2017年考研英语全真模拟试题及其答案详解(1)

日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:268

2017年考研英语全真模拟试题及其答案详解(1)

  Section Ⅰ Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Driving through snowstorm on icy roads for long distances is a most nerve-racking experience. It is a paradox that the snow, coming __1__ gently, blowing gleefully in a high wind, all the while __2__ down a treacherous carpet, freezes the windows,__3__ the view. The might of automated man is__4__ . The horses, the powerful electrical systems, the deep-tread tires, all go __5__ nothing. One minute the road feels __6__, and the next the driver is sliding over it, light as a__7__, in a panic, wondering what the heavy trailer trucks coming up__8__the rear are going to do. The trucks are like __9__ when you have to pass them, not at sixty or seventy __10__ you do when the road is dry, but at twenty-five and thirty. __11__ their engines sound unnaturally loud. Snow, slush and__12__ of ice spray from beneath the wheels, obscure the windshield, and rattle __13__your car. Beneath the wheels there is plenty of __14__ for you to slide and get mashed to a pulp. Inch __15__ inch you move up, past the rear wheels, the center wheels, the cab, the front wheels, all__16__too slowly by. Straight ahead you continue,__17__ to cut over sharply would send you into a slip,__18__in front of the vehicle. At last, there is__19__enough, and you creep back over, in front of the truck now, but__20__the sound of its engine still thundering in your ears.

  1. [A] up [B] off [C] down [D] on

  2. [A] lies [B] lays [C] settles [D] sends

  3. [A] blocks [B] strikes [C] puffs [D] cancels

  4. [A] muted [B] discovered [C] doubled [D] undervalued

  5. [A] for [B] with [C] into [D] from

  6. [A] comfortable [B] weak [C] risky [D] firm

  7. [A] loaf [B] feather [C] leaf [D] fog

  8. [A] beneath [B] from [C] under [D] beyond

  9. [A] dwarfs [B] giants [C] patients [D] princesses

  10. [A] what [B] since [C] as [D] that

  11. [A] So [B] But [C] Or [D] Then

  12. [A] flakes [B] flocks [C] chips [D] cakes

  13. [A] onto [B] against [C] off [D] along

  14. [A] snow [B] earth [C] room [D] ice

  15. [A] by [B] after [C] for [D] with

  16. [A] climbing [B] crawling [C] winding [D] sliding

  17. [A] meanwhile [B] unless [C] whereas [D] for

  18. [A] sheer [B] mostly [C] rarely [D] right

  19. [A] might [B] distance [C] air [D] power

  20. [A] with [B] like [C] inside [D] upon

  答案

  1.C 2.B 3.A 4.A 5.A 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.B 10.C

  11.D 12.C 13.C 14.C 15.A 16.D 17.D 18.D 19.B 20.A

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  总体分析

  本文描述了在冰雪覆盖的路面上开车的经历。文章首句为主题句,概括了这种经历的特点是"令人非常紧张"。第二至四句分别介绍了下雪带来的隐患和机器变得没有多大用处。从第五句到文章最后则描述了在这种不利条件下和大卡车一同行驶的紧张经历。

  试题精解

  1.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的副词与动词come搭配,其分词形式作后置定语,修饰限定主语the snow。come down指"(雨、雪等)落下,降落",如:The rain came down in torrents.(大雨滂沱。)因此[C]符合文意,在文中指"大雪飘落"。

  come down也可意为"崩塌;(飞机)着陆;(价格、温度、比例)下降;下垂,向下延伸",如:The ceiling came down.(天花板塌了下来。)Gas is coming down in price.(煤气价格在下降。)come up意为"破土而出;升起;即将发生",如:The daffodils are just beginning to come up.(水仙花刚开始破土发芽。)watch the sun come up(观看日出)。Her birthday is coming up.(她的生日即将来临。)come off意为"能被去掉或除去;发生;(计划等)成功",如:That mark won't come off.(那污点去不掉。)Did the trip to Korea come off?(去韩国的事最后成了吗?)come on意为"改进,发展;开始",如:The project is coming on fine.(这项工程进展顺利。)I think there's rain coming on.(我看要下雨了。)

  2.[精解] 本题考查短语动词辨析。空格处填入的动词与down搭配,相当于及物动词,其主语是the snow,宾语是a treacherous carpet。lie down意为"躺下";lay down意为"放下;记下;拟定",如:lay down the arms/the rules(放下武器/制定规则);settle down意为"安下心来,定居";send down只能接sb.作宾语,意为"判某人入狱",如:He was sent down for ten years for armed robbery.(他因持械抢劫被判入狱十年。)因此[B]符合文意,意为"(大雪)吹落(一块毯子)"。

  3.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的动词接the view作宾语,而且它与前面的2 down和freezes并列作谓语,其主语都是the snow。作及物动词时,block意为"堵塞,阻塞",如:to block the road(堵住了道路)。strike意为"撞击,打击,侵袭",如:The ship struck a rock.(船触礁了。)The area was struck by an outbreak of plague.(这个地区爆发了瘟疫。)puff意为"吸,抽,喷",如:to puff the cigar/smoke into sb.'s faces(抽雪茄/把烟往别人脸上喷)。cancel意为"取消"。能够和the view搭配的只有[A]block,表示"挡住视线"。

  4.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入的过去分词与is构成被动式的谓语,因此其动词的实际的宾语是the might(强大力量,威力)。mute意为"消除或减弱声音;减弱,缓解",如:mute the traffic noise/the criticism(减弱了车辆的噪音/委婉地提出批评)。discover意为"发现,发觉";double意为"加倍";undervalue意为"低估...之价值,看轻"。因此[A]符合文意,它与the might搭配,表示"威力减弱"。

  5.[精解] 本题考查固定短语。go for nothing相当于be in vain,意为"白费,毫无用处,毫无价值"。因此[A]正确,其他介词都不能与go和nothing构成搭配。

  6.[精解] 本题考查形容词辨析。feel是系动词,意为"摸起来,感觉起来",它常与形容词构成系表结构,如:The water feels warm.(这水摸起来很暖和。)本题中feel的主语是the road, 因此空格处的形容词应说明"道路"的特点。四个选项都可以修饰事物,comfortable一般指"(衣服、家具等)使人舒服的",如:The bed/these shoes are very comfortable.(这床/这双鞋子很舒服。)weak意为"不牢固的,易损坏的",如:The bridge is too weak to carry heavy traffic.(那座桥梁不太牢固,承受不住过多的车辆。)weak也可指"微弱的,隐约的",强调不容易被看到或听到,如:a weak light/sound(微弱的光线/声音)。risky意为"有危险或风险的",如:a risky investment(有风险的投资)。firm意为"坚固的,结实的,稳固的",如:No building can stand without firm foundations.(没有稳固的基础,建筑就不牢靠。)根据上下文,空格处的形容词应与下文"容易滑倒"相对照,因此[D]正确,强调道路"结实"。

