nourishing mother tree,” that is, tree whose maple sap in nourishing. The second part of the compound, “apl”, is a variant of IndoEuropean able “fruit of any tree” and the origin of another English fruit word, apple. So the primitive analogy compares the liquid sap with another nourishing liquid, mother's milk.
  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10 points)

  Clearly if we are to participate in the society in which we live we must communicate with other people. A great deal of communicating is performed on a persontoperson basis by the simple means of speech. (46) If we travel in buses, buy things in shops, or eat in restaurants, we are likely to have conversations where we give information or opinions, receive news or comment, and very likely have our views challenged by other members of society.

  (47) Facetoface contact is by no means the only form of communication and during the last two hundred years the art of mass communication has become one of the dominating factors of contemporary society. Two things, above others, have caused the enormous growth of the communication industry. Firstly, inventiveness has led to advances imprinting, telecommunications photography, radio and television. Secondly, speed has revolutionized the transmission and reception of communications so that local news often takes a back seat to national news, which itself is often almost eclipsed by international news.

  No longer is the possession of information confined to a privileged minority. In the last century the wealthy man with his own library was indeed fortunate, but today there are public libraries. (48) For years ago people used to flock to the cinema, but now far more people sit at home and turn on the TV to watch a programme that is being channeled into millions of homes.

  Communication is no longer merely concerned with the transmission of information. (49) The modem communication industry influences the way people live in society and broadens their horizons by allowing access to information, education and entertainment. The printing, broadcasting and advertising industries are all involved with informing, educating and entertaining.

  (50) Although a great deal of the material communicated by the mass media is very valuable to the individual and to the society of which he is part, the vast modem network of communications is open to abuse. However, the mass media are with us for better, for worse, and there is no turning back.

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  Section Ⅲ Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  You have watched the 2004 Athens Olympic Games and are interested in becoming a volunteer for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Write a letter to Liu Qi, mayor of the capital city, to

  1)make suggestions for the 2008 preparation work, and

  2)express your wish to be a volunteer.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  Part B

  52.Directions:

  Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1)describe the drawing,

  2)interpret its meaning and

  3)suggest countermeasures.

  You should write about 160200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

答案解析:

 Section I Use of English
  1.「答案」A

  「解析」本题考查词义辨析。空格句表示“创建了……市场”之一,created语义恰当,为答案。initiated一般表示“开始实施,发起”之意,与plans,schemes,social reforms等连用。

  2.「答案」C

  「解析」本题考查近形词辨析。represent意为“代表,标志”,带入后句意为:创建了一个新的电子的经济指标(economic indices)市场,这些指标代表的是实质性的经济风险。

  3.「答案」A

  「解析」本题为一般的词汇题。带入后上下文语义连贯的选项为A “先进的”。

  4.「答案」B

  「解析」called带入后意为“被称为the Parimutuel Digital Call Auction的……”,与“developed by……”一样为后置定语,共同修饰前面的“technology”一词。

  5.「答案」D

  「解析」本题考查介词短语的用法。“in the sense of”意为“按照(就)……的意义来说”,带入后句意为“它被称为数字化的,是就其提供了的一个数字化的方法而言的”。

  6.「答案」D

  「解析」根据空格前后的递进性的句意逻辑,合适的关系词是only if(只有),带入后与if语气递进。

  7.「答案」B

  「解析」这是一道词汇题。由于前两句都是在强调“range”(范围),该题答案也是range才能保持句意的连贯。

  8.「答案」C

  「解析」本题涉及介词的用法。与bet搭配的常为on,带入后意为“在……下赌”。

  9.「答案」A

  「解析」本题考查词汇知识。“virtually”意为“几乎;确实”,带入后符合句意,为答案。

  10.「答案」B

  「解析」本题考查词汇知识。“assess”意为“评估”,符合句意,为答案。

  11.「答案」B

  「解析」which带入后引导非限制性定语从句,为正确答案。

  12.「答案」B

  「解析」本题涉及上下文的理解。由于下文主要讨论家庭保险,所以本题答案为insurance,符合句意逻辑。

  13.「答案」A

  「解析」“what”引导宾语从句“what, for most people, is the single most ……”,做介词of的宾语。

  14.「答案」C

  「解析」这是一道词汇题。C“组成部分”符合句意,为正确答案。

  15.「答案」D

  「解析」这是一道词汇题。launched(使开始,推出)带入后做后置定语,修饰前面的program,意为“……所推出的计划”,应为最佳选项。released意为“公布,发行”,应排除。

