日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:347


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  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Until about two million years ago Africa’s vegetation had always been controlled by the interactions of climate; geology, soil, and groundwater conditions; and the activities of animals. The addition of humans to the latter group, however, has increasingly rendered unreal the concept of a fully developed “natural” vegetation—i.e., one approximating the ideal of a vegetational climax. (41). Early attempts at mapping and classifying Africa’s vegetation stressed this relationship: sometimes the names of plant zones were derived directly from climates. In this discussion the idea of zones is retained only in a broad descriptive sense.

  (42). In addition, over time more floral regions of varying shape and size have been recognized. Many schemes have arisen successively, all of which have had to take views on two important aspects: the general scale of treatment to be adopted, and the degree to which human modification is to be comprehended or discounted.

  (43). Quite the opposite assumption is now frequently advanced. An intimate combination of many species—in complex associations and related to localized soils, slopes, and drainage—has been detailed in many studies of the African tropics. In a few square miles there may be a visible succession from swamp with papyrus, the grass of which the ancient Egyptians made paper and from which the word “paper” originated, through swampy grassland and broad-leaved woodland and grass to a patch of forest on richer hillside soil, and finally to juicy fleshy plants on a nearly naked rock summit.

  (44). Correspondingly, classifications have differed greatly in their principles for naming, grouping, and describing formations: some have chosen terms such as forest, woodland, thorn-bush, thicket, and shrub for much of the same broad tracts that others have grouped as wooded savanna (treeless grassy plain) and steppe (grassy plain with few trees). This is best seen in the nomenclature, naming of plants, adopted by two of the most comprehensive and authoritative maps of Africa’s vegetation that have been published: R. W. J. Keay’s Vegetation Map of Africa South of the Tropic of Cancer and its more widely based successor, The Vegetation Map of Africa, compiled by Frank White. In the Keay map the terms “savanna” and “steppe” were adopted as precise definition of formations, based on the herb layer and the coverage of woody vegetation; the White map, however, discarded these two categories as specific classifications. Yet any rapid absence of savanna as in its popular and more general sense is doubtful.

  (45). However, some 100 specific types of vegetation identified on the source map have been compressed into 14 broader classifications.

  [A] As more has become known of the many thousands of African plant species and their complex ecology, naming, classification, and mapping have also become more particular, stressing what was actually present rather than postulating about climatic potential.

  [B] In regions of higher rainfall, such as eastern Africa, savanna vegetation is maintained by periodic fires. Consuming dry grass at the end of the rainy season, the fires burn back the forest vegetation, check the invasion of trees and shrubs, and stimulate new grass growth.

  [C] Once, as with the scientific treatment of African soils, a much greater uniformity was attributed to the vegetation than would have been generally accepted in the same period for treatments of the lands of western Europe or the United States.

  [D] The vegetational map of Africa and general vegetation groupings used here follow the White map and its extensive annotations.

  [E] African vegetation zones are closely linked to climatic zones, with the same zones occurring both north and south of the equator in broadly similar patterns. As with climatic zones, differences in the amount and seasonal distribution of precipitation constitute the most important influence on the development of vegetation.

  [F] Nevertheless, in broad terms, climate remains the dominant control over vegetation. Zonal belts of precipitation, reflection latitude and contrasting exposure to the Atlantic and Indian oceans and their currents, give some reality to related belts of vegetation.

  [G] The span of human occupation in Africa is believed to exceed that of any other continent. All the resultant activities have tended, on balance, to reduce tree cover and increase grassland; but there has been considerable dispute among scholars concerning the natural versus human-caused development of most African grasslands at the regional level.



