2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)

日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:502

2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)

  .  .

2010年教育部考试中心考研英语模拟试题----知识运用部分汇编

  Section ⅠUse of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) from each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  一、美陪审团制度

  As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common law”, or law made by courts__1__a monarch or other central governmental__2__like a legislature. The jury, a__3__of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an__4__ part of our common-law system.

  Use of juries to decide cases is a__5__feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States.__6__the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result__7__would be obtained using a judge__8__, as many countries do.__9__a jury decides cases after “__10__”, or discussions among a group of people, the jury’s decision is likely to have the__11__ from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.

  Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide__12__ among__13__ citizens, and criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government __14__ that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and__15__. Jurors, consisting of __16__ numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.

  The judge__17__to the case__18__the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states,__19__jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the__20__under rules dictated by state law.

  1. [A] other than [B] rather than [C] more than [D] or rather

  2. [A] agency [B] organization [C] institution [D] authority

  3. [A] panel [B] crew [C] band [D] flock

  4. [A] innate [B] intact [C] integral [D] integrated

  5. [A]discriminating[B] distinguishing [C] determining [D] diminishing

  6. [A] in [B] by [C] after [D] over

  7. [A] that [B] which [C] than [D] as

  8. [A] alike [B] alone [C] altogether [D] apart

  9. [A] Although [B] Because [C] If [D] While

  10.[A] deliberations [B] meditations [C] reflections [D] speculations

  11.[A] outline [B] outcome [C] input [D] intake

  12.[A] arguments [B] controversies [C] disputes [D] hostilities

  13.[A] fellow [B] individual [C] personal [D] private

  14.[A] asserting [B] alleging [C] maintaining [D] testifying

  15.[A] assembled [B] evoked [C] rallied [D] summoned

  16.[A] set [B] exact [C] given [D] placed

  17.[A] allocated [B] allotted [C] appointed [D] assigned

  18.[A] administers [B] manages [C] oversees [D] presides

  19.[A] inspective [B] irrespective [C] perspective [D] prospective

  20.[A] bodies [B] parties [C] sides [D] units

  答案

  1. B 2. D 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. D 7.C 8.B 9. B 10. A

  11. C 12. C 13.D 14.B 15. D 16. A 17. D 18. C 19. D 20. B

  总体分析

  本文介绍了美国的陪审团制度。第一段指出,陪审团是美国共同法系统的基本组成部分。第二段分析了使用陪审团的原因。第三和四段分别介绍了陪审团的类型和选举程序。

  全文翻译

  美国的建国之父们作为大英帝国的前殖民者沿袭了其法律系统。我们有“共同法”,即由法庭而非君主或其他像立法机关这样的中央政府权利机关制定的法律。陪审团由一群选来裁决案件的普通公民组成,是我们共同法系统基本的组成部分。

  使用陪审团裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个显著特征。在世界上很少有其他国家和美国一样使用陪审团。几个世纪以来,许多人已经相信在大多数情况下陪审团比许多国家那样单独使用一位法官达成的结果更公平、公正。因为陪审团裁决案件是在一群人“审议”或讨论后,因此他们的决定可能受到不同背景的不同人的影响,这些人必须作为一个团体来决定什么是正确的。

  陪审团既被用在裁决普通公民之间纠纷的民事案件中,也用在裁决政府提出讼诉声称个人犯罪的刑事案件中。陪审团成员从美国公民中选出并被传唤。由固定人数组成的陪审团在每一个需要陪审团的案件中都会被召唤。

  被指派负责案件的法官监督陪审团成员的选举。在一些州,未来的陪审团成员由法官询问,而在另一些州,他们遵照州法律规定的法规接受代表各方当事人的律师的询问。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  二、英国车速监控系统

  The Treasury could pocket 20 million a year in extra fines once the country’s speed camera network is expanded. Motoring organizations warned that the __1__could become a poll tax on wheels’, __2__huge number of drivers. There could be many more incidents of vandalism __3__cameras.The warnings came__4__a Daily Mail survey found almost all the 23 police forces in England and Wales were either__5__to expansion plans or considering __6__.

  Nationwide, the number of speeding tickets is expected to treble,__7__ 90 million a year.__8__the scheme, police keep some of the cash from fines to __9__the costs of fitting and maintaining extra cameras and__10__that existing ones always have film in them. The rest will go to the Treasury. Both Ministers and police insist the scheme is aimed__11__at making roads safer. They point to trials in eight areas which cut collisions by a quarter and deaths and serious injuries by __12__a half.

  But motoring organizations fear cameras will be sited on relatively safe__13__fast stretches to catch as many drivers as possible. Some forces are also expected to__14__the “threshold” speeds at which cameras are__15__to the absolute legal minimum-15 mph in a 10 mph limit, and 26 mph in a 20 mph zone. This could encourage drivers to stare at their speedometers instead of concentrating on the road, and __16__to more accidents. Sue Nicholson, head of campaigns at the RAC, said, “We don’t have a problem with speed cameras __17__. But we do have concerns about__18__they are sited. Police risk losing credibility __19__motorists if cameras are seen as revenue-raising __20__safety devices.”

