2017年考研英语二模拟试题及答案详解(二)

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2017年考研英语二模拟试题及答案详解(二)

  

  

  2010年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语二

  模拟试卷二

  PartⅠClose test

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each numbered blank, there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET with a single line through the center. (10points)

  In the late 1960’s, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointing 1 that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot 2 。

  Skyscrapers are also enormous 3 , and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition 4 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the 5 daily demand for electricity by 120,000 kilowatts—enough to 6 the entire city of Albany for a day. Glass-walled skyscraper can be especially 7 . The heat loss (or gain) through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times 8 through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain 9 heating and air-conditioning equipment, 10 of skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses 11 with silver or gold mirror films that reduce 12 as well as heat gain. However, 13 skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and 14 neighboring buildings. Skyscrapers put severe pressure on a city’s sanitation 15 , too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2. 25 million gallons of raw sewage each year—as 16 as a city the size of Stamford, Connecticut, which has a 17 of more than 109,000. Skyscrapers also 18 with television reception, block bird flyways, and obstruct air traffic。

  Still, people 19 to build skyscrapers for all the reasons that they have always built them—personal ambition and the 20 of owners to have the largest possible amount of rentable space。

  1. A. at B. to C. out D. towards

  2. A. power B. capacities C. potentials D. capabilities

  3. A. savers B. consumers C. losers D. spenders

  4. A. of B. in C. to D. at

  5. A. point B. top C. summit D. peak

  6. A. distribute B. give C. supply D. donate

  7. A. thrifty B. economic C. prosperous D. wasteful

  8. A. that B. those C. which D. when

  9. A. to B. between C. on D. both

  10. A. founders B. consumers C. builders D. suppliers

  11. A. coated B. filled C. powdered D. stained

  12. A. brightness B. light C. glare D. gaze

  13. A. glass-walled B. plastic-walled C. concrete-walled D. mirror-walled

  14. A. affect B. assist C. protect D. benefit

  15. A. decorations B. utensils C. facilities D. appliances

  16. A. more B. much C. few D. little

  17. A. population B. People C. Mankind D. race

  18. A. intervene B. interfere C. interrupt D. obstacle

  19. A. stop B. Pause C. Continue D. terminate

  20. A. wish B. desire C. secret D. promise

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  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  SectionA

  Directions: There are 4 passages in this part .Each of the passages is followed by 5 questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are 4 choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answer on the ANSWER SHEET。(40points)

  Passage One

  While popular in the U. S., the April Fool’s Day tradition is even more prevalent in European countries, such as France and Great Britain. Although the roots of the traditional tricking are unclear, the French and the British both have claims on the origin of the celebration。

  One theory holds that the first April Fool’s Day was on April 1 of the year when King of France instituted the new calendar. This new system placed the day that had formerly been the first day of a new year on April 1. Many people were reluctant to adjust to the new calendar and continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on what had become the first day of April. Thus, they became the first April Fools。

  An English story about the day, however, holds that it began sometime during the 1200s. At the time, King John of England was in the habit of making a road out of nearly every path he walked regularly. The citizens of one particular farm village were aware of this. To avoid having their green meadows and pastures disturbed with one of the king’s roads, they built a fence that prevented the king from walking through their countryside. The king sent a group of messengers to inform that they must remove the barrier. Upon hearing that the King was planning to do this, however, the villagers developed a plan of their own. When the messengers arrived, they found what appeared to be a community of lunatics, with people behaving in a bizarre manner, throwing things and running around wildly. The messengers, alarmed at what they had found, reported to King John that these people were so mad as to be beyond punishment. So, the villagers saved their farmland by tricking the King. In Great Britain, tradition only allows April Fool’s tricks from midnight to moon on April 1. Those who try to play tricks in the afternoon become the fools themselves。

  21. The word “prevalent” in the first sentence is nearest in meaning to “”。

  A. unusual B. traditional

  C. prevailing D. prosperous

  22. As indicated in the passage, the first French April Fools were 。

  A. people who supported the new calendar

  B. people who opposed the new calendar

  C. King of France

  D. all the people in France

  23. In the French story, some people were regarded as the first April Fools because 。

  A. they celebrated New Year’s Day on Jan. 1st of the old calendar

  B. they celebrated New Year’s Day on April 1st of the old calendar

  C. they celebrated April Fool’s Day on Jan. 1st of the old calendar

  D. they celebrated April Fool’s Day on April 1st of the old calendar

  24. The villagers in the English story can be best described as 。

  A. crazy B. brave

  C. intelligent D. hard-working

  25. The readers can learn from the last paragraph that the villagers built a fence 。

  A. to show the king the way to their farmland

  B. because their farmland had been ruined by their king

  C. because their king often walked on their farmland

  D. to prevent their king from turning their farmland into roads

  Passage Two

  When families gather for Christmas dinner, some will stick to formal traditions dating back to Grandma’s generation. Their tables will be set with the good dishes and silver, and the dress code will be Sunday-best。

  But in many other homes, this china-and-silver elegance has given way to a stoneware-and-stainless informality, with dresses assuming an equally casual-Friday look. For hosts and guests, the change means greater simplicity and comfort. For makers of fine china in Britain, it spells economic hard times。

  Last week Royal Doulton, the largest employer in Stoke-on-Trent, announced that it is eliminating 1,000 jobs—one—fifth of its total workforce. That brings to more than 4,000 the number of positions lost in 18 months in the pottery (陶瓷) region. Wedgwood and other pottery factories made cuts earlier。

  Although a strong pound and weak markets in Asia play a role in the downsizing, the layoffs in Stoke have their roots in earthshaking social shifts. A spokesman for Royal Doulton admitted that the company “has been somewhat slow in catching up with the trend” toward casual dining. Families eat together less often, he explained, and more people eat alone, either because they are single or they eat in front of television。

  Even dinner parties, if they happen at all, have gone casual. In a time of long work hours and demanding family schedules, busy hosts insist, rightly, that it’s better to share a takeout pizza on paper plates in the family room than to wait for the perfect moment or a “real” dinner party. Too often, the perfect moment never comes. Iron a fine-patterned tablecloth? Forget it. Polish the silver? Who has time?

