日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:268


  Section Ⅰ Use of English


  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Driving through snowstorm on icy roads for long distances is a most nerve-racking experience. It is a paradox that the snow, coming __1__ gently, blowing gleefully in a high wind, all the while __2__ down a treacherous carpet, freezes the windows,__3__ the view. The might of automated man is__4__ . The horses, the powerful electrical systems, the deep-tread tires, all go __5__ nothing. One minute the road feels __6__, and the next the driver is sliding over it, light as a__7__, in a panic, wondering what the heavy trailer trucks coming up__8__the rear are going to do. The trucks are like __9__ when you have to pass them, not at sixty or seventy __10__ you do when the road is dry, but at twenty-five and thirty. __11__ their engines sound unnaturally loud. Snow, slush and__12__ of ice spray from beneath the wheels, obscure the windshield, and rattle __13__your car. Beneath the wheels there is plenty of __14__ for you to slide and get mashed to a pulp. Inch __15__ inch you move up, past the rear wheels, the center wheels, the cab, the front wheels, all__16__too slowly by. Straight ahead you continue,__17__ to cut over sharply would send you into a slip,__18__in front of the vehicle. At last, there is__19__enough, and you creep back over, in front of the truck now, but__20__the sound of its engine still thundering in your ears.

  1. [A] up [B] off [C] down [D] on

  2. [A] lies [B] lays [C] settles [D] sends

  3. [A] blocks [B] strikes [C] puffs [D] cancels

  4. [A] muted [B] discovered [C] doubled [D] undervalued

  5. [A] for [B] with [C] into [D] from

  6. [A] comfortable [B] weak [C] risky [D] firm

  7. [A] loaf [B] feather [C] leaf [D] fog

  8. [A] beneath [B] from [C] under [D] beyond

  9. [A] dwarfs [B] giants [C] patients [D] princesses

  10. [A] what [B] since [C] as [D] that

  11. [A] So [B] But [C] Or [D] Then

  12. [A] flakes [B] flocks [C] chips [D] cakes

  13. [A] onto [B] against [C] off [D] along

  14. [A] snow [B] earth [C] room [D] ice

  15. [A] by [B] after [C] for [D] with

  16. [A] climbing [B] crawling [C] winding [D] sliding

  17. [A] meanwhile [B] unless [C] whereas [D] for

  18. [A] sheer [B] mostly [C] rarely [D] right

  19. [A] might [B] distance [C] air [D] power

  20. [A] with [B] like [C] inside [D] upon


  1.C 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.B 10.C

  11.D 12.C 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.D 17.D 18.D 19.B 20.A





  1.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的副词与动词come搭配,其分词形式作后置定语,修饰限定主语the snow。come down指"(雨、雪等)落下,降落",如:The rain came down in torrents.(大雨滂沱。)因此[C]符合文意,在文中指"大雪飘落"。

  come down也可意为"崩塌;(飞机)着陆;(价格、温度、比例)下降;下垂,向下延伸",如:The ceiling came down.(天花板塌了下来。)Gas is coming down in price.(煤气价格在下降。)come up意为"破土而出;升起;即将发生",如:The daffodils are just beginning to come up.(水仙花刚开始破土发芽。)watch the sun come up(观看日出)。Her birthday is coming up.(她的生日即将来临。)come off意为"能被去掉或除去;发生;(计划等)成功",如:That mark won't come off.(那污点去不掉。)Did the trip to Korea come off?(去韩国的事最后成了吗?)come on意为"改进,发展;开始",如:The project is coming on fine.(这项工程进展顺利。)I think there's rain coming on.(我看要下雨了。)

  2.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的动词与down搭配,相当于及物动词,其主语是the snow,宾语是a treacherous carpet。lie down意为"躺下";lay down意为"放下;记下;拟定",如:lay down the arms/the rules(放下武器/制定规则);settle down意为"安下心来,定居";send down只能接sb.作宾语,意为"判某人入狱",如:He was sent down for ten years for armed robbery.(他因持械抢劫被判入狱十年。)因此[B]符合文意,意为"(大雪)吹落(一块毯子)"。

  3.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的动词接the view作宾语,而且它与前面的2 down和freezes并列作谓语,其主语都是the snow。作及物动词时,block意为"堵塞,阻塞",如:to block the road(堵住了道路)。strike意为"撞击,打击,侵袭",如:The ship struck a rock.(船触礁了。)The area was struck by an outbreak of plague.(这个地区爆发了瘟疫。)puff意为"吸,抽,喷",如:to puff the cigar/smoke into sb.'s faces(抽雪茄/把烟往别人脸上喷)。cancel意为"取消"。能够和the view搭配的只有[A]block,表示"挡住视线"。