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  16.「答案」D

  「解析」本题涉及动词短语。根据句意,D rely on(依靠)为正确答案。

  17.「答案」A

  「解析」本题考查词汇知识。A terms “(双方提出的)条件,条款”,带入后句意为“确定保险单中的具体条款(to define the terms of the policy)”,前后连贯,为正确答案。

  18.「答案」B

  「解析」这是一道语法题。being带入后,时态上与空格前的now呼应,构成分词结构,与前面的already begun并列为后置定语,共同修饰“Electronic futures markets”(电子期货市场)。

  19.「答案」C

  「解析」本题涉及词的引申用法,stand可以表达“处于某种状态或情形”之意,带入后意为“但它们却是这样一种技术的雏形……”。再如:The house stood empty for months. 故C为答案。其他三项意思均为“出现”,不符句意。

  20.「答案」C

  「解析」本题考查副词的用法。A“以某种方式,不知怎么回事”,不符句意,排除。 B “不管怎么说”,不符句意,排除。C “用别的方式,在其他方面”符合句意,为正确答案。D “因此”,不符句意,排除。

  译文

  2002年10月,高盛和德意志银行为表示经济风险的经济指数如非农业工资(工作获得度的测量值)和零售量创立了一种新的电子市场()。这个新的市场由提供一种叫作派利分成法数字呼叫的金融市场软件的一家纽约公司Longitude开发的一种复杂评级技术构成。说它是“数字的”是因为它有一种数字的选择:即,它只在基本指数位于一个狭窄的和不连续的范围之内时才发生作用。实际上,Longitude创造了一场赛马比赛,在这场比赛中只有当某个指数位于特点范围之内时,这匹“马”才会赢。通过创造能够达到指数的每个可能范围的马匹,以及让人们可以赌任何一个骑手,这家公司创造了一个经济指数有很宽选择范围的流动的完整的电子市场。

  10年前几乎是不可能利用电子信息来评估住房价值的。现在,抵押者可以通过网上自动评估模型来评估房屋价值并估侧他的资产组合的风险度。由此产生了很多种的房屋贷款,其中有些改进了其风险管理。

  我们还开始看到一些新的住房保险,这样就可以保护对于大多数人来说是惟一的最重要的财产价值。去年在纽约州Syracuse市发起的耶鲁大学邻里再投资公司计划可能是住房资产保险政策的一种模型。这种政策依靠复杂的住房价格指数来确定其政策内容。英国的城市指数和IG指数已经开始使用而且现在正在每个发展的基于城市住房价格计量经济学指数的电子期货市场住房资产保险商能够通过签署这些政策来规避风险。

  不过这些例子并不是特别成功。但是它们将会成为技术先驱,将来会帮助我们处理在未来几年可能会困扰我们的巨大的不平等的危险。
  Section II Reading ComPrehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  21.「答案」B

  「解析」文章第一段介绍了我们为什么要学习哲学;第二段和第三段介绍了哲学和科学的联系和差别;第四段说明了学习哲学的必然性;最后一段总结了我们为什么要学习哲学。因此,本文的大意应是学习哲学的必要性,所以选B.