  7.[精解] 本题考查英语语言习惯。英语和汉语中都有大量的比喻形式。有些比喻的喻体大不相同,如:spend money like water(挥金如土);有些则很相似,如:as firm as a rock(坚如磐石),as light as a feather(轻如鸿毛)。因此本题应选[B],文中用这个比喻形容"车子打滑时驾驶者失重的感受"。loaf意为"一条(面包)";leaf意为"树叶";fog意为"雾"。

  8.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格所在部分wondering... 是个分词结构,在句中作状语,wondering的逻辑主语是the driver,逻辑宾语是what引导的宾语从句。该从句中,coming up... the rear也是一个分词短语,作从句主语trucks的后置定语。空格处填入介词,其宾语是the rear(后面、后边、后部),根据文意,表示"从后面"应选[C]from。beneath和under都表示"在......之下",beyond表示"在(或向)较远的一边",不符合逻辑。

  9.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。空格所在部分是一个比喻,说明卡车像什么。下文出现了两个when引导的状语从句的比较:路面干燥时的行驶速度为60或70,而此时的行驶速度为25和30。可见,文章在说明由于路面滑造成了行驶速度下降。根据逻辑推理,行驶缓慢时从大卡车旁开过花费的时间当然较长,因此它们看起来更像giants"巨人",而不是dwarfs"矮子",patients"病人"或princesses"公主"。因此[B]正确。

  10.[精解] 本题考查从句引导词。空格所在句子中存在比较,即,you have to pass them not... you do when the road is dry(路面滑时开车不像路面干燥时那样快),因此空格处填入的词应引导比较状语从句you do when... ,从句中do为上文动词pass的替代词。[C]as可用于比较结构,表示"像......一样,如同",如:He doesn't earn as much as I do.(他挣的钱不如我多。)因此[C]正确。what只能引导名词性从句,what you do表示"你做的事情";since一般引导时间状语从句,表示"从......以后,自......以来";that只能引导定语从句或名词性从句。

  11.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格处填入的词出现在句首,表示上文与空格所在句子之间的逻辑关系。then是副词,可用来引出额外的信息,意为"另外,还有;再者,而且",如:She's been very busy at work and then there was all that trouble with her son.(她工作一直很忙,另外还有儿子的一大堆麻烦事。)上文提到路面滑时从卡车旁开过的速度非常慢,本句则提到另一方面的问题是卡车的噪音非常大。因此[D]then正确,在文中意为"而且,此外"。其它选项:so表示因果关系;but表示转折关系;or表示选择关系。

  12.[精解] 本题考查名词辨析。空格处填入的名词作定语修饰ice。flake意为"小薄片",修饰snow时指"雪花",又如:dried onion flakes(干洋葱皮片);flock一般指"(羊或鸟)群"或"一大群(人)",如:a flock of sheep/children(羊群/一大群孩子);chip意为"碎屑,碎片,碎渣",如:chips of wood(碎木屑);cake作名词时指"蛋糕或饼状食物",作动词时意为"覆盖"。从下文可知,车轮子下溅出来的应是"雪、泥(slush)和碎冰渣",因此[C]最符合文意。

  13.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格处填入的介词与动词rattle(象声词,"格格响,嘎嘎响")搭配,其宾语是your car,主语是上文的snow, slush and chips of ice。选项中,onto表示"(朝某处或某位置运动)向,朝",如:Move the books onto the second shelf.(把书移到第二层架子上。)against表示"逆着,与......相反"或"紧靠,倚",如:We were rowing against the current.(我们划船逆水而上。)lean against the wall(斜靠着墙)。off意为down or away from a place"从(某处落下)",如:I fell off the ladder.(我从梯子上跌了下来。)along意为"沿着,顺着",如:They walked slowly along the road.(他们沿着公路慢慢走)。根据句意,应是"雪、泥和碎冰渣溅到车上,又格格作响地从车上掉下来",因此[C]正确。

  14.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项都是常见的简单词汇,关键要根据句子含义进行选择。空格所在句子的结构是there is plenty of sth. for you to... ,其中不定式作结果状语,意为"轮子下有足够的......让你打滑并被碾成肉酱"。根据句子逻辑,应是"(足够的)空间",而非"雪","泥土"或"冰"。因此[C]正确。

  15.[精解] 本题考查英语成语。英语讲究对称美,其表现之一为成语排列形式上的对称美,即,以介词、连词(and或or)或动词为"对称轴",构成相同词、同词性的词、反义词或同类词的对称。本题inch by inch就是以介词by为"对称轴"构成的相同词(inch)的对称,意为"一点一点地"。类似结构的成语还有:head to head(交头接耳),word for word(逐词地),like for like(以牙还牙)。[A]为正确项。

  16.[精解] 本题考查动词辨析。空格处填入现在分词作句子状语,其逻辑主语是you。climb一般指"(向上)攀登,(吃力地向某处)爬",如:climb up the stairs(爬上了梯子),climb through the window(从窗口爬了出来)。crawl指"(向前,身体接近地面的)爬行",如:The baby is just starting to crawl.(宝宝刚开始会爬。)wind作不及物动词时,意为"(路,河等)蜿蜒,曲折而行",如:The path wound down to the beach.(这条小路弯弯曲曲通向海滩。)slide指"滑行,滑动"。根据句意,你(驾驶者)缓慢地从大卡车旁往前开,由于路面滑,只能是"慢慢地滑过"。因此[D]正确。

  17.[精解] 本题考查逻辑词辨析。空格前后是两个独立的分句,因此空格处需要填入一个连词。meanwhile为副词,意为"同时",放在句首时要么另起一句,要么与前一句用分号隔开,如:I went to college. Meanwhile, all my friends got well-paid jobs.(我上大学去了,那时我的朋友们全都找到了收入www.59wj.com工作。)[A]首先排除。其他几个词都可作连词,unless意为"除非",whereas常用于比较或对比两个事实,意为"然而,但是,尽管";for意为"因为"。根据句意,空格前后两个分句之间是因果关系,即,"你(驾驶者)继续笔直地往前开,因为突然超车抢道到卡车前面(cut over sharply)会使你的车滑倒",因此[D]正确。