  4.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与is构成被动式的谓语,因此其动词的实际的宾语是the might(强大力量,威力)。mute意为"消除或减弱声音;减弱,缓解",如:mute the traffic noise/the criticism(减弱了车辆的噪音/委婉地提出批评)。discover意为"发现,发觉";double意为"加倍";undervalue意为"低估...之价值,看轻"。因此[A]符合文意,它与the might搭配,表示"威力减弱"。

  5.[精解] 本题考查固定短语。go for nothing相当于be in vain,意为"白费,毫无用处,毫无价值"。因此[A]正确,其他介词都不能与go和nothing构成搭配。

  6.[精解] 本题考查形容词辨析。feel是系动词,意为"摸起来,感觉起来",它常与形容词构成系表结构,如:The water feels warm.(这水摸起来很暖和。)本题中feel的主语是the road, 因此空格处的形容词应说明"道路"的特点。四个选项都可以修饰事物,comfortable一般指"(衣服、家具等)使人舒服的",如:The bed/these shoes are very comfortable.(这床/这双鞋子很舒服。)weak意为"不牢固的,易损坏的",如:The bridge is too weak to carry heavy traffic.(那座桥梁不太牢固,承受不住过多的车辆。)weak也可指"微弱的,隐约的",强调不容易被看到或听到,如:a weak light/sound(微弱的光线/声音)。risky意为"有危险或风险的",如:a risky investment(有风险的投资)。firm意为"坚固的,结实的,稳固的",如:No building can stand without firm foundations.(没有稳固的基础,建筑就不牢靠。)根据上下文,空格处的形容词应与下文"容易滑倒"相对照,因此[D]正确,强调道路"结实"。

  7.[精解] 本题考查英语语言习惯。英语和汉语中都有大量的比喻形式。有些比喻的喻体大不相同,如:spend money like water(挥金如土);有些则很相似,如:as firm as a rock(坚如磐石),as light as a feather(轻如鸿毛)。因此本题应选[B],文中用这个比喻形容"车子打滑时驾驶者失重的感受"。loaf意为"一条(面包)";leaf意为"树叶";fog意为"雾"。

  8.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格所在部分wondering... 是个分词结构,在句中作状语,wondering的逻辑主语是the driver,逻辑宾语是what引导的宾语从句。该从句中,coming up... the rear也是一个分词短语,作从句主语trucks的后置定语。空格处填入介词,其宾语是the rear(后面、后边、后部),根据文意,表示"从后面"应选[C]from。beneath和under都表示"在......之下",beyond表示"在(或向)较远的一边",不符合逻辑。

  9.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格所在部分是一个比喻,说明卡车像什么。下文出现了两个when引导的状语从句的比较:路面干燥时的行驶速度为60或70,而此时的行驶速度为25和30。可见,文章在说明由于路面滑造成了行驶速度下降。根据逻辑推理,行驶缓慢时从大卡车旁开过花费的时间当然较长,因此它们看起来更像giants"巨人",而不是dwarfs"矮子",patients"病人"或princesses"公主"。因此[B]正确。

  10.[精解] 本题考查从句引导词。空格所在句子中存在比较,即,you have to pass them not... you do when the road is dry(路面滑时开车不像路面干燥时那样快),因此空格处填入的词应引导比较状语从句you do when... ,从句中do为上文动词pass的替代词。[C]as可用于比较结构,表示"像......一样,如同",如:He doesn't earn as much as I do.(他挣的钱不如我多。)因此[C]正确。what只能引导名词性从句,what you do表示"你做的事情";since一般引导时间状语从句,表示"从......以后,自......以来";that只能引导定语从句或名词性从句。

  11.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格处填入的词出现在句首,表示上文与空格所在句子之间的逻辑关系。then是副词,可用来引出额外的信息,意为"另外,还有;再者,而且",如:She's been very busy at work and then there was all that trouble with her son.(她工作一直很忙,另外还有儿子的一大堆麻烦事。)上文提到路面滑时从卡车旁开过的速度非常慢,本句则提到另一方面的问题是卡车的噪音非常大。因此[D]then正确,在文中意为"而且,此外"。其它选项:so表示因果关系;but表示转折关系;or表示选择关系。

  12.[精解] 本题考查名词辨析。空格处填入的名词作定语修饰ice。flake意为"小薄片",修饰snow时指"雪花",又如:dried onion flakes(干洋葱皮片);flock一般指"(羊或鸟)群"或"一大群(人)",如:a flock of sheep/children(羊群/一大群孩子);chip意为"碎屑,碎片,碎渣",如:chips of wood(碎木屑);cake作名词时指"蛋糕或饼状食物",作动词时意为"覆盖"。从下文可知,车轮子下溅出来的应是"雪、泥(slush)和碎冰渣",因此[C]最符合文意。

