2017教育部考试中心考研英语模拟试题(新题型6)

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2017教育部考试中心考研英语模拟试题(新题型6)

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  目录

  一.新题型试题

  二.答案

  三.总体分析

  四.试题精析

  五.全文翻译

  2010年教育部考试中心考研英语模拟试题

  ----新题型PartB汇编

  6、Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Have you ever considered what makes a good boss good? The answer to that question is admittedly mercurial, as one person’s view of a top-notch employer will differ from somebody else’s. However, there are a number of traits, attitudes and abilities that are common to all good bosses. Moreover, the need for solid leadership skills is especially telling with smaller businesses.

  “Being a good boss is important in any organization, but it’s particularly important for small business,” says Rob Sheehan, director of executive education at the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland. “With smaller businesses, you really have the opportunity to set the tone for the entire company.”

  Bearing in mind the importance of good leadership to business, consider the following lineup of skills, strategies and attributes:

  41. Be inclusive.

  With a smaller operation, it’s essential that everyone feels like an equal and involved part of the team. A good employer is certain to treat each employee fairly, not only in terms of salary and other forms of compensation, but also in how that employee is involved in the daily function of the business. Encourage feedback, innovation and creativity so employees feel genuinely engaged.

  42. Mission, not just money.

  Very few businesses operate out of sheer altruism, but that’s not to say that turning a profit is the primary philosophical and practical focus. Rather, an effective boss establishes a genuine business mission. How that takes shape depends both on the business and on the overriding focus the boss wants to set.

  43. Nothing to fear but fear itself.

  Many of us have had bosses who would be right at home with a knife next to their desk calendars. Make one mistake on the job and feel free to slip your head right in beneath the blade. Conversely, an effective boss encourages his or her employees not to be gun shy about occasional chaos along the road toward better job performance.

  44. It’s their careers, too.

  Don’t forget that the people who work for you are looking to you to help them navigate and advance their careers. As I said, it’s not all about money. But it is all about making your employees see how to improve and create meaningful careers for themselves.

  45. Made, not necessarily born.

  One final aspect of being a good boss is recognizing that much of what goes into being an effective leader is, in fact, learned behavior. Of course, there always have been and will be bosses who seem to have a flawless touch in leading and motivating. But for every natural, there are just as many top-flight bosses who got that way by attending management classes and seminars, reading books on effective leadership and, just as important, understanding that a good employer naturally attracts first-rate employees.

  [A] “It’s important to use that different perspective to educate and encourage. But it’s also important, like a good coach, to lead your team by example. For instance, while you should point out mistakes by your employees, be sure to admit when you yourself make a mistake,” says Sheehan.

  [B] “You need to create an environment of integrity, trust and respect to make absolutely certain that everyone is treated fairly, regardless of the differences they may have,” says Sheehan.

  [C] “People can definitely develop good leadership capabilities,” says Sheehan. “To a certain degree, we all have innate traits that make us good bosses. All you really have to do is work to develop those traits to their utmost.”

  [D] If an employee has a goal of becoming a manager or running his or her own business someday, nurture that goal. Tell them the traits they need to work on to achieve their ultimate plans.

  [E] For instance, a restaurant owner may push speedy lunchtime service as a way of serving the time-strapped business community. By contrast, a medical supply outfit may emphasize how its products improve customers’ health. Not only can a clear mission(responsibility) serve to motivate employees, it can also infuse a sense of importance in their jobs.

  [F] “This requires a mentality that encourages learning rather than being afraid of making a mistake. Try something new and different, but know we’re not going to kill each other if things don’t work out,” says Sheehan. “I was a swimmer in college and I swam fast when I imagined a shark was after me. I swam just as fast when I imagined I was in the Olympics. It’s a question of what you want to focus on.”