  18.[精解] 本题考查副词辨析。空格处应填入一个副词,修饰介词短语in front of(在......前面)。sheer作副词时意为"垂直地,陡峭地",如:The cliffs rise sheer from the beach.(悬崖从海滩上拔地而起。)mostly意为"主要地,一般地",如:We're mostly out on Sundays.(我们星期天一般不在家。)rarely意为"罕有,很少,不常",如:We rarely agree on what to do.(我们很少在要做的事情上看法一致。)right意为"正好,恰好,直接地",如:Lee was standing right behind her.(李就站在她身后。)根据文意,[D]正确。

  19.[精解] 本题考查根据上下文选择恰当的词。四个选项的含义分别是might"力量",distance"距离",air"空气",power"力量,势力"。根据空格所在句子的含义,应选[B],表示"当有足够的车距时,你才慢慢地挪到卡车的前方"。

  20.[精解] 本题考查介词辨析。空格前的but为并列连词,连接句子中的两个状语成分,即,in front of... 和 the sound thundering。"with+名词+分词"可构成独立主格结构,作状语。因此[A]正确。其它项作介词时,like意为"像,如同",inside意为"在......里面",upon意为"在......上"。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)nerve-racking (a.) intensely distressing or irritating to the nerves令神经高度紧张或极受刺激的

  (2)gleefully愉快地

  (3)high wind强风

  (4)treacherous(修饰人)不可信任的,背叛的,奸诈的;(修饰物)有潜在危险的。如:The ice on the roads made driving conditions treacherous.(路上的冰对驾车构成隐患。)

  (5)all the while一直,始终,如:We waited for three hours, all the while hoping that someone would come and fetch us.(我们等了三小时,一直希望有人会来接我们。)

  全文翻译

  在暴风雪中长途驱车于结冰的路上会是一种令人极度紧张的经历。矛盾的是,雪一面轻轻地飘落,在强风中愉快地吹着,一面又铺成危险的毯子,封冻车窗,挡住视线。机器的力量被减弱了。马、强有力的电子系统、深胎面的轮胎都毫无用处。一分钟前路面还很结实,一分钟后司机就在上面打滑,轻飘飘地,处于恐慌之中,想着从后面突然出现的笨重的挂了拖车的卡车会干出什么事情来。当你不得不开车经过这些卡车时,它们就像巨人一般。这时你行驶的速度不是当路面干燥时的60或70,而是25和30。并且它们的引擎听起来极其刺耳。雪、泥和冰渣滓从轮子下喷洒出来,使挡风玻璃变得模糊不清,然后格格作响地从车上掉下。卡车轮子下的空间很大,足以让你滑进去并被碾成肉酱。你一点点的往前挪动,经过卡车的后轮,中间的轮子,驾驶室,前轮,所有这一切都是极其缓慢地滑过去的。你继续笔直地往前开,因为突然超车抢道到卡车前面会使你的车滑倒,正好倒在大卡车的前面。最后终于和卡车有了一段距离了,你才慢慢地往后挪,挪到另外一车道上,现在你行使在卡车的前面了,但是引擎的声音仍然震耳欲聋。

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  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  With the extension of democratic rights in the first half of the nineteenth century and the ensuing decline of the Federalist establishment, a new conception of education began to emerge. Education was no longer a confirmation of a pre-existing status, but an instrument in the acquisition of higher status. For a new generation of upwardly mobile students, the goal of education was not to prepare them to live comfortably in the world into which they had been born, but to teach them new virtues and skills that would propel them into a different and better world. Education became training; and the student was no longer the gentleman-in-waiting, but the journeyman apprentice for upward mobility.

  In the nineteenth century a college education began to be seen as a way to get ahead in the world. The founding of the land-grant colleges opened the doors of higher education to poor but aspiring boys from non-Anglo-Saxon, working-class and lower-middle-class backgrounds. The myth of the poor boy who worked his way through college to success drew millions of poor boys to the new campuses. And with this shift, education became more vocational: its object was the acquisition of practical skills and useful information.

  For the gentleman-in-waiting, virtue consisted above all in grace and style, in doing well what was appropriate to his position; education was merely a way of acquiring polish. And vice was manifested in gracelessness, awkwardness, in behaving inappropriately, discourteously, or ostentatiously. For the apprentice, however, virtue was evidenced in success through hard work. The requisite qualities of character were not grace or style, but drive, determination, and a sharp eye for opportunity. While casual liberality and even prodigality characterized the gentleman, frugality, thrift, and self-control came to distinguish the new apprentice. And while the gentleman did not aspire to a higher station because his station was already high, the apprentice was continually becoming, striving, struggling upward. Failure for the apprentice meant standing still, not rising.

  1. Which of the following is true according to the first paragraph?

  [A] Democratic ideas started with education.

  [B] Federalists were opposed to education.

  [C] New education helped confirm people's social status.

  [D] Old education had been in tune with hierarchical society.

  2.The difference between "gentleman-in-waiting" and "journeyman" is that _____ .

  [A] education trained gentleman-in-waiting to climb higher ladders

  [B] journeyman was ready to take whatever was given to him

  [C] gentleman-in-waiting belonged to a fixed and high social class

  [D] journeyman could do practically nothing without education

  3. According to the second paragraph, land-grant College _____.

  [A] belonged to the land-owning class

  [B] enlarged the scope of education

  [C] was provided only to the poor

  [D] benefited all but the upper class

  4.Which of the following was the most important for a "gentleman-in-waiting"?

  [A] Manners. [B] Education. [C] Moral. [D] Personality.

  5. The best title for the passage is _____.

  [A] Education and Progress

  [B] Old and New Social Norms

  [C] New Education: Opportunities for More

  [D] Demerits of Hierarchical Society

  答案

  1.D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.C

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  总体分析

  本文是一篇介绍新的教育体制观念的文章,其中叙述了该体制观念的产生及其与旧教育体制的不同之处。考生阅读时应着重把握新旧两种教育体制观念的不同。

  第一段:介绍随着民主权利的扩展以及联邦制度的削弱,产生了一种新的教育体制观念,并对该观念进行了详细的说明。

  第二段:指出19世纪,由于国家提供土地的学校为更多的人提供了机会,教育变得更职业化。

  第三段:指出教育对于两种不同社会阶层的人即"等待的绅士"和"学徒"的不同意义。

  试题精解

  1.依据文章第一段内容,下面哪个论述是正确的?