  13.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格处填入的介词与动词rattle(象声词,"格格响,嘎嘎响")搭配,其宾语是your car,主语是上文的snow, slush and chips of ice。选项中,onto表示"(朝某处或某位置运动)向,朝",如:Move the books onto the second shelf.(把书移到第二层架子上。)against表示"逆着,与......相反"或"紧靠,倚",如:We were rowing against the current.(我们划船逆水而上。)lean against the wall(斜靠着墙)。off意为down or away from a place"从(某处落下)",如:I fell off the ladder.(我从梯子上跌了下来。)along意为"沿着,顺着",如:They walked slowly along the road.(他们沿着公路慢慢走)。根据句意,应是"雪、泥和碎冰渣溅到车上,又格格作响地从车上掉下来",因此[C]正确。

  14.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项都是常见的简单词汇,关键要根据句子含义进行选择。空格所在句子的结构是there is plenty of sth. for you to... ,其中不定式作结果状语,意为"轮子下有足够的......让你打滑并被碾成肉酱"。根据句子逻辑,应是"(足够的)空间",而非"雪","泥土"或"冰"。因此[C]正确。

  15.[精解] 本题考查英语成语。英语讲究对称美,其表现之一为成语排列形式上的对称美,即,以介词、连词(and或or)或动词为"对称轴",构成相同词、同词性的词、反义词或同类词的对称。本题inch by inch就是以介词by为"对称轴"构成的相同词(inch)的对称,意为"一点一点地"。类似结构的成语还有:head to head(交头接耳),word for word(逐词地),like for like(以牙还牙)。[A]为正确项。

  16.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入现在分词作句子状语,其逻辑主语是you。climb一般指"(向上)攀登,(吃力地向某处)爬",如:climb up the stairs(爬上了梯子),climb through the window(从窗口爬了出来)。crawl指"(向前,身体接近地面的)爬行",如:The baby is just starting to crawl.(宝宝刚开始会爬。)wind作不及物动词时,意为"(路,河等)蜿蜒,曲折而行",如:The path wound down to the beach.(这条小路弯弯曲曲通向海滩。)slide指"滑行,滑动"。根据句意,你(驾驶者)缓慢地从大卡车旁往前开,由于路面滑,只能是"慢慢地滑过"。因此[D]正确。

  17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格前后是两个独立的分句,因此空格处需要填入一个连词。meanwhile为副词,意为"同时",放在句首时要么另起一句,要么与前一句用分号隔开,如:I went to college. Meanwhile, all my friends got well-paid jobs.(我上大学去了,那时我的朋友们全都找到了收入www.59wj.com工作。)[A]首先排除。其他几个词都可作连词,unless意为"除非",whereas常用于比较或对比两个事实,意为"然而,但是,尽管";for意为"因为"。根据句意,空格前后两个分句之间是因果关系,即,"你(驾驶者)继续笔直地往前开,因为突然超车抢道到卡车前面(cut over sharply)会使你的车滑倒",因此[D]正确。

  18.[精解] 本题考查副词辨析。空格处应填入一个副词,修饰介词短语in front of(在......前面)。sheer作副词时意为"垂直地,陡峭地",如:The cliffs rise sheer from the beach.(悬崖从海滩上拔地而起。)mostly意为"主要地,一般地",如:We're mostly out on Sundays.(我们星期天一般不在家。)rarely意为"罕有,很少,不常",如:We rarely agree on what to do.(我们很少在要做的事情上看法一致。)right意为"正好,恰好,直接地",如:Lee was standing right behind her.(李就站在她身后。)根据文意,[D]正确。

  19.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项的含义分别是might"力量",distance"距离",air"空气",power"力量,势力"。根据空格所在句子的含义,应选[B],表示"当有足够的车距时,你才慢慢地挪到卡车的前方"。

  20.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格前的but为并列连词,连接句子中的两个状语成分,即,in front of... 和 the sound thundering。"with+名词+分词"可构成独立主格结构,作状语。因此[A]正确。其它项作介词时,like意为"像,如同",inside意为"在......里面",upon意为"在......上"。


  (1)nerve-racking (a.) intensely distressing or irritating to the nerves令神经高度紧张或极受刺激的


  (3)high wind强风

  (4)treacherous(修饰人)不可信任的,背叛的,奸诈的;(修饰物)有潜在危险的。如:The ice on the roads made driving conditions treacherous.(路上的冰对驾车构成隐患。)

  (5)all the while一直,始终,如:We waited for three hours, all the while hoping that someone would come and fetch us.(我们等了三小时,一直希望有人会来接我们。)




  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A


  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  With the extension of democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century and the ensuing decline of the Federalist establishment, a new conception of education began to emerge. Education was no longer a confirmation of a pre-existing status, but an instrument in the acquisition of higher status. For a new generation of upwardly mobile students, the goal of education was not to prepare them to live comfortably in the world into which they had been born, but to teach them new virtues and skills that would propel them into a different and better world. Education became training; and the student was no longer the gentleman-in-waiting, but the journeyman apprentice for upward mobility.