  1. [A] promotions [B] punishments [C] penalties [D] payments

  2. [A] isolating [B] separating [C] alienating [D] detaching

  3. [A] towards [B] against [C] before [D] over

  4. [A] so [B] once [C] as [D] where

  5. [A] subjected [B] engaged [C] intended [D] committed

  6. [A] taking part [B] keeping silence [C] making exception [D] paying respect

  7. [A] financing [B] profiting [C] funding [D] netting

  8. [A] From [B] Under [C] On [D] With

  9. [A] hide [B] cover [C] conceal [D] veil

  10. [A] pledging [B] assuring [C] confirming [D] ensuring

  11. [A] essentially [B] strongly [C] wholeheartedly [D] purely

  12. [A] in all [B] fewer than [C] at most [D] up to

  13. [A] but [B] whereas [C] though [D] while

  14. [A] fit [B] put [C] set [D] fix

  15. [A] levered [B] geared [C] handled [D] triggered

  16. [A] lead [B] add [C] contribute [D] resort

  17. [A] any less [B] by itself [C] after all [D] as such

  18. [A] who [B] when [C] where [D] which

  19. [A] in [B] with [C] against [D] for

  20. [A] in spite of [B] far from [C] rather than [D] by means of

  答案

  1. C 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. D 8. B 9.B 10. D

  11. D 12.D 13. A 14. C 15. B 16. A 17. D 18. C 19.B 20.C

  总体分析

  本文讲述了英国车速监控摄像体系扩张计划的内容及影响,着重阐述了这一计划的支持者(警察和财政部门)和反对者(机动车管理机构)的观点。

  全文翻译

  一旦扩大车速监控摄像体系,这个国家财政部每年就能从罚款中额外增加2000万收入。机动车管理机构警告说这种罚款可能变成对汽车征收的人头税,从而疏远很多驾驶者。也可能出现更多破坏摄像机的事件。警告出现的同时,《每日邮报》的调查发现英格兰和威尔士的23支警力几乎都有所行动,不是致力于部署监控体系的扩张计划,就是在考虑加入其中。

  预计(在实施监控系统后)全国范围内违章超速行驶的罚单数量会增加两倍,罚金数目一年达9000万。按照计划,警察保留一部分罚金用以支付安装和维修新摄像机的费用,并且保证现有的摄像机中总是装有胶卷。其余的罚金将上缴财政部。财政部长们和警察都坚持认为该计划的目的是提高公路的安全性。他们指出八个试点地区撞车事故减少了四分之一,严重伤亡事故减少至一半。

  但是机动车管理机构担心警察为了多开罚单会把摄像机装在相对安全但行车速度较快的直行道上,还会为车速监控摄像机设置最低合法车速标准,如把正常的每小时10 英里限速提高到每小时15英里,每小时20 英里限速提高到每小时26英里。这样做会使司机盯着自己的里程计而不把精力集中到路面上,从而引发更多的交通事故。英国皇家汽车俱乐部(RAC)活动负责人休·尼科尔森说,“严格上说,我们对车速监控摄像机并无意见,我们担忧的是它们被安放的地点。如果把监控摄像机视为(政府)聚敛财政收入的手段而不是安全设施,那么警察就可能丧失他们在驾驶者心目中的威信”。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  三、大众媒体

  The mass media is a big part of our culture, yet it can also be a helper, adviser and teacher to our young generation. The mass media affects the lives of our young by acting as a(an)__1__for a number of institutions and social contacts. In this way, it__2__ a variety of functions in human life.

  The time spent in front of the television screen is usually at the__3__ of leisure: there is less time for games, amusement and rest.__4__ by what is happening on the screen, children not only imitate what they see but directly__5__ themselves with different characters. Americans have been concerned about the__6__ of violence in the media and its__7__harm to children and adolescents for at least forty years. During this period, new media __8__, such as video games, cable television, music videos, and the Internet. As they continue to gain popularity, these media,__9__television,__10__public concern and research attention.

  Another large societal concern on our young generation__11__by the media, is body image.__12__forces can influence body image positively or negatively.__13__one, societal and cultural norms and mass media marketing__14__our concepts of beauty. In the mass media, the images of__15__beauty fill magazines and newspapers,__16__from our televisions and entertain us__17__the movies. Even in advertising, the mass media__18__on accepted cultural values of thinness and fitness for commercial gain. Young adults are presented with a__19__defined standard of attractiveness, a(n)__20__that carries unrealistic physical expectations.

  1. [A] alternative [B] preference [C] substitute [D] representative

  2. [A] accomplishes[B] fulfills [C] provides [D] suffices

  3. [A] risk [B] mercy [C] height [D] expense

  4. [A] Absorbed [B] Attracted [C] Aroused [D] Addicted

  5. [A] identify [B] recognize [C] unify [D] equate

  6. [A] abundance [B] incidence [C] prevalence [D] reccurrence

  7. [A] disposed [B] hidden [C] implicit [D] potential

  8. [A] merged [B] emerged [C] immerged [D] submerged

  9. [A] apart from [B] much as [C] but for [D] along with

  10. [A] promote [B] propel [C] prompt [D] prosper

  11. [A] inspired [B] imposed [C] delivered [D] contributed

  12. [A] External [B] Exterior [C] Explicit [D] Exposed

  13. [A] As [B] At [C] For [D] In

  14. [A] mark [B] effect [C] impact [D] shock

  15. [A] generalized [B] regularized [C] standardized[D] categorized

  16. [A] boom [B] bottom [C] brim [D] beam

  17. [A] over [B] with [C] on [D] at

  18. [A] play [B] take [C] profit [D] resort

  19. [A] barely [B] carefully [C] narrowly [D] subjectively

  20. [A] ideal [B] image [C] stereotype [D] criterion

  答案

  1. C 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B 9.D 10. C

  11. B 12.A 13. C 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19.C 20.A

  总体分析

  本文主要论述了大众媒介对青少年产生的影响。第一段指出,大众媒介可以替代社会机构和社会交往在年轻人的生活中起着各种各样的作用。第二段指出,由于青少年模仿他们在电视中看到的乃至将其与现实相混淆,人们一直担忧媒介对他们可能产生危害。第三段媒介对美的狭隘界定对青少年的不良影响。