  [A] 民主观念以教育开始。

  [B] 联邦主义者反对教育。

  [C] 新式教育帮助人们确立社会地位。

  [D] 旧式教育与等级社会一致。

  [精解]本题是推理引申题。文章第一段第一句指出,随着19世纪上半叶民主权利的扩展以及随之而来的联邦主义机构的削弱,一种新的教育观念出现了。接下来的内容主要是围绕这种新的教育观念展开论述。从第一句话中可以得知,是民主权利的扩展带来了新的教育观念的产生,[A]项颠倒了二者的先后顺序,应排除。文中提到"新"的教育观念是在联邦主义机构削弱的情况下产生的。由此只能得出,新的教育观念与联邦主义有些冲突,并不能得出联邦主义者反对整个教育即[B]项的结论。第二句作者指出,教育不再是对人们先前存在的地位的确定,而成了获得更高地位的手段。[C]项与文意相悖,因此不正确。通过该句"不再"(no longer)可以推断出,从前的教育可以确定人们的社会地位,因此[D]项为正确答案。

  2."等待的绅士"和"熟练工人"二者之间的不同之处在于_______。

  [A] 教育训练那些"等待的绅士"爬上更高的阶梯

  [B] "熟练的工人"准备着去接受所有给予他们的东西

  [C] "等待的绅士"属于确定的较高的社会阶层

  [D] 如果没有教育,"熟练的工人"不能做任何实际的事情

  [精解] 本题考查了具体的细节。解题的关键在于考生对文中关于两类人的论述的把握。文章第一段末句提到,教育成了培训,学生也不再是等在那里的绅士,而是要提升自己经济地位的熟练学徒。由此可知,"学徒"与"绅士"的不同就是,绅士不用将教育当成工具去努力争取社会地位,因此可以推测出绅士们属于较高的社会阶层。[C]为正确选项。文中提到教育训练学徒们而非绅士爬上更高的阶梯,所以[A]项错误,[B]项和[D]项在文中没有相关论述。

  3.根据第二段,国家赠与土地的学校_________。

  [A] 属于土地所有者阶级

  [B] 扩大了教育的范围

  [C] 仅为穷人提供(教育)

  [D] 使除了上层社会的人之外的所有的人受益

  [精解] 本题考查了事实细节。解此类题的关键是根据题干定位到原文。Land-grant College一词出现在第二段第二句话:国家赠予土地的学校的建立为那些来自非盎格鲁•萨克逊血统、工人阶级和中下层背景的贫穷但有抱负的男孩们敞开了享受高等教育的大门。由此可知,[B]项为正确答案。作者提到为穷人提供了更多的机会,却并没有将上层人士排除在外,也未曾说明只有穷人才能从中获益。因此[C]项和[D]项错误。[A]项中土地所有者阶级是由land-grant colleges一词字面意思得来,文中没有依据。

  4.下述哪一项内容对gentleman-in-waiting最重要?

  [A] 行为举止。 [B] 教育。 [C] 道德。 [D] 个性。

  [精解] 本题考查了事实细节。文章第三段一开始,作者就提到,对于绅士们来说,美德首先包括了高雅和风度,与其身份地位相符的行为方式,教育仅仅是学会高雅的一种方式而已。由此可见,在绅士们眼中,[A]项"行为举止"是最重要的。[B]项与原文不符,[C]项和[D]项在原文中没有明显的论述。

  5.最适合这篇文章的题目是______。

  [A] 教育和进步

  [B] 新旧社会准则

  [C] 新式教育:为更多的人提供机会

  [D] 等级社会的缺点

  [精解] 本题考查了文章的主旨大意。考生需通篇把握全文,不应将注意力放到某个事实细节上。文章一开始就提到民主权利的延展和联邦主义的削弱带来了新教育制度的出现。接下来,作者主要介绍了这一新的教育观念的内涵,及其与旧式教育观念的异同。并对新旧两种教育体制下的学生进行比较。纵览全文可以推断,文章主要讲的是新的教育观念,并未涉及教育的发展问题、社会准则问题,所以[A]、[B]项都错误。[D]项虽然在文中有所提及,但只是部分内容,不能概括全文主旨。[C]项为最佳答案。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)extension(n.)延长,扩充(的范围);普及,推广

  (2)ensue(v.)随之发生;追求[随]

  (3)confirmation(n.)证实,确认,批准

  (4)upward(a./ad.)向上的(地);上升的(地);增长的(地);upwardly(ad.)在上面地,向上地

  (5)mobile(a.)流动的;易变的;(社会地位等)升降很大的

  (6)apprentice(n./v.)(当)学徒;实习生

  (7)polish(n.)磨光,光泽;优雅,精良(v.)擦亮;推敲;使完美或完善

  (8)ostentatious(a.)装饰表面的;卖弄的,夸耀的;ostentate(v.)ostentation(n.)

  (9)liberality(n.)慷慨,大方;宽大,磊落

  全文翻译

  随着19世纪上半叶民主权利的扩展和接踵而至的联邦体制的衰退,一种新的教育观念开始浮现出来。教育不再是对先前存在的地位的确认,而成了获得更高地位的工具。对于不断进步的新一代学生来说,教育的目标不是培养他们在自己出生的环境中舒适地生活,而是教给他们一些新的品德和技能,从而把他们推进一个不同的更好的世界。教育变成了训练,学生也不再是"等待的绅士",而成了一些寻求提高社会地位的职业学徒。

  在19世纪,大学教育开始被看成是跻身世界前列的一种手段。国家赠予土地的大学为那些来自非盎格鲁.萨克孙血统,工人阶级以及社会中下层的贫穷而有抱负的男孩们敞开了高等教育的大门。那些完成大学学业而获得成功的穷孩子的神话驱使数百万的穷人孩子涌入新的大学校园。随着这种转变,教育变得更加职业化:教育的目标是获取实用的技术和有用的信息。

  对于那些准绅士来说,美德首先包括高雅的风度和作风,及符合自己身份地位的表现;教育仅仅是达到优雅的一种方式。而笨拙,粗俗,无礼,招摇等都是恶行的表现。而对于那些学徒来说,美德表现在通过努力获得的成功中。人物必备的品质不是优雅风度而是积极,决心和寻找机会的锐利的眼光。当懒散的自由化及至挥霍浪费成了绅士的特色时,节俭,自制就成了新学徒的标志。绅士的社会地位已经很高,因此不再渴望更高的社会地位,而学徒却一直努力地向上攀登。对于学徒来说,原地不动,没有上升就意味着失败。

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  Text 2

  One meaning of the Greek word "dran" is to accomplish, and in this meaning lies a further key to the structure of drama. A play concerns a human agent attempting to accomplish some purpose. In tragedy his attempt is, in personal terms at least, unsuccessful; in comedy it is successful; in the problem play final accomplishment is often either ambiguous or doubtful.