  答案

  41.B 42.E 43.F 44.D 45.C

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  总体分析

  本文是说明文,主要介绍了好的雇主所具有的品质和特点。

  第一、二段:指出很多特点、态度和能力是所有的好老板共有的。而且,越小的公司对于领导技能的要求就越突出。

  第三至十段:具体论述好的雇主所拥有的技能、策略和品质。其中,第三段是一个引言,第四至八段分别论述。

  试题精解

  (一)审题,读主题词。

  标题配对题中往往会给出主题词,如本题中的how to be a good boss(如何成为一位好的老板),由此考生可以预测文章的内容应包括好的老板的特点或品质。

  (二)通读全文,了解大意,并判断小标题的作用。

  略读全文,把握小标题和文章其他部分的逻辑关系。文章一开始提出,很多特点、态度和能力是所有好雇主所共有的。41题前最后一句话是过渡句,承上启下指出,接下来列出的是一位好雇主所拥有的技能、策略和品质。由此可以得知下述几个小标题都是好雇主的特点。

  (三)浏览选项,概括大意。

  由于选项部分多是段落,内容相对较多,并且和原文是非等额搭配,因此可以先概括各选项的大意,将浓缩后的信息迅速地记下来,或者将各项中的重要信息划出来,以便解题时一目了然,与小标题一一对应。本文六个选项有的是列举具体事例,有的是引用专家话语,有的则是两着兼有。其大意是:

  [A] 要像一个教练一样教育你的雇员,举出实例来说服他。

  [B] 要确保每一位雇员都得到公正的待遇。

  [C] 我们都有成为好老板的内在品质,关键是要将它们发挥到极至。

  [D] 帮助雇员实现他们自己的事业目标。

  [E] 明确的职责有利于激发雇员的积极性。

  [F] 要鼓励进步而非恐惧犯错。

  (三)掌握论证方法,将论据与论点一一匹配

  六个选项要么举例要么引用专家话语,显然文章的主要论证手法是例证和引证。根据文章的基本结构,接下来要做的就是论据和论点的匹配工作。可以先看标题后看选项,也可根据选项来找合适的标题。

  41题的标题是“be inclusive”,显然,仅从标题无法判断出作者究竟要表达什么含义。因此,需要继续阅读下文的论述部分。第四段的主题句是首句:雇主要让每个雇员都觉得自己是团队平等而投入的成员。后面部分具体说明方式是什么。其中treat each employee fairly和[B]项中的everyone is treated fairly相呼应。因此[B]项正是让雇员平等而投入的方式。从而可知inclusive在这指的是(心胸)包容而广阔。

  42题的标题是“使命而非金钱”。第五段首句就money展开论述,指出:企业的首要目标不是赚钱。接下来的两句话则就mission展开论述,指出:企业使命的形成也取决于老板设定的最重要的目标。至此,本段主要强调了mission的重要性,但没有具体说明它指的是什么。[E]项以餐饮和医疗器材为例说明了不同企业的不同使命,为正确选项。其中responsibility是mission的近义词。

  43题的标题中的关键词是fear。第六段先将两种老板进行了比较,一种老板不允许员工犯错,另一种鼓励员工不要害怕犯错。[F]项出现了being afraid of的同义表达,该项中席翰以游泳为例说明,不要让恐惧而要让鼓励来敦促人前进。这个内容显然和前面提到的两类老板的内容相吻合。

  44题的标题是“这也是他们的事业”,联系全文主旨可知代词their指的是“雇员”,careers是这个标题中的关键词。第七段对标题内容进行了阐释:要帮助雇员明白如何为自己改善和创造有意义的事业。[D]项以一名雇员为例,说明老板应该帮助雇员实现他们的目标,其中a goal of becoming a manager or running his or her own business与careers呼应。

  45题的标题是“是后天的而不一定是天生的”。第八段首句对made一词进行了阐释:成为一位好的领导者是一种后天学习的行为(learned behavior)。接下来该段又列举了多种后天学习的方法:参加课程和研讨会,阅读书籍等。[C]项中席翰的一番话是对标题内容的论述:我们都有成为好的老板的内在品质,关键是要(后天)挖掘它。其中innate traits与标题中的born相对应。

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  核心词汇与超纲词汇

  (1)mercurial(a.)水银的;活泼的,易变的~ situation(易变的形势)

  (2)top-notch拔尖的,一流的,顶好的~performance一流的表演

  (3)inclusive(a.)包含的,包括的;包容广阔的,范围广泛的,如~ strategies and broad vision广泛的策略和远大的视野

  (4)altruism(n.)利他主义;altru-相当于前缀alter-,表示“其他”,如alternative其他选择,替代物

  (5)mission(n.)使命;使团,代表团

  (6)at home with 精通,熟悉,如:He is at home with Spanish(他精通西班牙语)