  全文翻译

  大众媒体是我们文化的重要组成部分,但是它也可以成为年轻一代的助手、建议者和教师。大众媒介作为许多机构和社会交往的替代品影响着年轻人的生活。通过这种方式,它在人们生活中起到了各种各样的作用。

  在电视屏幕前耗费的时间常常是以休闲为代价的,即有更少的时间用于游戏、娱乐和休息。由于被电视屏幕上的东西吸引,孩子们不仅模仿他们看到的,而且还直接将自己视为电视中的各种不同的人物。美国人对媒体中暴力的普及及其对孩子和青少年的潜在危害的担忧至少已经有四十年了。在这段时期里,新的媒体,如:电视游戏、有线电视、音乐录像带以及网络出现了。由于这些媒体继续受到欢迎,它们连同电视一起引起了公众的担忧和研究的注意。

  媒体使年轻一代受到社会另一大关注的方面是身体形象问题。外部力量能对身体形象产生正面和负面的影响。举例来说,社会文化标准和大众媒介的营销冲击着我们关于美的观念。在大众媒介中,标准美女的形象充斥着报刊杂志,从电视中播放出来,在电影中娱乐着我们。甚至大众媒介还在广告中利用公认的瘦和健康的文化价值来赢得商业利润。青少年被给予的是狭隘界定的吸引力的标准,它是一种包含着对外形的不切实际的期望的完美标准。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  四、英国的饮食与健康

  A recent parliamentary report blames the government and the food industry for the growth in obesity. The Department of Transport is blamed for not doing enough to__1__facilities for pedestrians and cyclists while__2__ to pressure from motoring organizations representing car users. The Ministry of Education is__3__of selling off school playing fields and not doing enough to__4__adequate facilities for physical education and games. Young people in Britain have become crazy about football (soccer and rugby), but too often as__5__ “couch potatoes” .

  The food industry is blamed for promoting junk food to school children and not doing enough to__6__down on sugar, fats and salt in prepared foods. The industry,__7__by the current popularity of the Atkins low-carbohydrate diet, has begun to __8__, but it is trying to protect a huge market and will need to do__9__more if it is to__10__off increased regulation.

  Japan seems less__11__so far by the problem of obesity,__12__ as the Japanese diet becomes increasingly__13__ (burgers and doughnuts) the problem will grow. __14__, Japanese cuisine has become highly popular in Britain. It is seen as healthy in a different way from the Mediterranean diet__15__its emphasis on tomatoes and olive oil combined with red wine.

  A fairly small amount of red wine is now__16__as beneficial to the heart,__17__its other encouraging properties. But Britain has to do more to__18__the problems of alcoholism__19__with the binge-drinking culture — including violence and vandalism. Limited consumption of alcohol, as long as it is not__20__with driving, is harmless and possibly beneficial.

  1. [A] stimulate [B] commend [C] promote [D] elevate

  2. [A] submitting [B] subjecting [C] subordinating [D] surrendering

  3. [A] charged [B] denounced [C] scolded [D] accused

  4. [A] assure [B] ensure [C] secure [D] guard

  5. [A] speculating [B] spectating [C] specializing [D] sightseeing

  6. [A] fall [B] get [C] cut [D] bring

  7. [A] stung [B] bitten [C] chewed [D] licked

  8. [A] retort [B] refute [C] respond [D] resolve

  9. [A] abundantly [B] considerably [C] extensively [D] principally

  10. [A] defend [B] beat [C] hold [D] ward

  11. [A] upset [B] affected [C] effected [D] impressed

  12. [A] or [B] for [C] but [D] if

  13. [A] popularized [B] globalized [C] westernized [D] localized

  14. [A] Accordingly[B] Interestingly [C] Surprisingly [D] Strikingly

  15. [A] as [B] on [C] but [D] with

  16. [A] accepted [B] approved [C] assumed [D] acknowledged

  17. [A] but for [B] let alone [C] regardless of [D] much less

  18. [A] cope [B] challenge [C] tackle [D] undertake

  19. [A] matched [B] related [C] united [D] associated

  20. [A] bonded [B] combined [C] merged [D] incorporated

  答案

  1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.B 6.C 7.A 8.C 9.B 10.D

  11.B 12.C 13.C 14.B 15.D 16.A 17. B 18.C 19.D 20.B

  总体分析

  本文主要介绍了英国饮食存在的问题。第一至二段指出,英国政府和食品工业被指责导致肥胖患者的增多。第三段指出,一方面日本饮食因日益西化,肥胖问题变得严重;另一方面,日本饮食在英国很流行,被视为健康饮食。第四段指出适度饮酒对身体有益,但英国要应付的是与过度引酒相关的问题。

  全文翻译

  一份最近的议会报告指责政府和食品工业导致肥胖患者增多。交通部门被指责在促进步行和骑车设施的发展方面做得不够,而且屈从于代表汽车使用者的机动车组织的压力。教育部被指责出卖学校的操场,在保证提供用于体育教学和游戏的充足设施方面做得不够。英国的年轻人为足球和橄榄球而疯狂,但更多的只是坐在家里看电视的“沙发土豆”。

  食品工业被指控向学生兜售垃圾食品,在减少熟食中糖、脂肪和盐含量方面做得不够。受到目前艾特金斯低碳水化合物饮食潮流的刺激,食品工业已经有所反应,但是它要努力保护一个庞大的市场,而且如果要避开日益增多的规定,它需要做的事情还很多。