  This action, from the beginning to the end of a movement toward a purposed goal, must also have a middle; it must proceed through a number of steps, the succession of incidents which make up the plot. Because the dramatist is concerned with the meaning and logic of events rather than with their casual relationship in time, he will probably select his material and order it on a basis of the operation, in human affairs, of laws of cause and effect. It is in this causal relationship of incidents that the element of conflict, present in virtually all plays, appears.

  The central figure of the play-the protagonist-encounters difficulties; his purpose or purposes conflict with events or circumstances, with purposes of other characters in the play, or with cross-purposes which exist within his own thoughts and desires. These difficulties threaten the protagonist's accomplishment; in other words, they present complications, and his success or failure in dealing with these complications determines the outcome. Normally, complications build through the play in order of increasing difficulty; one complication may be added to another, or one may grow out of the solution of a preceding one. At some point in this chain of complication and solution, achieved or attempted, the protagonist performs an act or makes a decision which irrevocably commits him to a further course, points toward certain general consequences. This point is usually called the crisis; the complications and solutions which follow work out the logical steps from crisis to final resolution, or denouement.

  1. According to the first paragraph of the text, a dramatist________.

  [A] seldom believes what he writes about

  [B] portrays what he experiences in the drama

  [C] concerns himself with the results of human effort

  [D] tries to convince his audience of what he believes

  2. A drama is arranged mainly in accordance with_______.

  [A] the will of the dramatist [B] the sequence of events

  [C] the law of dramatic art [D] the need of performance

  3. A dramatist usually_______ .

  [A] clarifies the complicated relationship in his drama

  [B] makes the relationship in his drama more complicated

  [C] hopes to see his protagonist win an easy victory

  [D] likes to present his protagonist as threatening fellows

  4. The word "crisis" (in the last line but one, paragraph 3) most probably implies _________.

  [A] a dangerous moment [B] the last decision

  [C] the crucial point [D] a brave engagement

  5. In the text, the author mainly deals with _________.

  [A] the necessity of drama in a culture

  [B] some social functions of dramas

  [C] the responsibility of dramatists

  [D] some key elements in drama-making

  答案

  1.C 2.A 3.B 4.C 5.D

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  总体分析

  本文介绍了戏剧包含的要素。

  第一段:指出戏剧的性质由人物实现目的的结果决定。

  第二、三段:介绍了戏剧中的要素:情节、冲突、危机、结局。

  试题精解

  1. 根据文章的第一段,一个剧作家_______。

  [A]很少相信他所写的东西

  [B]描述他在戏剧中的经历

  [C]对人类的主观努力的结果感兴趣

  [D]试图说服观众相信他所相信的事情

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段第二句提到,一部戏剧和一个试图达到某种目的的人文动作者(human agent)有关。接下来该段分别讲述了在悲剧、喜剧和问题剧中动作者的目的的实现情况。由此可知,动作者指的是"对推动戏剧情节起很大作用的人物",戏剧就是该人物实现其目的的过程,不同的结果决定了戏剧的性质。因此,[C]是一部戏剧或剧作家所关注的,其他项都无从推知。

  2. 戏剧主要按照_____进行安排。

  [A] 剧作家的意愿 [B] 事件的顺序

  [C] 戏剧艺术的法则 [D] 表演的需要

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第二段第二句提到,由于剧作家关注的是(构成戏剧情节的一系列)事件的含义与逻辑性而不是它们在时间上的关联性,因此他可能会选择素材并按照人类事件因果关系的一般规律进行排序。由此可见,戏剧情节的安排由剧作家决定,[A]正确。[B]中"顺序"一次太泛,如果指"时间顺序",则在文中已经被否定。[C]和[D]在文中都未提及。

  3. 剧作家总是 _____。

  [A] 阐明他的戏剧中的复杂关系

  [B] 使他的戏剧中的关系更加复杂

  [C] 希望看到他的主人公轻而易举地获胜

  [D] 喜欢把他的主人公描述为具有威胁性的人

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第一、二句提到,戏剧的主人公遭遇困难,因为他的目的与其他各种因素发生冲突,从而无法实现。这样事件就变得复杂起来,主人公能否成功地处理这些复杂事件决定了戏剧最终的结局。由此可见,复杂事件是戏剧不可缺少的部分,剧作家经常会做的事情是[B]而非[A]。[C]和[D]都只是出现了文中protagonist一词,但其论述无从推知。

  4. 第三段倒数第二行中的单词"crisis"最可能的含义是_____。

  [A]危险的时刻 [B] 最后的决定

  [C] 关键性的点 [D]勇敢的约定

  [精解] 本题考查词义理解。crisis一词出现在全文最后一句。该句指出它是一个点(point)。由其上文即倒数第二句可知,在这个点上主人公会完成一个行为或者做出一个决定,这个决定必然使他进入进一步发展轨迹(造成某些一般结果的点)。可见,crisis指的是戏剧中决定情节发展的关键性的转折点,而不是"时刻"、"决定"或"约定"。[C]正确。

  5. 本文中作者主要谈论的是_____。

  [A] 文化中戏剧的必要性 [B] 戏剧的一些社会功能

  [C] 剧作家的责任 [D] 戏剧创作中的一些关键要素

  [精解] 本题考查文章主旨。本文主要从文学角度介绍了戏剧所包含的重要因素。其中提到了人文动作者、情节、冲突、危机、结局等术语。因此[D]是主旨。其他项在文中都没有涉及。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)agent(n.)原动力,动因(指对事态起重要作用的人、事物)

  (2)irrevocably (ad.)不能取消地

  (3)denouement(n.)(小说的)结尾,结局

  (4)engagement(n.)订婚;约定,约会;战斗,交战

  全文翻译

  希腊词语"dran"的一个含义是"实现",而这个含义正是进一步了解戏剧结构的关键所在。一部戏剧和一个试图实现某种目的的人文动作者有关。在悲剧中,这个动作者的动机至少在个人层面上是不成功的;而在喜剧中却是成功的。在(社会)问题剧中目的的最后实现要么是模糊不清的要么是黑而未决的。

  从戏剧的开始到实现某个有意识的目的的结束,这个情节必定有一个中间过渡。它必须经历几个步骤,即构成这个情节的一系列的事件。由于剧作家关注的是事件的含义与逻辑性而不是它们在时间上的偶然关联,因此他可能会选择素材并按照人类事件因果关系的一般规律进行排序。于是这些事件的因果关系中包含了几乎所有戏剧中都存在的冲突的元素。

  戏剧的中心人物--主人公--遭遇困难,他的一个或多个目的与事件或环境发生冲突,与剧中其他人物的目的发生冲突,与存在于他的思想和欲望中相互矛盾的目的发生冲突。这些困难阻碍了主人公目的的完成,换句话说,它们使事件变得复杂,而主人公能否成功地处理这些复杂事件决定了戏剧最终的结局。一般而言,戏剧中的复杂事件是按照其困难的程度逐渐累积起来的。一个困难事件也许累加到另一个困难事件之上,或者在前一个困难事件解决之后出现。在问题复杂化和问题得到解决、实现了目的或企图实现目的构成的链条的某一点上,主人公完成一个行为或者做出一个必然使他进入进一步发展轨迹(造成某些一般结果的点)的决定。这个点通常被称为危机,接下来出现的复杂问题和解决方法构成了从危机到最后解决,即结局的逻辑步骤。

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  Text 3

  Vinton Cerf, known as the father of the Internet, said on Wednesday that the Web was outgrowing the planet Earth and the time had come to take the information superhighway to outer space.