  In the nineteenth century a college education began to be seen as a way to get ahead in the world. The founding of the land-grant colleges opened the doors of higher education to poor but aspiring boys from non-Anglo-Saxon, working-class and lower-middle-class backgrounds. The myth of the poor boy who worked his way through college to success drew millions of poor boys to the new campuses. And with this shift, education became more vocational: its object was the acquisition of practical skills and useful information.

  For the gentleman-in-waiting, virtue consisted above all in grace and style, in doing well what was appropriate to his position; education was merely a way of acquiring polish. And vice was manifested in gracelessness, awkwardness, in behaving inappropriately, discourteously, or ostentatiously. For the apprentice, however, virtue was evidenced in success through hard work. The requisite qualities of character were not grace or style, but drive, determination, and a sharp eye for opportunity. While casual liberality and even prodigality characterized the gentleman, frugality, thrift, and self-control came to distinguish the new apprentice. And while the gentleman did not aspire to a higher station because his station was already high, the apprentice was continually becoming, striving, struggling upward. Failure for the apprentice meant standing still, not rising.

  1. Which of the following is true according to the first paragraph?

  [A] Democratic ideas started with education.

  [B] Federalists were opposed to education.

  [C] New education helped confirm people's social status.

  [D] Old education had been in tune with hierarchical society.

  2.The difference between "gentleman-in-waiting" and "journeyman" is that _____ .

  [A] education trained gentleman-in-waiting to climb higher ladders

  [B] journeyman was ready to take whatever was given to him

  [C] gentleman-in-waiting belonged to a fixed and high social class

  [D] journeyman could do practically nothing without education

  3. According to the second paragraph, land-grant College _____.

  [A] belonged to the land-owning class

  [B] enlarged the scope of education

  [C] was provided only to the poor

  [D] benefited all but the upper class

  4.Which of the following was the most important for a "gentleman-in-waiting"?

  [A] Manners. [B] Education. [C] Moral. [D] Personality.

  5. The best title for the passage is _____.

  [A] Education and Progress

  [B] Old and New Social Norms

  [C] New Education: Opportunities for More

  [D] Demerits of Hierarchical Society


  1.D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.C









  [A] 民主观念以教育开始。

  [B] 联邦主义者反对教育。

  [C] 新式教育帮助人们确立社会地位。

  [D] 旧式教育与等级社会一致。

  [精解]本题是推理引申题。文章第一段第一句指出,随着19世纪上半叶民主权利的扩展以及随之而来的联邦主义机构的削弱,一种新的教育观念出现了。接下来的内容主要是围绕这种新的教育观念展开论述。从第一句话中可以得知,是民主权利的扩展带来了新的教育观念的产生,[A]项颠倒了二者的先后顺序,应排除。文中提到"新"的教育观念是在联邦主义机构削弱的情况下产生的。由此只能得出,新的教育观念与联邦主义有些冲突,并不能得出联邦主义者反对整个教育即[B]项的结论。第二句作者指出,教育不再是对人们先前存在的地位的确定,而成了获得更高地位的手段。[C]项与文意相悖,因此不正确。通过该句"不再"(no longer)可以推断出,从前的教育可以确定人们的社会地位,因此[D]项为正确答案。


  [A] 教育训练那些"等待的绅士"爬上更高的阶梯

  [B] "熟练的工人"准备着去接受所有给予他们的东西

  [C] "等待的绅士"属于确定的较高的社会阶层

  [D] 如果没有教育,"熟练的工人"不能做任何实际的事情

  [精解] 本题考查了具体的细节。解题的关键在于考生对文中关于两类人的论述的把握。文章第一段末句提到,教育成了培训,学生也不再是等在那里的绅士,而是要提升自己经济地位的熟练学徒。由此可知,"学徒"与"绅士"的不同就是,绅士不用将教育当成工具去努力争取社会地位,因此可以推测出绅士们属于较高的社会阶层。[C]为正确选项。文中提到教育训练学徒们而非绅士爬上更高的阶梯,所以[A]项错误,[B]项和[D]项在文中没有相关论述。


  [A] 属于土地所有者阶级

  [B] 扩大了教育的范围

  [C] 仅为穷人提供(教育)

  [D] 使除了上层社会的人之外的所有的人受益

  [精解] 本题考查了事实细节。解此类题的关键是根据题干定位到原文。Land-grant College一词出现在第二段第二句话:国家赠予土地的学校的建立为那些来自非盎格鲁•萨克逊血统、工人阶级和中下层背景的贫穷但有抱负的男孩们敞开了享受高等教育的大门。由此可知,[B]项为正确答案。作者提到为穷人提供了更多的机会,却并没有将上层人士排除在外,也未曾说明只有穷人才能从中获益。因此[C]项和[D]项错误。[A]项中土地所有者阶级是由land-grant colleges一词字面意思得来,文中没有依据。


