日期:03-01| http://www.59wj.com |模拟试题|人气:623


  .  .












  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about preparing in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Archaeological study covers an extremely long span of time and a great variety of subjects. The earliest subjects of archaeological study date from the origins of humanity. These include fossil remains believed to be of human ancestors who lived 3.5 million to 4.5 million years ago. The earliest archaeological sites include those at Hadar, Ethiopia; Laetoli, Tanzania; East Turkana, Kenya; and elsewhere in East Africa. These sites contain evidence of the first appearance of bipedal (upright-walking, apelike early humans).41. ___________

  The first physically modern humans, Homo sapiens, appeared in tropical Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago—dates determined by molecular biologists and archaeologists working together. Dozens of archaeological sites throughout Asia and Europe show how people migrated from Africa and settled in these two continents during the last Ice Age (100,000 to 15,000 years ago). 42. ___________

  Archaeologists have documented that the development of agriculture took place about 10,000 years ago. Early domestication—the planting and harvesting of plants and the breeding and herding of animals—is evident in such places as the ancient settlement of Jericho in Jordan and in Tehuacán Valley in Mexico. Archaeology plays a major role in the study of early civilizations, such as those of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, who built the city of Ur, and the ancient Egyptians, who are famous for the pyramids near the city of Giza and the royal sepulchres (tombs) of the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. 43. ___________

  Archaeological research spans the entire development of phenomena that are unique to humans. For instance, archaeology tells the story of when people learned to bury their dead and developed beliefs in an afterlife. Sites containing signs of the first simple but purposeful burials in graves date to as early as 40,000 years ago in Europe and Southwest Asia. By the time people lived in civilizations, burials and funeral ceremonies had become extremely important and elaborate rituals. 44. ___________

  Archaeology also examines more recent historical periods. Some archaeologists work with historians to study American colonial life, for example. They have learned such diverse information as how the earliest colonial settlers in Jamestown, Virginia, traded glass beads for food with native Algonquian peoples; how the lives of slaves on plantations reflected their roots in Africa; and how the first major cities in the United States developed. 45. ___________

  [A] For example, the Moche lords of Sipán in coastal Peru were buried in about AD 400 in fine cotton dress and with exquisite ornaments of bead, gold, and silver. Few burials rival their lavish sepulchres. Being able to trace the development of such rituals over thousands of years has added to our understanding of the development of human intellect and spirit.

  [B] By 40,000 years ago people could be found hunting and gathering food across most of the regions of Africa. Populations in different regions employed various technological developments in adapting to their different environments and climates.

  [C] Archaeological studies have also provided much information about the people who first arrived in the Americas over 12,000 years ago.

  [D] The first fossil records of vascular plants—that is, land plants with tissue that carries food—appeared in the Silurian period. They were simple plants that had not developed separate stems and leaves.

  [E] Laetoli even reveals footprints of humans from 3.6 million years ago. Some sites also contain evidence of the earliest use of simple tools. Archaeologists have also recorded how primitive forms of humans spread out of Africa into Asia about 1.8 million years ago, then into Europe about 900,000 years ago.

  [F] One research project involves the study of garbage in present-day cities across the United States. This garbage is the modern equivalent of the remains found in the archaeological record. In the future, archaeologists will continue to move into new realms of study.

  [G] Other sites that represent great human achievement are as varied as the cliff dwellings of the ancient Anasazi (a group of early Native Americans of North America) at Mesa Verde, Colorado; the Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the Andes Mountains of Peru; and the mysterious, massive stone portrait heads of remote Easter Island in the Pacific.


  41.E 42.C 43.G 44.A 45.F



  [A] 比如,西潘地区莫切人的贵族们约在公元400年被埋葬,身着优质的棉质礼服,佩带着精致的珠子和金银装饰。很少有能与他们坟墓的华丽相媲美的。能够追溯这些仪式几千年的发展有助于我们理解人类智力和精神的发展。

  [B] 到40万年前可以发现人们在非洲大部分地区狩猎和采集食物。不同地区的居民利用各种技术的发展来适应各自所处的不同环境与气候。

  [C] 考古研究也提供了关于12万年前首先到达美洲的人类的许多信息。

  [D] 最早的导管植物(即带有运载食物组织的陆地植物)的化石记录出现在志留纪时代。它们是没有形成独立的茎和叶的简单植物。

  [E] 利特里甚至展现了360万年前的人类的足迹。一些遗址也包含了最早使用的简单工具的证据。考古学家们还记录了原始人类如何在约180万年前从非洲扩展到亚洲,然后在约90万年前进入欧洲的。