  "The Internet is growing quickly, and we still have a lot of work to do to cover the planet." Cerf told the first day of the annual conference of Internet Society in Geneva where more than 1500 cyberspace fans have gathered to seek answers to questions about the tangled web of the Internet.

  Cerf believed that it would soon be possible to send real-time science data on the Internet from a space mission orbiting another planet such as Mars. "There is now an effort under way to design and build an interplanetary Internet. The space research community is coming closer and closer and merging. We think that we will see interplanetary Internet networks that look very much like the ones we use today. We will need interplanetary gateways and there will be protocols to transmit data between these gateways, " Cerf said.

  Francois Fluckiger, a scientist attending the conference from the European Particle Physics Laboratory near Geneva, was not entirely convinced, saying: "We need dreams like this. But I don't know any Martian whom I'd like to communicate with through the Internet."

  Cerf has been working with NASA's Pasadena Jet Propulsion Laboratory-the people behind the recent Mars expedition-to design what he calls an "interplanetary Internet protocol." He believes that astronauts will want to use the Internet, although special problems remain with interference and delay.

  "This is quite real. The effort is becoming extraordinarily concrete over the next few months because the next Mars mission is in planning stages now," Cerf told the conference.

  "If we use domain names like Earth or Mars...jet propulsion laboratory people would be coming together with people from the Internet community." He added.

  "The idea is to take the interplanetary Internet design and make it a part of the infrastructure of the Mars mission."

  He later told a news conference that designing this system now would prepare mankind for future technological advances.

  "The whole idea is to create an architecture so the design works anywhere. I don't know where we're going to have to put it but my guess is that we'll be going out there some time," Cerf said.

  "If you think 100 years from now, it is entirely possible that what will be purely research 50 years from now will become commercial 100 years from now. The Internet was the same-it started as pure research but now it is commercialized."

  1. According to Cerf, the purpose to design interplanetary internet is to _____.

  [A] send real-time science data

  [B] communicate with astronauts

  [C] lay foundation for future technological advances

  [D] commercialize the technology

  2. From the text, we learn that Vinton Cerf is _____.

  [A] seeking answers to questions about the Internet web

  [B] working on interplanetary Internet with collaboration of NASA

  [C] trying to commercialize the interplanetary Internet

  [D] exploring the possibility of establishing Internet network on Mars

  3. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that _____.

  [A] the dream to build interplanetary Internet can be fulfilled in the future

  [B] interplanetary Internet will be commercialized in 100 years

  [C] the research of Internet took 50 years

  [D] it will take a long time to build interplanetary Internet

  4. We know from the text that the Mars mission is _____.

  [A] one of NASA's internet projects

  [B] an expedition to Mars

  [C] the infrastructure of the interplanetary Internet

  [D] to create an architecture on Mars

  5. Which of the following is the main point of the text?

  [A] The development of the Internet.

  [B] The possibility of space research.

  [C] Universal information superhighway.

  [D] The technological advances of the Mars mission.

  答案

  1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.C

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  总体分析

  本文主要介绍了星际因特网这一新的研究项目。

  第一、二段:简单介绍了提出建立星际因特网的背景,即因特网发展迅速,正超出地球的范围,该向外太空扩展了。

  第三段:通过塞尔夫之口介绍了目前星际因特网的研究情况,以及将要建立的星际因特网的具体形式。

  第四段:列举一个对建立星际因特网持质疑态度的科学家的例子。

  第五至十段:介绍了塞尔夫正与(美)国家宇航局合作的"星际因特网协议"项目,从塞尔夫的角度论证了它的可行性,介绍了它的具体功能、目的。

  第十一段:将因特网的发展历程与星际因特网的发展作比较,说明建立星际因特网的可实现性。

  试题精解

  1.按照塞尔夫的观点,设计星际因特网的目的是_____。

  [A] 发送实时科学数据

  [B] 与宇航员通讯

  [C] 为未来的技术进步奠定基础

  [D] 使该技术商业化

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。[C]项是对倒数第三段的改写,lay foundation for与prepare mankind for同义。[A]项在文章第三段首句提到,[B]项在第五段提到,但都是设计和建立星际因特网可能带来的好处,不是设计目的。[D]项在文章最后一段提到,是在说明建立星际因特网的可能性,不是设计目的。

  2.从文中我们知道,文特•塞尔夫_____。

  [A] 正在寻求有关因特网问题的答案

  [B] 正与(美)国家宇航局合作致力于星际因特网的研究

  [C] 正试图使星际因特网商业化

  [D] 正探索在火星上建立因特网的可能性

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。第五段首句提到,塞尔夫正一直与(美)国家宇航局帕萨提那的喷气推进实验室合作,设计他所说的"星际因特网协议",与[B]项同义。[A]项是塞尔夫在日内瓦参加的一个年会的主题,并不是塞尔夫正在从事的工作。星际因特网商业化只在文章最后一段作为可能性提到,星际因特网还没有研究出来,更不用说商业化了,所以[C]项错误。全文主要论述的是星际因特网的问题,并没有指出要在火星上建立因特网。[D]项错误。

  3.从最后一段可以推出_____。

  [A] 建立星际因特网的梦想在未来可能实现

  [B] 100年后星际因特网将商业化

  [C] 因特网的研究用了50年的时间

  [D] 建立星际因特网将需要很长时间

  [精解] 本题考查考生的推理引申能力。文章最后一段所做的假设(在今后50年内仅仅是研究项目的东西,在100年后完全有可能商业化)以及与因特网发展历程的比较,都是塞尔夫为了说明建立星际因特网在未来是有可能实现的,所以[A]项正确。文中提到100年只是一种假设,[B]项将其确定为商业化实现的时间,不正确。同样,[C]项将假设中的50年确定为因特网的研究年限,也不正确。该段中塞尔夫的一番话表达了他对星际因特网的建立怀有比较乐观的态度,而不是说明它需要花很长时间才能实现,[D]项不正确。

  4.从文中我们知道,Mars mission是_____。

  [A] (美)国家宇航局的一个因特网计划

  [B] 火星探险

  [C] 星际因特网的基础设施

  [D] 在火星上创建一个架构

  [精解] 本题考查词义的理解。文章五、六段中Mars mission和Mars expedition交替使用,可见是同义,而且第三段首句在具体解释space mission的含义时以火星为例指出它orbiting another planet such as Mars。 所以,正确选项为[B]。[A]、[C]、[D]三项都指的是塞尔夫跟(美)国家宇航局的合作项目。Architecture意为"架构,体系(the structure of a computer system and the way it works)"。

  5.下面哪项是文章的主旨?