  [A] 行为举止。 [B] 教育。 [C] 道德。 [D] 个性。

  [精解] 本题考查了事实细节。文章第三段一开始,作者就提到,对于绅士们来说,美德首先包括了高雅和风度,与其身份地位相符的行为方式,教育仅仅是学会高雅的一种方式而已。由此可见,在绅士们眼中,[A]项"行为举止"是最重要的。[B]项与原文不符,[C]项和[D]项在原文中没有明显的论述。


  [A] 教育和进步

  [B] 新旧社会准则

  [C] 新式教育:为更多的人提供机会

  [D] 等级社会的缺点

  [精解] 本题考查了文章的主旨大意。考生需通篇把握全文,不应将注意力放到某个事实细节上。文章一开始就提到民主权利的延展和联邦主义的削弱带来了新教育制度的出现。接下来,作者主要介绍了这一新的教育观念的内涵,及其与旧式教育观念的异同。并对新旧两种教育体制下的学生进行比较。纵览全文可以推断,文章主要讲的是新的教育观念,并未涉及教育的发展问题、社会准则问题,所以[A]、[B]项都错误。[D]项虽然在文中有所提及,但只是部分内容,不能概括全文主旨。[C]项为最佳答案。
















  Text 2

  One meaning of the Greek word "dran" is to accomplish, and in this meaning lies a further key to the structure of drama. A play concerns a human agent attempting to accomplish some purpose. In tragedy his attempt is, in personal terms at least, unsuccessful; in comedy it is successful; in the problem play final accomplishment is often either ambiguous or doubtful.

  This action, from the beginning to the end of a movement toward a purposed goal, must also have a middle; it must proceed through a number of steps, the succession of incidents which make up the plot. Because the dramatist is concerned with the meaning and logic of events rather than with their casual relationship in time, he will probably select his material and order it on a basis of the operation, in human affairs, of laws of cause and effect. It is in this causal relationship of incidents that the element of conflict, present in virtually all plays, appears.

  The central figure of the play-the protagonist-encounters difficulties; his purpose or purposes conflict with events or circumstances, with purposes of other characters in the play, or with cross-purposes which exist within his own thoughts and desires. These difficulties threaten the protagonist's accomplishment; in other words, they present complications, and his success or failure in dealing with these complications determines the outcome. Normally, complications build through the play in order of increasing difficulty; one complication may be added to another, or one may grow out of the solution of a preceding one. At some point in this chain of complication and solution, achieved or attempted, the protagonist performs an act or makes a decision which irrevocably commits him to a further course, points toward certain general consequences. This point is usually called the crisis; the complications and solutions which follow work out the logical steps from crisis to final resolution, or denouement.

  1. According to the first paragraph of the text, a dramatist________.

  [A] seldom believes what he writes about

  [B] portrays what he experiences in the drama

  [C] concerns himself with the results of human effort

  [D] tries to convince his audience of what he believes

  2. A drama is arranged mainly in accordance with_______.

  [A] the will of the dramatist [B] the sequence of events

  [C] the law of dramatic art [D] the need of performance

  3. A dramatist usually_______ .

  [A] clarifies the complicated relationship in his drama

  [B] makes the relationship in his drama more complicated

  [C] hopes to see his protagonist win an easy victory

  [D] likes to present his protagonist as threatening fellows

  4. The word "crisis" (in the last line but one, paragraph 3) most probably implies _________.

  [A] a dangerous moment [B] the last decision

  [C] the crucial point [D] a brave engagement

  5. In the text, the author mainly deals with _________.

  [A] the necessity of drama in a culture

  [B] some social functions of dramas

  [C] the responsibility of dramatists

  [D] some key elements in drama-making


  1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D







  1. 根据文章的第一段,一个剧作家_______。





  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段第二句提到,一部戏剧和一个试图达到某种目的的人文动作者(human agent)有关。接下来该段分别讲述了在悲剧、喜剧和问题剧中动作者的目的的实现情况。由此可知,动作者指的是"对推动戏剧情节起很大作用的人物",戏剧就是该人物实现其目的的过程,不同的结果决定了戏剧的性质。因此,[C]是一部戏剧或剧作家所关注的,其他项都无从推知。

  2. 戏剧主要按照_____进行安排。

  [A] 剧作家的意愿 [B] 事件的顺序

  [C] 戏剧艺术的法则 [D] 表演的需要

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第二句提到,由于剧作家关注的是(构成戏剧情节的一系列)事件的含义与逻辑性而不是它们在时间上的关联性,因此他可能会选择素材并按照人类事件因果关系的一般规律进行排序。由此可见,戏剧情节的安排由剧作家决定,[A]正确。[B]中"顺序"一次太泛,如果指"时间顺序",则在文中已经被否定。[C]和[D]在文中都未提及。