  22.「答案」A

  「解析」第二段第一句指出,“科学家都倾向于认为,所有有关哲学的问题最终会由科学来解决。我认为对于许多哲学家仍争论不休的问题,这一点是千真万确的。”因此,A项正确,而B项显然错误。C、D项虽说法正确,但不符合题意。

  23.「答案」D

  「解析」由第三段第一句话可知,就算我们的子孙知道了这些问题和那些现在仍困扰我们的问题的答案,那么仍然有一个领域是他们无从了解的,那就是将来。所以,选项D是正确的。

  24.「答案」B

  「解析」在第四段中,我们知道关于未来有这样几种观点:“some people say……”,“others say that ……”, “Marxists say that ……”。因此,应该是三种观点,选B.

  25.「答案」D

  「解析」本题问的是学习哲学的作用。A项在第一段开头就已提到。第四段第一句话说道,“但是我们得为将来做准备,没有一些哲学知识,我们是无法理性地做到这一点的。”因此,B项应该是符合题意的。而C项在最后一段也有谈到。所以,答案应选 D.

  译文

  研究哲学会使我们的思想更灵活。我们所有人都会认为某些想法是理所当然的,并把它们称作常识。我们应该知道其他人的想法会不同,而且我们的想法就是哲学家最初的猜测。

  科学家可能会认为所有的哲学问题最终都会被科学解决。我认为对于哲学家至今仍在争论的一些问题,这可能是事实。比如,柏拉图认为当我们看见一个物体时,来自太阳的一束光线射到它,我们的眼睛也射出一道光线到它上面,所以看东西就像用一根棍子来感觉物体。我们现在知道光线来自太阳,并反射入我们眼内。我们不能具体知道这些眼睛内的变化是如何造成感觉的。不过我们有理由相信只要我们更多地了解大脑的生理原理,我们一定能做到这点,那么我们就能够解决关于知识的哲学问题。

  但是如果我们的后代知道这些问题以及今天仍在困扰我们的问题的答案,还是有一个领域是他们不可能知道的,那就是未来。无论我们的科学有多么精确,我们都无法像了解过去一样去知道未来。哲学可以被认为是对于我们所不知道的事物的认识。科学给予我们获得知识的希望,但我们也有理由暂缓做出判断。这就是为什么马克思和恩格斯能够对他们同时代的人感兴趣的哲学问题做出比较正确的回答的原因。

  但是我们应该为将来做准备,而且我们必须依靠哲学才能做出理智的判断。有些人说我们只要尽到宗教规定的在过去呈现的应尽的义务就可以了,上帝会照看未来。另一些人说世界就像一个机器,未来发生的事情是决定了的,无论我们做任何努力都不会改变。马克思主义者认为未来取决于我们自己,尽管我们也是历史进程的一部分。这种哲学观确实鼓舞人们去取得伟大成就。无论这种观点是否正确,它都是一个有力的行动指南。

  我们需要一种能够帮助我们应付未来的哲学。不可知论很容易成为懒惰和保守的借口。无论我们是接受马克思主义还是其他哲学,我们要想真正懂得这种哲学,都应该了解这种哲学是如何发展起来的。这就是为什么即使在今天这个关键的时刻,学习哲学史对马克思主义者来说还是很重要。

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  Text 2

  26.「答案」B

  27.「答案」B

  28.「答案」A

  29.「答案」C

  30.「答案」D

  译文

  直到事故发生后的三个多月也就是在本月初,这宗调查才开始,原因是有“太多的情绪和自负”,哥伦比亚号事故调查委员会的主席Harold Gehman如此说道。

  在参议院商业委员会前作证时,Gehman说他的这部分调查才刚刚开始,始于10天之前。但是他已经得出了一个结论:如果说宇航局的高级管理官员们知道了哥伦比亚号航天飞机的左翼有致命的故障存在,而美国航空航天局却不愿或不能对进入轨道的宇航员采取营救行动,是不能令人信服的。

  Gehman于听证会后告诉记者,关于一些重要问题的答案可能会产生巨大的影响。原因是这些答案可能在一个不同的情形下审视宇航局的决定,宇航局决定反对在哥伦比亚号返航前仔细检查可能出现的侧翼故障。