  [A] 因特网的发展。

  [B] 太空研究的可能性。

  [C] 宇宙信息超级高速公路。

  [D] 火星探险的技术进步。

  [精解] 本题考查文章主旨。本文主要介绍了星际因特网的创建,[C]项是对文章首句中take the information superhighway to outer space的改写,是全文论述的中心内容。[A]项在文章最后一段出现,是为了更好地说明星际因特网的发展。文章没有提到太空研究的可能性问题,[B]项错误。文章第九段提到,星际因特网是为未来火星探险技术进步奠定基础,这也是在说明星际因特网的重要作用,而不是纯粹论述火星探险的技术进步,所以[D]项不正确。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)outgrow(v.)长得太大而使......不再适用;长得比......快(或大、高);年久丧失(某种习惯、兴趣等)

  (2)cyberspace(n.)电脑空间,赛博空间

  (3)tangle(n./v.)(处于)混乱状态;纠缠,缠结;(with)(与人)争论,较量

  (4)interplanetary行星间的,星际,太阳系内的

  (5)gateway(n.)门,通路;网关;途径,方法

  (6)protocol(n.)草案,协议;外交礼节,礼仪

  (7)expedition(n.)远征;探险队;发出,派遣;迅速with ~赶紧地,迅速地

  (8)infrastructure(n.)下部构造,基本设施(尤指社会、国家赖以生存和发展的, 如道路、学校、电厂、交通、通讯系统等);infra-前缀表示"在下"

  全文翻译

  有因特网之父之称的文特•塞尔夫本周三说:网络发展正超出地球的范围,把信息高速公路推向外太空的时候已经到了。

  "因特网正迅速发展,在使因特网覆盖全球方面我们还有很多工作要做。"塞尔夫在互联网协会年会的第一天说。该年会在日内瓦举行,有1500多名赛博空间迷聚集于此,寻求关于因特网复杂的网络问题的答案。

  塞尔夫相信很快就可能在绕其他星球比如火星的太空探险中,把实时科学数据传送到因特网上。他说:"现在,正在努力设计和建立星际因特网。太空研究界正在靠拢与合并。我们认为我们将看到的星际因特网的网络跟我们今天使用的网络看起来会很相似。我们将需要星际网关,在这些网关之间会有协议传送数据。"

  一位从日内瓦附近的欧洲粒子物理学实验室来参会的科学家F•弗拉基杰并不完全信服,他说:"我们需要这样的梦想,但我不认识任何我想与之进行网上通讯的火星人。"

  塞尔夫一直在与(美)国家宇航局帕萨提那的喷气推进实验室合作(该实验室是最近火星探险活动的幕后工作者),设计他所说的"星际因特网协议"。他相信尽管在干扰和滞后性方面还存在特殊问题,宇航员们仍希望利用因特网。

  "这很真实。在未来的几个月里,我们的努力会变得更加真实具体,因为下一次火星探险现在正处于计划阶段。"塞尔夫在会上说。

  "如果我们用地球或火星等作为域名,喷气推进实验室的人将与因特网的网民走到一起。"他补充道。

  "其整体构想是利用星际因特网的设计,并使其成为火星探险的基础设施。"

  在之后的新闻发布会上,他说:现在设计这一系统将为未来技术的进步奠定基础。

  "整个构想是创立一个架构,使该设计在任何地方都适应。我不知道我们要把它放到哪但我认为总有一天我们会将它用出去。"塞尔夫说。

  "如果你想想100年后,从现在起50年纯粹作为研究项目的东西在100年后完全有可能商业化。因特网也是一样--从纯粹的研究开始,但现在已经商业化了。"

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  Text 4

  Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tools and technology can tell us about the group's history and way of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The most vivid body of "things" in it, of course, are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph was invented, so we rely on instruments for important information about music-cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments, as well as paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra.

  Sheet music or printed music, too, is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain and America. Printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different songs. Besides, the ability to read music notation has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes widespread, on the music-culture as a whole.

  Music is deep-rooted in the cultural background that fosters it. We now pay more and more attention to traditional or ethnic features in folk music and are willing to preserve the folk music as we do with many traditional cultural heritage. Musicians all over the world are busy with recording classic music in their country for the sake of their unique culture. As always, people's aspiration will always focus on their individuality rather than universal features that are shared by all cultures alike.

  One more important part of music's material culture should be singled out: the influence of the electronic media-radio, record player, tape recorder, and television, with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the "information-revolution", a twentieth century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution in the nineteenth. These electronic media are not just limited to modern nations; they have affected music-cultures all over the globe.

  1. Which of the following does not belong to material culture?

  [A] Instruments. [B] Music. [C] Paintings. [D] Sheet music.

  2. The word "phonograph" (Line 5-6, Paragraph 1) most probably means_____.

  [A] record player [B] radio [C] musical technique[D] music culture

  3. The main idea of the first paragraph is _____.

  [A] the importance of cultural tools and technology

  [B] the cultural influence of the development of civilization

  [C] the focus of the study of the material culture of music

  [D] the significance of the research into the musical instruments

  4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of printed music?

  [A] Reading of music notation has a great impact on musicians.

  [B] People may draw imspiration from it.

  [C] The music culture will be influenced by it in the end.

  [D] Songs tend to be standardized by it.

  5. From the third paragraph, we may infer that_____.

  [A] traditional cultural heritage is worthy of preservation

  [B] the universal features shared by all cultures aren't worthy of notice

  [C] musicians pay more attention to the preservation of traditional music

  [D] the more developed a culture, the more valuable the music it has fostered

  答案

  1.B 2.A 3.D 4.D 5.A

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  总体分析

  本文介绍了对于音乐文化研究极具重要性的几种物质文化。

  第一段:从介绍"物质文化"开始,谈到音乐的第一种物质文化--"乐器",说明它在音乐文化研究中的作用。

  第二段:介绍音乐的第二种物质文化--乐谱,及其对音乐文化的影响。

  第三段:人们现在开始关注保存具有民族特色的音乐。

  第四段:介绍音乐的第三种物质文化--电子媒体对音乐文化的影响。

  试题精解

  1.下面哪一项不属于物质文化?