  3. 剧作家总是 _____。

  [A] 阐明他的戏剧中的复杂关系

  [B] 使他的戏剧中的关系更加复杂

  [C] 希望看到他的主人公轻而易举地获胜

  [D] 喜欢把他的主人公描述为具有威胁性的人

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第一、二句提到,戏剧的主人公遭遇困难,因为他的目的与其他各种因素发生冲突,从而无法实现。这样事件就变得复杂起来,主人公能否成功地处理这些复杂事件决定了戏剧最终的结局。由此可见,复杂事件是戏剧不可缺少的部分,剧作家经常会做的事情是[B]而非[A]。[C]和[D]都只是出现了文中protagonist一词,但其论述无从推知。

  4. 第三段倒数第二行中的单词"crisis"最可能的含义是_____。

  [A]危险的时刻 [B] 最后的决定

  [C] 关键性的点 [D]勇敢的约定

  [精解] 本题考查词义理解。crisis一词出现在全文最后一句。该句指出它是一个点(point)。由其上文即倒数第二句可知,在这个点上主人公会完成一个行为或者做出一个决定,这个决定必然使他进入进一步发展轨迹(造成某些一般结果的点)。可见,crisis指的是戏剧中决定情节发展的关键性的转折点,而不是"时刻"、"决定"或"约定"。[C]正确。

  5. 本文中作者主要谈论的是_____。

  [A] 文化中戏剧的必要性 [B] 戏剧的一些社会功能

  [C] 剧作家的责任 [D] 戏剧创作中的一些关键要素

  [精解] 本题考查文章主旨。本文主要从文学角度介绍了戏剧所包含的重要因素。其中提到了人文动作者、情节、冲突、危机、结局等术语。因此[D]是主旨。其他项在文中都没有涉及。



  (2)irrevocably (ad.)不能取消地








  Text 3

  Vinton Cerf, known as the father of the Internet, said on Wednesday that the Web was outgrowing the planet Earth and the time had come to take the information superhighway to outer space.

  "The Internet is growing quickly, and we still have a lot of work to do to cover the planet." Cerf told the first day of the annual conference of Internet Society in Geneva where more than 1500 cyberspace fans have gathered to seek answers to questions about the tangled web of the Internet.

  Cerf believed that it would soon be possible to send real-time science data on the Internet from a space mission orbiting another planet such as Mars. "There is now an effort under way to design and build an interplanetary Internet. The space research community is coming closer and closer and merging. We think that we will see interplanetary Internet networks that look very much like the ones we use today. We will need interplanetary gateways and there will be protocols to transmit data between these gateways, " Cerf said.

  Francois Fluckiger, a scientist attending the conference from the European Particle Physics Laboratory near Geneva, was not entirely convinced, saying: "We need dreams like this. But I don't know any Martian whom I'd like to communicate with through the Internet."

  Cerf has been working with NASA's Pasadena Jet Propulsion Laboratory-the people behind the recent Mars expedition-to design what he calls an "interplanetary Internet protocol." He believes that astronauts will want to use the Internet, although special problems remain with interference and delay.

  "This is quite real. The effort is becoming extraordinarily concrete over the next few months because the next Mars mission is in planning stages now," Cerf told the conference.

  "If we use domain names like Earth or Mars...jet propulsion laboratory people would be coming together with people from the Internet community." He added.

  "The idea is to take the interplanetary Internet design and make it a part of the infrastructure of the Mars mission."

  He later told a news conference that designing this system now would prepare mankind for future technological advances.

  "The whole idea is to create an architecture so the design works anywhere. I don't know where we're going to have to put it but my guess is that we'll be going out there some time," Cerf said.

  "If you think 100 years from now, it is entirely possible that what will be purely research 50 years from now will become commercial 100 years from now. The Internet was the same-it started as pure research but now it is commercialized."

  1. According to Cerf, the purpose to design interplanetary internet is to _____.

  [A] send real-time science data

  [B] communicate with astronauts

  [C] lay foundation for future technological advances

  [D] commercialize the technology

  2. From the text, we learn that Vinton Cerf is _____.

  [A] seeking answers to questions about the Internet web

  [B] working on interplanetary Internet with collaboration of NASA

  [C] trying to commercialize the interplanetary Internet

  [D] exploring the possibility of establishing Internet network on Mars

  3. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that _____.