  调查人员认为哥伦比亚号起飞后不久隔热泡沫的流失损坏了飞机左翼。这导致了二月一日航天飞机返航时超高温的热空气穿过飞船的侧翼引起大火并融化了飞船的内部。

  在这些决定中,有关于宇航局管理官员拒绝接受军方所提供的关于哥伦比亚号航天飞机左翼隐患的卫星照片。这一主题占据了周三听证会的前半部分。

  Gehman抱怨说管理官员在拒绝被提供的照片时“错失了故障的征兆”,这是对宇航局在16天的航天飞机航行期间的做事不力的直接尖刻的评价。
  Gehman告诉参议员:“我们将把这件事详细地写进我们的报告,但是事故中有许多官员和管理者错失了故障的征兆,我们对调查的进程不甚满意。”

  调查委员会曾建议美国航空航天局促成宇航局和掌管卫星及望远镜的军方部门间更好地合作。美国国家图像和测绘部在三月份已同意定期为在轨道上运行的航天飞机进行详细的卫星图像拍照。

  来自于美国军方最先进的间谍卫星的照片是否能检测出哥伦比亚号飞船侧翼上的两英寸大小的破损,Gehman对此仍旧不敢肯定。这种卫星的精确度是听证会上的敏感话题。

Text 3

  31.「答案」B

  32.「答案」D

  33.「答案」A

  34.「答案」A

  35.「答案」C

  译文

  基因治疗和以基因为基础的药物是我们能够从不断增长的遗传科学知识中获得利益的两种方式。但是,也会有其他方式。这里所说的就是遗传研究明显占优势的一种不寻常疗法——未来几年,这些疗法会发展成为主流医学。

  虽然人体内的几乎每个细胞都具有发育成一个完整人体的指令,这是事实。但是大多数指令并未激活,理由十分充分:你最不希望的事情就是你的脑细胞开始分泌胃酸,或是你的鼻子发育成肾脏。细胞真正有可能发育成身体的任何或所有器官的惟一时刻就是怀孕的早期,那时所谓的干细胞还没有开始分化。

  然而,对于医学来说,这种未被利用的潜能也许是一种极大的好处。大多数疾病与健康细胞的死亡有关——早老性痴呆症中的脑细胞、心脏病中的心脏细胞、糖尿病中的胰腺细胞等等,仅列举这些。如果医生能够分离干细胞,然后指令这些细胞发育,他们就可能为病人提供健康的移植组织。

  这样做的难度非常大。但是在去年秋天,威斯康星州大学的科学家设法分离了干细胞,并使这些细胞发育成神经细胞、内脏细胞、肌肉细胞和骨骼细胞。这一过程还不能被控制,该过程可能有无法预料的局限性。但是如果致力于了解并控制干细胞发育的努力被证实是成功的话,那么医生将会拥有一种威力无比的治疗手段。

  这同样适用于克隆——实际上,克隆正好与之相反。就像两年前克隆羊“多利”首次所展示的那样,真正的克隆包括:提取一个发育的细胞、重新激活细胞里面的基因组、重新设置它的发育指令使其恢复到原始状态。一旦发生了这些事情,恢复活力的细胞就会发育成一个成熟的动物,该动物在基因上同其父(母)完全相同。

  对于农业来说,像奶牛产奶或肉猪产低脂肪肉这些纯自然的属性具有真正的商业价值,几年内,生物学方面的克隆就会成为普通的事情。去年,科学家克隆出了老鼠和奶牛,就像伊恩。威尔马特克隆“多利”一样,明年,其他的动物肯定会加入克隆的动物行列。

  另一方面,克隆人可能在技术上可行,但是在法律和情感上却更加艰难。不过,总有一天会克隆出人的。把身体细胞重新调整到原始的、未发育的状态的能力可能为医生带来他们从干细胞中能够获得的同样好处:即有可能培育出各种各样健康的人体器官,从而利用这些器官治病。这可能会被证明是真正的“神奇疗法”。

  Text 4

  36. 「答案」D

  37. 「答案」B

  38. 「答案」B

  39. 「答案」C

  40. 「答案」C

.

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