  迄今为止,日本看上去受肥胖问题的影响较小,但是随着日本人食谱的日益西化(夹饼和油炸圈饼),问题会变得严重。有趣的是,日式烹饪在英国很流行。它被看作是有别于地中海饮食的另一种健康饮食,后者着重于西红柿和橄榄油以及与之相结合的红酒。

  稍饮红酒现在被认为有利于心脏,更不用说红酒其它令人振奋的品性。但是英国人还需要做许多事情来解决与狂饮文化有关的酗酒问题——包括暴力和破坏行为。有节制的酒类消费,只要不和驾驶行为搭伴,就是无害的并可能是有益的。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  五、失眠

  Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem. And too many people are using__1__ therapies, even while there are a few treatments that do work. Millions of Americans __2__awake at night counting sheep or have a stiff drink or __3__an pill, hoping it will make them sleepy.__4__ experts agree all that self-medicating is a bad idea, and the causes of chronic insomnia remain__5__.

  Almost a third of adults have trouble sleeping, and about 10 percent have__6__ of daytime impairment that signal true insomnia. But __7__the complaints, scientists know surprisingly little about what causes chronic insomnia, its health consequences and how best to treat it, a panel of specialists __8__together by the National Institutes of Health concluded Wednesday. The panel called__9__a broad range of research into insomnia, __10__that if scientists understood its __11__causes, they could develop better treatments.

  Most, but not all, insomnia is thought to __12__other health problems, from arthritis and depression to cardiovascular disease. The question often is whether the insomnia came first or was a result of the other diseases and how trouble sleeping in__13__complicates those other problems. Other diseases __14__, the risk of insomnia seems to increase with age and to be more __15__among women, especially after their 50s. Smoking, caffeine and numerous __16__drugs also affect sleep.

  The NIH is spending about $200 million this year on sleep-related research, some__17__to specific disorders and others __18__the underlying scientific laws that control the nervous system of sleep. The agency was__19__the panel’s review before deciding what additional work should be__20__ at insomnia.

  1. [A] unproven [B] unknown [C] improper [D] imperative

  2. [A] fall [B] lie [C] seem [D] become

  3. [A] prescribe [B] pop [C] abuse [D] experiment

  4. [A] And [B] Though [C] Thus [D] But

  5. [A] peculiar [B] anonymous [C] mysterious [D] unexpected

  6. [A] signals [B] symptoms [C] signs [D] symbols

  7. [A] in addition to[B] except for [C] owing to [D] for all

  8. [A] pulled [B] collected [C] brought [D] drawn

  9. [A] on [B] for [C] up [D] in

  10. [A] noting [B] notifying [C] nosing [D] nominating

  11. [A] undertaking[B] underlining [C] underlying [D] undermining

  12. [A] cause [B] accompany [C] follow [D] attend

  13. [A] short [B] case [C] essence [D] turn

  14. [A] inside [B] outside [C] aside [D] besides

  15. [A] common [B] popular [C] frequent [D] regular

  16. [A] conscription[B] description [C] subscription[D] prescription

  17. [A] aimed [B] targeted [C] designated [D] designed

  18. [A] examining [B] inspecting [C] verifying [D] assessing

  19. [A] conducting [B] awaiting [C] receiving [D] considering

  20. [A] assigned [B] charged [C] directed [D] attended

  答案

  1.A 2.B 3.B 4.D 5.C 6.B 7.D 8.C 9.B 10.A

  11.C 12.B 13.D 14.C 15.A 16.D 17.B 18.A 19.B 20.C

  总体分析

  本文主要介绍了对失眠的研究工作。文章第一段指出慢性失眠是一个重要的公共健康问题,但其致病原因仍是个迷。第二段介绍了(美)全国卫生研究所一个专家小组的结论,该小组呼吁对失眠进行广泛的研究。第三段讨论了失眠与其他因素,如疾病、年龄、药物等的关系。第四段介绍了(美)全国卫生研究所对失眠正在进行的研究情况。

  全文翻译

  慢性失眠是一个主要的公共健康问题。而且,太多人正使用未经验证的治疗方法,尽管有些方法确实是有效的 。上百万的美国人夜里睡不着觉,躺着数羔羊、喝杯烈酒或吞个药片,希望这会使他们产生困意。然而,专家们一致认为,自作主张乱吃药并不是解决失眠的好方法,导致慢性失眠的原因目前还是一个谜。

  几乎有1/3的成年人存在睡眠障碍,而且大约10%的人有白天功能减退的症状,这些症状表明他们确实患上了失眠症。 但是,一个由(美)全国卫生研究所召集的专家小组在周三得出这样的结论:尽管(社会上关于长期失眠的)抱怨很多,但科学家们对长期失眠的原因,它对健康的影响以及如何有效地治疗都知之甚少。该专家小组呼吁对失眠症进行广泛研究,指出如果科学家们了解了失眠的潜在原因,他们可能会发现更好的治疗方法。

  很多,但不是所有的失眠症被认为伴随着其他健康问题产生,从关节炎、抑郁到心血管疾病。而问题通常是不知道是先产生失眠,还是失眠是其他疾病的结果,以及失眠如何又使其他问题变得更加复杂。撇开其他疾病不说,失眠的可能性随着年龄的增加而增加,而且在妇女中更加普遍,尤其是50岁以后。吸烟、咖啡因及众多的处方药也影响睡眠。

  (美)全国卫生研究所今年要花大约2000亿美元用于睡眠的相关研究,其中一些以特定的(睡眠)紊乱为目标,另外一些观察控制睡眠神经系统的潜在科学规律。该机构正等待专家小组的评论以决定对失眠进行的下一步研究工作。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  六、听的行为

  A recent poll indicated that half the teenagers in the United States believe that communication between them and their parents is__1__and further that one of the prime causes of this gap is __2__listening behavior. As a(an)__3__ in point, one parent believed that her daughter had a severe__4__problem. She was so __5__that she took her to an audiologist to have her ear tested. The audiologist carefully tested both ears and reported back to the parent:“There’s nothing wrong with her hearing. She’s just __6__you out.”