  [A] the dream to build interplanetary Internet can be fulfilled in the future

  [B] interplanetary Internet will be commercialized in 100 years

  [C] the research of Internet took 50 years

  [D] it will take a long time to build interplanetary Internet

  4. We know from the text that the Mars mission is _____.

  [A] one of NASA's internet projects

  [B] an expedition to Mars

  [C] the infrastructure of the interplanetary Internet

  [D] to create an architecture on Mars

  5. Which of the following is the main point of the text?

  [A] The development of the Internet.

  [B] The possibility of space research.

  [C] Universal information superhighway.

  [D] The technological advances of the Mars mission.


  1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.C











  [A] 发送实时科学数据

  [B] 与宇航员通讯

  [C] 为未来的技术进步奠定基础

  [D] 使该技术商业化

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。[C]项是对倒数第三段的改写,lay foundation for与prepare mankind for同义。[A]项在文章第三段首句提到,[B]项在第五段提到,但都是设计和建立星际因特网可能带来的好处,不是设计目的。[D]项在文章最后一段提到,是在说明建立星际因特网的可能性,不是设计目的。


  [A] 正在寻求有关因特网问题的答案

  [B] 正与(美)国家宇航局合作致力于星际因特网的研究

  [C] 正试图使星际因特网商业化

  [D] 正探索在火星上建立因特网的可能性

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。第五段首句提到,塞尔夫正一直与(美)国家宇航局帕萨提那的喷气推进实验室合作,设计他所说的"星际因特网协议",与[B]项同义。[A]项是塞尔夫在日内瓦参加的一个年会的主题,并不是塞尔夫正在从事的工作。星际因特网商业化只在文章最后一段作为可能性提到,星际因特网还没有研究出来,更不用说商业化了,所以[C]项错误。全文主要论述的是星际因特网的问题,并没有指出要在火星上建立因特网。[D]项错误。


  [A] 建立星际因特网的梦想在未来可能实现

  [B] 100年后星际因特网将商业化

  [C] 因特网的研究用了50年的时间

  [D] 建立星际因特网将需要很长时间

  [精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。文章最后一段所做的假设(在今后50年内仅仅是研究项目的东西,在100年后完全有可能商业化)以及与因特网发展历程的比较,都是塞尔夫为了说明建立星际因特网在未来是有可能实现的,所以[A]项正确。文中提到100年只是一种假设,[B]项将其确定为商业化实现的时间,不正确。同样,[C]项将假设中的50年确定为因特网的研究年限,也不正确。该段中塞尔夫的一番话表达了他对星际因特网的建立怀有比较乐观的态度,而不是说明它需要花很长时间才能实现,[D]项不正确。

  4.从文中我们知道,Mars mission是_____。

  [A] (美)国家宇航局的一个因特网计划

  [B] 火星探险

  [C] 星际因特网的基础设施

  [D] 在火星上创建一个架构

  [精解] 本题考查词义的理解。文章五、六段中Mars mission和Mars expedition交替使用,可见是同义,而且第三段首句在具体解释space mission的含义时以火星为例指出它orbiting another planet such as Mars。 所以,正确选项为[B]。[A]、[C]、[D]三项都指的是塞尔夫跟(美)国家宇航局的合作项目。Architecture意为"架构,体系(the structure of a computer system and the way it works)"。


  [A] 因特网的发展。

  [B] 太空研究的可能性。

  [C] 宇宙信息超级高速公路。

  [D] 火星探险的技术进步。

  [精解] 本题考查文章主旨。本文主要介绍了星际因特网的创建,[C]项是对文章首句中take the information superhighway to outer space的改写,是全文论述的中心内容。[A]项在文章最后一段出现,是为了更好地说明星际因特网的发展。文章没有提到太空研究的可能性问题,[B]项错误。文章第九段提到,星际因特网是为未来火星探险技术进步奠定基础,这也是在说明星际因特网的重要作用,而不是纯粹论述火星探险的技术进步,所以[D]项不正确。








  (7)expedition(n.)远征;探险队;发出,派遣;迅速with ~赶紧地,迅速地

  (8)infrastructure(n.)下部构造,基本设施(尤指社会、国家赖以生存和发展的, 如道路、学校、电厂、交通、通讯系统等);infra-前缀表示"在下"














  Text 4

  Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tools and technology can tell us about the group's history and way of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The most vivid body of "things" in it, of course, are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph was invented, so we rely on instruments for important information about music-cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments, as well as paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra.

  Sheet music or printed music, too, is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain and America. Printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs. Besides, the ability to read music notation has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes widespread, on the music-culture as a whole.

  Music is deep-rooted in the cultural background that fosters it. We now pay more and more attention to traditional or ethnic features in folk music and are willing to preserve the folk music as we do with many traditional cultural heritage. Musicians all over the world are busy with recording classic music in their country for the sake of their unique culture. As always, people's aspiration will always focus on their individuality rather than universal features that are shared by all cultures alike.