  41.F 42.A 43.C 44.G 45.D








  [A] 随着人们对植物了解的增加,对植物的命名、分类和绘制图形也更加具体。

  [B] 在高降水量的地区,大草原的植被因周期性的火灾而得以保存。

  [C] 非洲东部植被被认为有很大的一致性。

  [D] 现在的植物图谱及植物分类都受怀特图谱的影响。

  [E] 影响植被发展的几个因素。

  [F] 叙述了影响植被的气候因素。

  [G] 学者们对于导致非洲草地发展的原因,存在很大的分歧。


  41.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落内一致性原则+上下文的衔接

  本题空格出现在第一段中,应起到承上启下的作用。上文提到了影响非洲植被的多种因素,并强调人类活动对植被气候的影响。空格下文提到早期对非洲植被的研究重视植物带与气候的关系。可见,该段主要围绕“气候”与“非洲植被”展开论述。预测空格处的内容应和段落主题保持一致。[E]出现了关键词“climatic”和“vegetation”,但它主要论述的是“气候带”,而非“气候”。[F]出现了关键词“climate”和“vegetation”。其中however一词表明与上文构成转折关系,从“强调人类活动的影响”转向“强调气候的影响”。[F]最后出现的belts of vegetation与空格下文plant zones是同义表达,相互呼应。

  42.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接

  本题空格出现在第二段开始。下文的特征词in addition表明空格部分与下文存在递进关系。下文指出,当人们发现了更多不同的植物区域时,许多规划接连被提出。[A]中“随着人们对植物了解的增加(more has become known of …)”与下文中“人们发现更多形状和大小不一的植物区域(more … have been recognized)”内容很接近,出现了衔接。从[A]提到的“植物命名、分类和绘制图形的具体化”到下文“治理植物区域的规划的提出”也存在着递进关系。

  43.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接


  44.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:内容的衔接


  45.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+词语的呼应

  本题空格出现在第五段开始。下文however一词表明空格部分与下文构成转折关系。下文提到,源图中100种植物具体类别被简化为14种涵盖更广的类别。由此可知,空格部分应出现与“图”或“植物类别”有关的内容。符合要求的是[D],其中the White map与第四段提到的Frank White呼应,its extensive annotations与下文100 specific types呼应。







  (5)localized(a.)在小范围内的,局部的,如a ~ infection局部感染

  (6)on balance权衡起来,两相比较,如~ I think we should benefit by adopting the scheme.(权衡起来,我们采用这个方案应该会受益。)

  (7)formation(n.)组成物,形成物,如massive rock ~s块状岩层






  人类在非洲活动的时间被认为比在其它任何洲都要长。总的来说,所有活动的结果都倾向于减少森林覆盖面积和增加草地面积。但是在地区层面上,关于是自然还是人为导致了大多数非洲草地的发展,学者们存在很大的分歧。相应地,这些学者在他们命名、归类以及描述植物群系的原则上也是大相径庭。对于几乎同样宽广的地带,一些学者将其归类为非洲大草原(没有树木)和西伯利亚大草原(树木稀疏),而另一些学者则选用如森林、林地、荆棘、灌木丛、灌木这样的术语来描述。这种差异性在已出版的两幅有关非洲植被最全面最权威的图谱所采用的植物术语中可见一斑。这两幅图是:R. W. J·凯伊编写的《北回归线以南的非洲植被图》和后来出版的资料来源更为广泛的由富兰克·怀特编辑的《非洲植被图》。以木本植群的覆盖率和草本层为依据,凯伊的图采用“非洲大草原”和“西伯利亚大草原”对植物群系进行精确定义;而在怀特的图中,却并不采用这两种具体的分类方法。然而,普遍而广泛意义上的非洲大草原的迅速缺失却是令人质疑的。



  [B] 在高降水量地区,比如非洲东部,大草原的植被因周期性的火灾而得以保存。雨季末的大火燃烧了干草,火烧退了森林植被,阻碍了树木和灌木的滋生,并促进了新草的生长。

  [E] 非洲植被带与气候带有着紧密的联系,赤道以南和赤道以北出现了结构非常相似的植被带。气候带、降雨量和降雨的季节性分布的差异一起对植被发展构成了最重要的影响。

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