  [F] 一个研究项目涉及对全美国现代城市垃圾的研究。这种垃圾相当于现代社会中发现的考古记录的遗骸。将来,考古学家会继续开拓新的研究领域。

  [G] 其他代表人类伟大成就的遗址各式各样,像科罗拉多州梅莎尔地的古代阿纳萨齐人(北美洲的一群早期土著美国人)的崖下住居;位于秘鲁安梯斯山脉高处的马丘比丘的印加城;偏远的太平洋复活节岛上神秘而巨大的石刻人头肖像。




  本题的解答方法有两种:顺读法和逆读法。先看顺读法,文章首句是全文的主题句:考古学研究的时间很长,涉及到的主题也多种多样。第二句出现了特征词earliest,并将第一段的中心内容缩小为:最早的考古研究主题是人类起源。接下来的内容主要举例说明这方面的研究,如:人类祖先的化石残骸、最早的考古遗址。根据段落一致性原则,除非出现表示转折的逻辑词,空格处的内容应围绕这一中心内容展开论述。从内容上判断,只有[E]项正确。该项第一、二句提到人类足迹和最早的工具的使用,依然属于对于人类起源研究的范畴。此外,该项也出现了原词Laetoli的复现以及第二句some sites contain evidence of the earliest…与原文中的These sites contain evidence of the first…结构上的呼应。逻辑词also表明空格处填入的内容和上文是并列逻辑关系。[C]、[D]项出现了同义词的复现,即first对应原文中的earliest,[G]项复现了原词sites,但[C]项中的“到达美洲的人口”,[D]项中“导管植物”(vascular plants),[G]项中的“人类的伟大成就”显然都与空白处的上文无法衔接。


  42.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:句际关系+特征词的呼应


  43.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:上下文的衔接+词语的复现

  本题空格出现在三段末。该段内容分两个层次,第一、二句为一个意群,讲述考古学在记载农业发展方面的意义。第三句则讲述了考古学在人类早期文明研究方面的重要作用。第三句是个长句,其主干结构是Archaeology plays a major role in the study of early civilizations, such as those of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, who… and the ancient Egyptians, who…。该句举例说明了人类早期文明:苏美尔人修建了乌尔城,而古埃及人以吉萨城附近的金字塔和西比斯帝王谷的皇家陵墓闻名。因此空格处填入的内容要么与上面两个层次的内容呈并列关系,论述考古学其他方面的作用。要么承接最近的上文即第三句,继续论述有关人类文明方面的内容。[A]项出现了表例证关系的逻辑词for example,但后面的内容却是关于奢华的埋葬仪式。这无法与上文中的乌尔城、皇家陵墓并列。[C]项提到考古研究记载了人类到达美洲的信息,但该内容与上文的人类文明也无法并列。只有[G]项继续列举人类文明的表现:科罗拉多州梅莎尔地的古代阿纳萨齐人的崖下住居;位于秘鲁安梯斯山脉高处的马丘比丘的印加城;偏远的太平洋复活节岛上神秘而巨大的石刻人头肖像。该项首句中human achievement与上文(human)civilization属于同义词复现。

  44.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落结构+词语的复现突出主题

  本题空格出现在四段末。该段落的结构比较清晰,首句为主题句:考古研究跨越了人类独有现象的整个发展阶段。第二句中逻辑词for instance表明下文举例说明首句论点。该例子中出现的大量相关语义的词汇bury,dead,afterlife,burials,graves,funeral使主题句中的“人类独有现象”明确为“埋葬仪式”。符合该段主题内容的只有[A]项。该项以逻辑词for example开始,通过“西潘地区莫切人贵族们的奢华的埋葬仪式”这一例子说明了上文中提到的论点“埋葬过程和葬礼仪式变得极其重要而且成为了繁文褥节”。

  45.[精解] 本题考查的知识点是:段落结构

  本题空格出现在五段末。该段和第四段结构相似。段首为主题句:考古学也研究了更近的历史时期。第二句以逻辑词for instance为标志,举出“考古学家对美国殖民生活的研究”的例子来论证主题。而接下来的内容则具体论述这种研究的内容:早期殖民者用玻璃珠子与土著民族交换食物;种植园上奴隶的生活反映出他们的起源;美国的第一批主要城市的发展。因此空格处的内容要么与上文呈并列关系,共同论证段落主旨;要么承接上文,继续论述美国的殖民生活。[F]项第一、二句提到,一个研究项目涉及对全美国现代城市垃圾的研究。这种现代垃圾相当于考古记录中发现的遗骸。其中出现的present-day和archaeological record与原文中的more recent和Archaeology相呼应。因此暗示这个选项的内容是关于“更近的历史时期”的考古研究。








        www.59wj.com 如果觉得《2017教育部考试中心英语模拟试题(新题型10)》模拟试题,kaoyan不错,可以推荐给好友哦。
本文Tags: 考研 - 考研英语 - 模拟试题,kaoyan,