  A leading cause of the __7__divorce rate (more than half of all marriages end in divorce) is the failure of husbands and wives to __8__effectively. They don’t listen to each other. Neither person__9__to the actual message sent by the other.

  In __10__fashion, political scientists report that a growing number of people believe that their elected and __11__officials are out of__12__with the constituents they are supposedly __13__. Why? Because they don’t believe that they listen to them. In fact, it seems that sometimes our politicians don’t even listen to themselves. The following is a true story: At a national__14__conference held in Albuquerque some years ago, then Senator Joseph Montoya was__15__a copy of a press release by a press aide shortly before he got up before the audience to__16__ a speech. When he rose to speak,__17__the horror of the press aide and the__18__of his audience, Montoya began reading the press release, not his speech. He began, “For immediate release. Senator Joseph M. Montoya, Democrat of New Mexico, last night told the National...” Montoya read the entire six-page release,__19__ with the statement that he “was repeatedly __20__by applause.”

  1.[A] scarce [B] little [C] rare [D] poor

  2.[A] malignant [B] deficient [C] ineffective [D] feeble

  3.[A] case [B] example [C] lesson [D] suggestion

  4.[A] audio [B] aural [C] hearing [D] listening

  5.[A] believing [B] convinced [C] assured [D] doubtless

  6.[A] turning [B] tuning [C] tucking [D] tugging

  7.[A] rising [B] arising [C] raising [D] arousing

  8.[A] exchange [B] interchange [C] encounter [D] interact

  9.[A] relates [B] refers [C] responds [D] resorts

  10.[A] like [B] alike [C] likely [D] likewise

  11.[A] nominated [B] selected [C] appointed [D] supported

  12.[A] connection [B] reach [C] association [D] touch

  13.[A] leading [B] representing [C]delegating [D] supporting

  14.[A] legislative [B] legitimate [C] legalized [D] liberal

  15.[A] distributed [B] awarded [C] handed [D] submitted

  16.[A] present [B] publish [C] deliver [D] pursue

  17.[A] to [B] with [C] for [D] on

  18.[A] joy [B] enjoyment [C] amusement [D] delight

  19.[A] conclude [B] to conclude [C] concluding [D] concluded

  20.[A] disrupted [B] interfered [C] interrupted [D] stopped

  答案

  1.D 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.B 6.B 7.A 8.D 9.C 10.A

  11.C 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.C 16.C 17.A 18.C 19.C 20.C

  总体分析

  本文主要讨论了听行为对人际交流的影响。文章第一段从父母和子女之间的交流出发,说明儿女不听父母的话造成了他们之间的隔阂。第二段从婚姻的角度出发,说明夫妻双方的互不理睬造成交流不畅,从而使离婚率上升。第三段从政治的角度出发,说明政府官员不聆听选民甚至不在意自己所说的话,造成官民隔阂。例证法是本文采用的主要的论证方法。

  全文翻译

  最近的一项民意测验显示:美国一半的青少年认为他们与父母的交流不好,而且造成这种隔阂的一个首要原因是有不理想的倾听行为。一个典型的例子是,一位母亲认为她女儿有严重的听力问题。她对此确信无疑,于是就带着女儿去听觉病矫治专家那儿检查她的耳朵。专家仔细检查了两只耳朵,然后告诉这位母亲说:“她的听力没问题,只是不理睬你而已。”

  离婚率上升(一半以上的婚姻以离婚告终)的一个首要原因是夫妻间不能有效地交流。他们彼此充耳不闻。两人对对方发出的确切信息都毫无反应。

  同样地,据政治科学家报道,越来越多的人相信他们选举指派的官员与其本应代表的选民失去了联系。为什么呢?因为这些人认为他们不需要倾听选民的意见。实际上,有时我们的政治家们似乎连自己的声音都不听。下面是一个真实的例子:在几年前亚柏克尔克举行的全国立法会议上,一位新闻助理在当时的参议员约瑟夫·蒙图亚演讲前交给了他一份新闻稿。令该新闻助理大吃一惊而使听众感到有趣的是,当蒙图亚起来讲话时,他读的不是演讲稿而是那份新闻稿。蒙图亚先生以“即时新闻稿。新墨西哥州的民主党参议员约瑟夫·蒙图亚昨晚在全国……上说……”开始,读完了全部的六页新闻稿,并以他“不时被掌声打断”结尾。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  七、日本铁路车站的经济计划

  There is growing interest in East Japan Railway Co. ltd, one of the six companies, created out of the privatized nationa__l__ railway system. In an industry lacking exciting growth1, its plan to use real-estate assets in and around train stations__2__is drawing interest.

  In a plan called “Station Renaissance” that it__3__in November, JR East said that it would__4__using its commercial spaces for shops and restaurants, extending them to__5__more suitable for the information age. It wants train stations as pick-up__6__for such goods as books, flowers and groceries__7__over the Internet. In a country where city__8__depend heavily on trains__9__commuting, about 16 million people a day go to its train stations anyway, the company __10__. So, picking up commodities at train stations__11__consumers extra travel and missed home deliveries. JR East already has been using its station__12__stores for this purpose, but it plans to create__13__spaces for the delivery of Internet goods.