  [A] 乐器 [B] 音乐 [C] 绘画 [D] 乐谱

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第一段首句对"物质文化"下定义为:文化中产生的能看到、摸到、感觉到和使用的自然物体。接着该段第三、四句提到,音乐文化中最生动的物质载体是乐器。从第一段末句可知,图片、文字记载以及乐器都是研究音乐文化的物质手段。第二段首句接着指出,乐谱也是物质文化。因此[A]、[C]和[D]都是物质文化,只有[B]不是。

  2. 第一段第五至六行的单词"phonograph"最可能的含义是。

  [A] 录音机 [B] 收音机 [C] 音乐技术 [D] 音乐文化

  [精解] 本题考查词意理解。"phonograph"一词出现在第一段第五句,该句指出,"‘phonograph'被发明以前,我们听不到任何音乐表演的声音,只能通过乐器研究过去的音乐文化"。由此可知,该词指的是一种能够记录声音并被用于音乐文化研究的物质。[A]为正确答案。[B]虽然也有声音,但无法用于音乐研究。此外,也可以通过词根词缀法猜测词意。phono-相当于sound,表示"声音";-graph表示"书写、描绘或记录的器具,机械"。"记录声音的机器"就是"录音机"。

  3. 第一段的主要含义是 _____。

  [A] 文化工具和技术的重要性

  [B] 文明的发展对文化的影响

  [C] 音乐物质文化研究的重点

  [D] 研究乐器的意义

  [精解] 本题考查段落主旨。第一段共七句。第一句给"物质文化"下定义;第二、三句指出研究音乐文化就要研究音乐物质文化。第四、五句指出乐器是音乐文化研究中的重要物质文化。第六句指出乐器作为物质文化的两种形式。第七句举例说明乐器的研究在音乐文化研究中所起的作用。由此可见,第一段涉及的主题应是作为音乐物质文化的"乐器",因此[D]正确。[A]和[B]泛泛谈文化,应排除。[C]虽然提到了音乐物质文化的研究,但未具体到乐器。

  4. 下面哪一个不是印刷式乐谱的优点?

  [A] 读乐谱对音乐家有很大的影响。

  [B] 人们从中可获得灵感。

  [C] 音乐文化将最后受到它的影响。

  [D] 歌曲往往由于它而被标准化。

  [精解] 本题考查事实细节。根据题干中的"印刷式乐谱"定位到第二段。该段第三句提到,印刷式乐谱形式单调(limit variety),因为它们往往将所有歌曲都标准化。因此[D]不是它的优点,而是局限性。

  [A]在该段末句提到,该句指出读乐谱(包括印刷乐谱)的能力对音乐家有着深远的影响。该段第三句yet转折后指出,印刷式乐谱促使人们创作新的、不同的歌曲。由此可推知创作者从中获得了灵感。[B]是其优点。从该段末句可知,当读乐谱的能力得到普及时,会对整个音乐文化产生影响。因此[C]也是其优点。

  5. 从第三段我们可以推知_____。

  [A] 传统文化遗产值得保存

  [B] 所有文化共有的普遍特点不值得关注

  [C] 音乐家更关注传统音乐的保存

  [D] 文化越发达,它孕育的音乐就越有价值

  [精解] 本题考查推理引申。第三段第二句提到,我们(we)越来越关注民乐中的传统和民族特色,并且在对待许多传统文化遗产时愿意将民乐保存下来。第三句以音乐家记录自己国家的古典音乐为例说明上文。该句中we包括了作者本人,因此可推知[A]是作者所赞同的观点。[C]错在more,因为文中并没有将音乐家对待传统音乐和现代音乐的态度作对比。该段末句提到,人们(people)总是渴望保留个性特色,而不是找到所有文化共有的普遍特点。可见,文中只是客观叙述人们对文化的偏好,没有贬低"文化共有的普遍特点"的价值。排除[B]。该段首句提到,音乐根植于孕育了它的文化之中。这说明文化决定音乐的特色,与"发达"或"价值"没有关联,排除[D]。

  核心词汇或超纲词汇

  (1)notation(n.)(数字、科学和音乐等中的)符号、记号、谱号

  (2)foster(v.)养育,抚育,培养,促进,助长

  (3)aspiration(n.)热望,渴望,抱负,志向

  全文翻译

  物质文化指的是那些可以触摸的、物质的"东西",即,文化产生的能看到、摸到、感觉到和使用的自然物体。考察一种文化中的工具和技术就可以知道这个文化群体的历史和生活方式。同样,研究音乐的物质文化能够帮助我们理解音乐文化。在音乐文化中最生动的物质载体当然是乐器。在19世纪70年代留声机发明以前,我们自己听不到任何音乐表演的声音,于是我们依赖乐器获得有关远古的音乐文化及其发展的重要信息。这里我们有两种证据:保存完好的乐器和艺术中描绘的乐器。通过对图片、文字记载以及乐器等的研究,我们可以了解一千多年以前近东音乐传入中国的情况,也可以勾勒出近东音乐的影响波及欧洲并导致交响乐的大部分乐器发展的大致轮廓。

  手稿式乐谱或印刷式乐谱都是物质文化。学者曾经将民乐文化定义为这样的文化,即,人们用耳朵学会吟唱曲子,而不是背诵乐谱。但是对欧洲、英国和美国的研究显示了过去几个世纪里口头和书面资料的相互影响。印刷式乐谱形式单调,因为它们往往将所有歌曲都标准化,但是它们却促使人们创作新的、不同的歌曲。而且,读乐谱的能力对音乐家有着深远的影响,当这种能力得到普及时,它对整个音乐文化将产生深远的影响。

  音乐根植于孕育了它的文化背景。现在我们越来越关注民乐中的传统和民族特色,并且在对待许多传统文化遗产时愿意将民乐保存下来。全世界的音乐家忙着记录自己国家的古典音乐,因为它们代表了独特的文化。人们总是渴望保留个性特色,而不是找到所有文化共有的普遍特点。

  音乐物质文化的一个更重要的部分应该被提出来:电子媒体--如收音机、唱机、录音机、电视、未来能说会唱的计算机以及其他发明--的影响。这都属于"信息革命",一种和19世纪的工业革命一样重要的20世纪的现象。这些电子媒体不仅限于出现在现代国家,而是影响了整个世界的音乐文化。

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