  One more important part of music's material culture should be singled out: the influence of the electronic media-radio, record player, tape recorder, and television, with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the "information-revolution", a twentieth century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution in the nineteenth. These electronic media are not just limited to modern nations; they have affected music-cultures all over the globe.

  1. Which of the following does not belong to material culture?

  [A] Instruments. [B] Music. [C] Paintings. [D] Sheet music.

  2. The word "phonograph" (Line 5-6, Paragraph 1) most probably means_____.

  [A] record player [B] radio [C] musical technique[D] music culture

  3. The main idea of the first paragraph is _____.

  [A] the importance of cultural tools and technology

  [B] the cultural influence of the development of civilization

  [C] the focus of the study of the material culture of music

  [D] the significance of the research into the musical instruments

  4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of printed music?

  [A] Reading of music notation has a great impact on musicians.

  [B] People may draw imspiration from it.

  [C] The music culture will be influenced by it in the end.

  [D] Songs tend to be standardized by it.

  5. From the third paragraph, we may infer that_____.

  [A] traditional cultural heritage is worthy of preservation

  [B] the universal features shared by all cultures aren't worthy of notice

  [C] musicians pay more attention to the preservation of traditional music

  [D] the more developed a culture, the more valuable the music it has fostered


  1.B 2.A 3.D 4.D 5.A










  [A] 乐器 [B] 音乐 [C] 绘画 [D] 乐谱

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句对"物质文化"下定义为:文化中产生的能看到、摸到、感觉到和使用的自然物体。接着该段第三、四句提到,音乐文化中最生动的物质载体是乐器。从第一段末句可知,图片、文字记载以及乐器都是研究音乐文化的物质手段。第二段首句接着指出,乐谱也是物质文化。因此[A]、[C]和[D]都是物质文化,只有[B]不是。

  2. 第一段第五至六行的单词"phonograph"最可能的含义是。

  [A] 录音机 [B] 收音机 [C] 音乐技术 [D] 音乐文化

  [精解] 本题考查词意理解。"phonograph"一词出现在第一段第五句,该句指出,"‘phonograph'被发明以前,我们听不到任何音乐表演的声音,只能通过乐器研究过去的音乐文化"。由此可知,该词指的是一种能够记录声音并被用于音乐文化研究的物质。[A]为正确答案。[B]虽然也有声音,但无法用于音乐研究。此外,也可以通过词根词缀法猜测词意。phono-相当于sound,表示"声音";-graph表示"书写、描绘或记录的器具,机械"。"记录声音的机器"就是"录音机"。

  3. 第一段的主要含义是 _____。

  [A] 文化工具和技术的重要性

  [B] 文明的发展对文化的影响

  [C] 音乐物质文化研究的重点

  [D] 研究乐器的意义

  [精解] 本题考查段落主旨。第一段共七句。第一句给"物质文化"下定义;第二、三句指出研究音乐文化就要研究音乐物质文化。第四、五句指出乐器是音乐文化研究中的重要物质文化。第六句指出乐器作为物质文化的两种形式。第七句举例说明乐器的研究在音乐文化研究中所起的作用。由此可见,第一段涉及的主题应是作为音乐物质文化的"乐器",因此[D]正确。[A]和[B]泛泛谈文化,应排除。[C]虽然提到了音乐物质文化的研究,但未具体到乐器。

  4. 下面哪一个不是印刷式乐谱的优点?

  [A] 读乐谱对音乐家有很大的影响。

  [B] 人们从中可获得灵感。

  [C] 音乐文化将最后受到它的影响。

  [D] 歌曲往往由于它而被标准化。

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。根据题干中的"印刷式乐谱"定位到第二段。该段第三句提到,印刷式乐谱形式单调(limit variety),因为它们往往将所有歌曲都标准化。因此[D]不是它的优点,而是局限性。


  5. 从第三段我们可以推知_____。

  [A] 传统文化遗产值得保存

  [B] 所有文化共有的普遍特点不值得关注

  [C] 音乐家更关注传统音乐的保存

  [D] 文化越发达,它孕育的音乐就越有价值

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第二句提到,我们(we)越来越关注民乐中的传统和民族特色,并且在对待许多传统文化遗产时愿意将民乐保存下来。第三句以音乐家记录自己国家的古典音乐为例说明上文。该句中we包括了作者本人,因此可推知[A]是作者所赞同的观点。[C]错在more,因为文中并没有将音乐家对待传统音乐和现代音乐的态度作对比。该段末句提到,人们(people)总是渴望保留个性特色,而不是找到所有文化共有的普遍特点。可见,文中只是客观叙述人们对文化的偏好,没有贬低"文化共有的普遍特点"的价值。排除[B]。该段首句提到,音乐根植于孕育了它的文化之中。这说明文化决定音乐的特色,与"发达"或"价值"没有关联,排除[D]。











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