  The company also plans to introduce __14__cards—known in Japan as IC cards because they use integrated circuit for__15__information__16__ train tickets and commuter passes__17__the magnetic ones used today, integrating them into a/an __18__pass. This will save the company money, because__19__for IC cards are much less expensive than magnetic systems. Increased use of IC cards should also__20__the space needed for ticket vending.

  1.[A] perspectives [B] outlooks [C] prospects [D] spectacles

  2.[A] creatively [B] originally [C] authentically [D] initially

  3.[A] displayed [B] demonstrated [C] embarked [D] unveiled

  4.[A] go beyond [B] set out [C] come around [D] spread over

  5.[A] applications [B] enterprises [C] functions [D]performances

  6.[A] districts [B] vicinities [C] resorts [D] locations

  7.[A] acquired [B] purchased [C] presided [D] attained

  8.[A] lodgers [B] tenants [C] dwellers [D] boarders

  9.[A] for [B] in [C] of [D] as

  10.[A] figures [B] exhibits [C] convinces [D] speculates

  11.[A] deprives [B] retrieves [C] spares [D] exempts

  12.[A] conjunction [B] convenience [C] department [D] ornament

  13.[A] delegated [B] designated [C] devoted [D] dedicated

  14.[A] clever [B] smart [C] ingenious [D] intelligent

  15.[A] checking [B] gathering [C] holding [D] accommodating

  16.[A] as [B] for [C] with [D] of

  17.[A] but for [B] as well as [C] instead of [D] more than

  18.[A] unique [B] single [C] unitary [D] only

  19.[A] devices [B] instruments [C] readers [D] examiners

  20.[A] reduce [B] narrow [C] dwarf [D] shrink

  答案

  1.C 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.C 6.D 7.B 8.C 9.A 10.A

  11.C 12.B 13.D 14.B 15.C 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.C 20.A

  总体分析

  本文介绍了东日本铁路公司引人关注的新计划。文章第一段介绍说东日本铁路公司创造性地利用车站内部及周围房地产的计划正引起越来越多人的关注。第二段具体介绍了这一计划的内容及好处,即适应信息时代的要求,把车站作为网上购物的物品收取地,这样既为消费者提供了方便,又提高了递送物品的安全性。第三段介绍了该公司引入智能卡代替目前使用的各种磁卡作车票的计划及其优点。

  全文翻译

  通过国家铁路系统的私有化创建起来的六大公司之一的东日本铁路有限公司,正吸引着越来越多人的目光。在一个发展前景不振的行业,它创造性地利用车站内部及周围的房地产的计划正引起人们的关注。

  东日本铁路在11月份公布的“车站复兴”计划中说:它将不仅把它的商业空地用于开商店和餐馆,而且还要把这些商业空地用于更加适应信息时代的功能上去。它打算把车站作为网上所购物品如书籍、花卉和日用百货等的收取地。该公司估算,在一个都市人严重依赖列车作为上下班交通工具的国度里,每天大约有1600万人因各种原因来到它的车站。因此,在车站收取物品使消费者节省了路途而且也不像往家里递送那样容易丢失。东日本铁路已经开始把车站的便利店用于这一目的,但它打算为网上货物的递送创立专门的空间。

  该公司还打算引入智能卡(在日本称为IC卡,因为它们利用集成电路储存信息)取代目前使用的磁卡作为车票和定期券,把各种不同的票券合为一体。这将为公司节省资金,因为IC卡的读卡机比磁系统要便宜的多。IC卡使用的增加还将会减少售票所占用的空间。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  八、老龄化

  Aging poses a serious challenge to OECD (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, in particular, how to pay for future public pension liabilities. And early retirement places an__1__burden on pension financing. There is no easy solution, but__2__retirement could help.

  Early retirement may seem like a worthy individual goal, but it is a socially__3__one, and makes the present public pension system difficult to sustain for long. The__4__reason is that more people are retiring early and living longer. That means more retirees depending on the__5__of those in work for their income. The__6__is worrying. In the next 50 years, low fertility rates and__7__life expectancy in OECD countries will cause this old-age dependency rate to roughly double__8__size. Public pension payments, which afford 30-80% of total retirement incomes in OECD countries, are__9__to rise, on average, by over three percentage points in GDP and by as much as eight percentage points in some countries.__10__is the pressure on pension funds that there is a danger of today’s workers not getting the pensions they expected or felt they__11__for.

  Action is needed,__12__simply aiming to reduce the__13__(and cost) of public pensions, or trying to__14__the role of privately funded pensions within the system, though necessary steps, may be__15__to deal with the dependency challenge. After years of__16__early retirement schemes to avoid__17__and higher unemployment, many governments are now looking__18__persuading people to stay in work until they are older. Surely, the thinking goes, if we are healthier now and jobs are physically less__19__and unemployment is down, then perhaps the__20__rate should rise anew.