  (7)gun shy (马、猎狗)怕枪[炮]的;风声鹤唳的,提心吊胆的

  (8)touch(n.)作风,风格,手法,如professional ~专业手法

  (9)natural(a.)自然的,天然的;(n.)有天赋的人,擅长做某事的人

  (10)top flight 一流的,名列前矛的,领先的

  全文翻译

  你是否曾经想过一个好老板到底好在什么地方。诚然,这个问题的答案是因人而异的,因为一个人对优秀雇主的看法和其他人不同。然而,很多特点、态度和能力却是所有的好老板共有的。而且,越小的公司对于坚实的领导技能的要求就越突出。

  马里兰大学詹姆士·麦奎格·波恩斯领导艺术管理学院领导教育课程的负责人罗布·席翰说,“在任何组织中做一个好老板都很重要,当企业规模较小时,你真地有机会来决定整个公司的风格”。

  记住好的领导能力对于企业的重要性,同时考虑以下列出的技能、策略和品质:

  1. 要包容广阔

  在较小范围内的运作中,最关键是要让每个人都觉得自己是团队平等而投入的成员。一个好的雇主肯定会公正地对待每一位雇员,不仅在新酬和其他形式的报酬方面如此,而且在雇员如何参与公司的日常职能方面也如此。鼓励雇员的回馈意见、创新与创意,这样他们会觉得自己真正地参与到企业中。

  席翰说:“你需要创造一种诚实、信任和尊敬的环境,绝对确保每一个人都得到公正的待遇,无论他们之间的差异有多大”。

  2. 使命而不是金钱

  很少有几家企业的运营纯粹是为了利他,但是那并不表示牟利就是首要的哲学和实用的目标。实际上,有效率的老板会建立起真正的企业使命。使命如何形成既取决于企业也取决于老板设定的最重要的目标。

  比如,一位餐馆老板可能推出午间快餐服务作为服务忙碌的商业团体的一种方式。同样,医疗器材装备公司则强调它的产品如何改善顾客的健康状况。明确的使命(职责)不仅有利于激发雇员的积极性,而且在他们的工作中注入了一种重要感。

  3. 除了恐惧本身之外,没有什么可恐惧的。

  我们许多人曾经遇到过这样的老板,他们擅长于在台历旁放上一把刀,谁犯一个错误,就应很自然地把脑袋放在刀刃下。相反,有效率的老板鼓励他或她的员工不要提心吊胆地工作:一时的混乱是通向良好的工作表现的“必经之路”。

  席翰说:“这需要一种鼓励学习而非害怕犯错的心理。尝试新的、不同的事物,但是必须清楚如果事情没有得到解决,也不必大发雷霆。我在大学时是个游泳选手。当我想象着有只鲨鱼在追我时,我游得很快;当我想象着在参加奥林匹克赛时,游得也一样快。问题在于你想要集中于什么。”

  4. 这也是他们的事业。

  不要忘记为你工作的人在指望着你能帮助他们开拓和发展自己的事业。正如我所说的,不完全是为了钱,而是要让你的雇员明白如何为自己改善和创造有意义的事业。

  如果一名雇员的目标是有一天成为经理或经营自己公司。帮助它实现那个目标。告诉他们为了实现最终计划而需要努力培养的特点。

  5. 后天制造,不一定要天生就是。

  做一名好老板最后要注意的方面是:成为一位有效率的领导者很大程度上是一种后天学习的行为。当然,过去总是有而且将来还会有一些似乎在领导和激发动力方面有着完美技能的老板。但对于有领导才能的人来说,很多一流的雇主是通过参加管理课程和研讨会,阅读有关高效率领导的书籍而成长起来的,当然同样重要的是明白一个好的雇主自然会吸引一流的雇员的道理。

  席翰说:“人们肯定能发挥好的领导才能。在某种程度上,我们都有成为好的老板的内在品质。你真正需要做的是尽可能将它们发挥到极至”。

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