  1.[A] unsolvable [B] additional [C] unsustainable [D] undue

  2.[A] delaying [B] retaining [C] detaining [D] hindering

  3.[A] ultimate [B] unattainable [C] specific [D] expensive

  4.[A] substantial [B] essential [C] potential [D] controversial

  5.[A] donating [B] sponsoring [C] subsidizing [D] funding

  6.[A] outlook [B] outcome [C] outbreak [D] outset

  7.[A] prolonging [B] expanding [C] soaring [D] rising

  8.[A] in [B] on [C] by [D] for

  9.[A] conceived [B] reckoned [C] expected [D] meant

  10.[A] As [B] Such [C] So [D] It

  11.[A] should pay [B] paying [C] be paid [D] would pay

  12.[A] but [B] for [C] and [D] thus

  13.[A] multitude [B] implementation [C] application [D] generosity

  14.[A] exaggerate [B] augment [C] magnify [D] multiply

  15.[A] insufficient [B] influential [C] inefficient [D] intrinsic

  16.[A] advancing [B] previous [C] ahead [D] preceding

  17.[A] suspensions [B] abundances [C] redundancies [D] discrepancies

  18.[A] for [B] to [C] about [D] at

  19.[A] turbulent [B] strenuous [C] compact [D] intricate

  20.[A] dependency [B] fertility [C] present [D] mortality

  答案

  1.C 2.A 3.D 4.B 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.A 9.C 10.B

  11.C 12.A 13.D 14.B 15.A 16.A 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.C

  总体分析

  本文主要讨论了老龄化给经合组织国家现存养老体系带来的挑战。文章第一段指出老龄化给经合组织国家带来的挑战,并提出推迟退休可能对解决该问题有所帮助。第二段分析了早退休给养老体系带来的问题,即越来越多的人早退休而寿命延长,随着出生率的降低,就会有更多退休的人依靠更少工作的人来为他们养老,养老金在国家财政中所占的比例增加,成为无法承受的负担。第三段探讨了解决方法,指出仅仅减少公共养老金的数量,增加私有养老的比例是不够的,许多政府在考虑说服人们晚退休。

  全文翻译

  老龄化给经合组织国家,尤其是在如何支付未来的公共养老金负债方面,带来了严重的挑战。早退休给退休金的融资带来了难以承受的负担。没有什么简单的解决方案,但推迟退休(年龄)可能有所帮助。

  早退休可能看起来是个值得追求的个人目标,但对于社会来说却是昂贵的,它使当前的公共养老金系统难以持久。基本原因是更多的人退休早而寿命却更长。这意味着更多的退休人员要依赖在职者的资助作为收入。这一前景是令人担忧的。未来50年,经合组织国家的低出生率和预期寿命的增加将使这一老年依赖率提高大约一倍。占经合组织国家全部退休收入30%-80%的公共退休金的支出,在国内生产总值中的比例预期将平均增加超过三个百分点,而在有些国家甚至会增加八个百分点。养老基金的压力如此之大以至于现在的工人有得不到他们预期或认为应该得到的养老金的危险。

  行动是必需的,但仅仅试图减少公共养老金的慷慨度或增加系统内私有养老金的作用,尽管是必要的,但在应对这种依赖挑战方面仍是不够的。前些年为了避免下岗及高失业,政府采取提前早退休的方案,而现在许多政府正考虑劝说人们晚点退休。当然,他们是这么想的,如果现在我们更加健康了、工作对体力的要求降低了、失业率也降低了,那么(工作)出席率可能也该重新上升了。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  九、罗马人的建国

  The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states, such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions, Roman theorists ignored, or rejected__3__ valueless, intellectual exercises like Plato’s Republic, in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero’s De Re Publica, and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete, even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome, Romulus, was__9__ to have received authority from the gods, specifically from Jupiter, the “guarantor” of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__, the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority, because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive, the senators moved__15__to divide the authority, holding that their consuls, or chief officials, would possess it on__16__months, and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__, as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.

  1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to

  2. [A] tempted [B] attracted [C] appealed [D] transferred

  3. [A] on [B] for [C] as [D] about

  4. [A] which [B] that [C] what [D] it

  5. [A] turned [B] worked [C] brought [D] made

  6. [A] special [B] specific [C] peculiar [D] particular

  7. [A] existence [B] store [C] reality [D] mind

  8. [A] abandoned [B] caught [C] separated [D] involved

  9. [A] told [B] held [C] suggested [D] advised

  10. [A] tendency [B] procedure [C] development [D] relation

  11. [A] authority [B] power [C] control [D] ruling

  12. [A] officers [B] men [C] administrators [D] fathers

  13. [A] possessed [B] claimed [C] assured [D] enforced

  14. [A] confirm [B] confer [C] consult [D] consider

  15. [A] over [B] along [C] on [D] about

  16. [A] alternate [B] different [C] varied [D] several

  17. [A] And [B] So [C] Or [D] But

  18. [A] state [B] country [C] people [D] national

  19. [A] as [B] when [C] if [D] so

  20. [A] dimension [B] complexity [C] exercise [D] function

  答案

  1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7.D 8.D 9. B 10. C

  11. A 12. D 13.A 14.C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B

  总体分析

  本文介绍了罗马人有关国家建设的理论。第一句指出罗马人有关国家形成的理论很有特点。第二句至第五句指出,罗马人的理论与希腊人的大不相同,是非常具体的。第六句至文章结尾具体阐述了罗马人关于国家权力的所有和分配形式。

  全文翻译

  奥古斯都(罗马帝国第一代皇帝)的成功很大程度上归功于罗马人将国家理论化的特点。罗马人没有制定出让希腊人感兴趣的建设理想国家的宏伟蓝图。在柏拉图的《理想国》中不涉及具体个人或国家的一种个人与国家之间的关系被详细地设计出来,但罗马理论家们几乎无一例外地忽视或拒绝接受像《理想国》这样的智力训练,认为它们毫无价值。罗马人最接近希腊模式的是西塞罗的《论国家》,甚至在这本书中西塞罗的心中已经对罗马有了非常清楚的想法。即使涉及到宗教和道德概念,罗马人关于国家的想法也是具体的。罗马的第一位统治者罗穆卢斯被认为从神,尤其是从罗马的守护神宙斯那里获得了权力。所有宪法的发展都是一种赋予和监督这种权力的方法。很显然,人们相信只有先父们的立法机构,即一家之主们组成的最初的参议院,才拥有行使这种权力所必需的宗教特质,因为它最初的功能是寻求神的启示。既实际又排外的参议员们将权力再进一步分割,认为他们的司法官或总管官员,将每隔一个月拥有这项权力,并在之后将其拥有权扩大到更低等级的官员。但是重要的成就是创造了持续的国家权力的概念,这种权力只是临时体现在某些上层阶级的个人身上,并且只有当普通大众一致同意的时候才被赋予。当新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃的时候,这个系统变得越来越复杂。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  十、苏美尔人

  All Sumerian cities recognized a number of gods in common, including the sky god, the lord of storms, and the morning and evening star.__1__the Sumerian worshipped the goddess of fertility, love, and war, she was evidently lower__2__status than the male gods, indicating that in a more urbanized society the__3__that the peoples of previous times had paid to the earth mother goddess had__4__. The gods seemed hopelessly violent and __5__, and one’s life a period of slavery at their easy will. The epic poem The Creation emphasizes that__6__were created to enable the gods to__7__ up working. Each city moreover had its own god, who was considered to__8__ the temple literally and who was in theory the owner of all property within the city.__9__the priests who interpreted the will of the god and controlled the__10__ of the economic produce of the city were favored__11__ their supernatural and material functions __12__. When, after 3,000 B. C., growing warfare among the cities made military leadership__13__, the head of the army who became king assumed a(n)__14__position between the god, whose agent he was, and the priestly class, whom he had both to use and to __15__. Thus king and priests represented the upper class in a hierarchical society.__16__them were the scribes, the secular attendants of the temple, who__17__every aspect of the city’s economic life and who developed a rough judicial system.__18__the temple officials, society was divided among an elite or__19__ group of large landowners and military leaders; a mixed group of merchants, artisans, and craftsmen, free peasants who__20__ the majority of the population; and slaves.

  1. [A] Unless [B] As [C] Lest [D] Although

  2. [A] on [B] in [C] with [D] about

  3. [A] worship [B] reverence [C] admiration [D] gratitude

  4. [A] vanished [B] recovered [C] declined [D] attained

  5. [A] unpredictable[B] unforgivable[C] unlimited [D] unlikely

  6. [A] creatures [B] animals [C] men [D] mortals

  7. [A] use [B] turn [C] give [D] back

  8. [A] inhabit [B] live [C] reside [D] lodge

  9. [A] Hence [B] Thereafter [C] Somehow [D] Incidentally

  10. [A] introduction[B] transaction [C] distribution[D] provision

  11. [A] as [B] for [C] under [D] of

  12. [A] along [B] anyway [C] afterwards [D] alike

  13. [A] additional [B] vital [C] singular [D] exceptional

  14. [A] alternative [B] secondary [C] intermediate[D] fundamental

  15. [A] pacify [B] tempt [C] suppress [D] manipulate

  16. [A] Beside [B] Beyond [C] Below [D] Before

  17. [A] supervised [B] held [C] managed [D] presided

  18. [A] Around [B] Under [C] Above [D] Outside

  19. [A] leading [B] noble [C] controlling [D] principal

  20. [A] consist [B] compose [C] compile [D] consume

  答案

  1. D 2. B 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7.C 8.A 9. A 10. C

  11. B 12. D 13.B 14.C 15. A 16. C 17. A 18. D 19. B 20. B

  总体分析

  本文介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜及由此引起的社会阶层的划分。第一句至第四句为一个意群,主要介绍了苏美尔人对神的崇拜,以及神凌驾于人之上。第五句至倒数第二句为一个意群,介绍了由于对神的崇拜而出现的社会上层阶层及其职能。末句附带说明了在宗教体系之外的社会阶层。

  全文翻译

  所有的苏美尔城邦都认可很多共同的神,包括天空之神、风暴之王、晨星和昏星。虽然苏美尔人崇拜代表繁衍、爱和战争的女神,但她在地位上却明显低于男性神。这表明在一个更趋都市化的社会中,过去时代的民族曾经致以大地母亲神的敬意已经减少。神似乎都极其暴力且捉摸不定,人的一生成为任他们摆布和奴役的一生。史诗《创世记》中强调人类被创造出来是为了使神放弃劳动。而且每一座城邦都有它自己的神,该神被认为确实居住在庙宇里,理论上则是城邦里所有财产的拥有者。因此诠释神的意志并且控制城市经济产品的分配的僧侣以他们超自然的以及在物质方面享有的功能而受到青睐。公元前3000年以后,当城市不断增多的战事使军事领导才能变得非常重要时,成为国王的军队首领占据了在神与僧侣阶层之间的位置,他是神的代言人,对僧侣阶层既利用又安抚。因此在一个等级社会中国王和僧侣代表了上层阶级。居于他们之下的是书吏,即,庙宇世俗的侍臣,他监督城市经济生活的方方面面,并制定粗略的司法体系。在庙宇官员之外,社会被划分为四类人:大地主和军事领导人这样一群精英和贵族人群;商人、工匠和技工的混合群体;占人口大部分的自由农民;奴隶。

  .
       
如果觉得《2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)》模拟试题,kaoyan不错,可以推荐给好友哦。

本文Tags: 考研 - 考研英语 - 模拟试题,kaoyan,
在百度中搜索相关文章:2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)
在谷歌中搜索相关文章:2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)
在soso中搜索相关文章:2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)
在搜狗中搜索相关文章:2017考研英语模拟题及详解(知识运用部分汇编)
相关分类导航|
热门推荐|