  Yet the loss of formality has its down side. The fine points of etiquette (礼节) that children might once have learned at the table by observation or instruction from parents and grandparents (“Chew with your mouth closed” “Keep your elbows off the table”) must be picked up elsewhere. Some companies now offer etiquette seminars for employees who may be competent professionally but clueless socially。

  26. The trend toward casual dining has resulted in

  A. bankruptcy of fine china manufacturers。

  B. shrinking of the pottery industry。

  C. restructuring of large enterprises。

  D. economic recession in Great Britain。

  27. Which of the following may be the best reason for casual dining?

  A. Family members need more time to relax。

  B. Busy schedules leave people no time for formality。

  C. People want to practice economy in times of scarcity。

  D. Young people won’t follow the etiquette of the older generation。

  28. It can be learned from the passage that Royal Doulton is

  A. a retailer of stainless steel tableware。

  B. a dealer in stoneware。

  C. a pottery chain store。

  D. a producer of fine china。

  29. The main cause of the layoffs in the pottery industry is

  A. the increased value of the pound。

  B. the economic recession in Asia。

  C. the change in people’s way of life。

  D. the fierce competition at home and abroad。

  30. Refined table manners, though less popular than before in current social life,

  A. are still a must on certain occasions。

  B. are bound to return sooner or later。

  C. are still being taught by parents at home。

  D. can help improve personal relationships。

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  Passage Three

  On average, American kids aged 3 to 12 spent 29 hours a week in school, eight hours more than they did in 1981. They also did more household work and participated in more of such organized activities as soccer and ballet. Involvement in sports, in particular, rose almost 50% from 1981 to 1997: boys now spend an average of four hours a week playing sports; girls log half that time. All in all, however, children’s leisure time dropped from 40% of the day in 1981 to 25%。

  “Children are affected by the same time crunch that affects their parents,” says Sandra Hofferth, who headed the recent study of children’s timetable. A chief reason, she says, is that more mothers are working outside the home. (Nevertheless, children in both double-income and “male breadwinner” households spent comparable amounts of time interacting with their parents, 19 hours and 22 hours respectively. In contrast, children spent only 9 hours with their single mothers。)

  All work and no play could make for some very messed-up kids. “Play is the most powerful way a child explores the world and learns about himself,” says T. Berry Brazelton, professor at Harvard Medical School. Unstructured play encourages independent thinking and allows the young to negotiate their relationships with their peers, but kids aged 3 to 12 spent only 12 hours a week engaged in it。

  The children sampled spent a quarter of their rapidly decreasing “free time” watching television. But that, believe it or not, was one of the findings parents might regard as good news. If they’re spending less time in front of the TV set, however, kids aren’t replacing it with reading. Despite efforts to get kids more interested in books, the children spent just over an hour a week reading. Let’s face it, who’s got the time?

  31. By mentioning “the same time crunch” (Para. 2) Sandra Hofferth means

  A. children have little time to play with their parents。

  B. children are not taken good care of by their working parents。

  C. both parents and children suffer from lack of leisure time。

  D. both parents and children have trouble managing their time。

  32. According to the author, the reason given by Sandra Hofferth for the time crunch is

  A. quite convincing。

  B. partially true。

  C. totally groundless。

  D. rather confusing。

  33. According to the author a child develops better if

  A. he has plenty of time reading and studying。

  B. he is left to play with his peers in his own way。

  C. he has more time participating in school activities。

  D. he is free to interact with his working parents。

  34. The author is concerned about the fact that American kids

  A. are engaged in more and more structured activities。

  B. are increasingly neglected by their working mothers。

  C. are spending more and more time watching TV。

  D. are involved less and less in household work。

  35. We can infer from the passage that

  A. extracurricular activities promote children’s intelligence。

  B. most children will turn to reading with TV sets switched off。

  C. efforts to get kids interested in reading have been fruitful。

  D. most parents believe reading to be beneficial to children。

  Passage Four

  I needed to get some money, so, after Christmas, I took a job in the clothes department at Graham’s for the first fortnight of the January sale. I can’t say that I enjoyed it, but it was an experience I’ll never forget。

  I could never understand why there were many things in the sales; where did they come from? Now I know the secret! Firstly, there is the special winter sack and the stock that people buy all the year round; some of these things are slightly reduced. Secondly, there are the summer clothes they couldn’t sell last year; these are heavily reduced to clear them. Thirdly, there are cheap clothes bought in specially for the sales; these are put at high prices ten days before the sale begins and then are reduced by 60% in the sale. Clever! Lastly, they buy in “seconds”( clothes not in perfect condition) for the sale and they are sold very cheaply。

  When I arrived half an hour before opening on the first day of the sale, there were already queues around three sides of the building. This made me very nervous。

  When the big moment arrived to open the doors, the security guards, looking less confident than usual, came up to them, keys in hand. The moment they had unlocked the doors, they hid behind the doors for protection as the noisy crowd crowded in. I couldn’t believe my eyes: this wasn’t shopping, it was a battlefield. One poor lady couldn’t keep her feet and was knocked over by people pushing from behind。

  Clothes were flying in all directions as people searched for the sizes, colors and styles they wanted. Quarrels broke out. Mothers were using their small children to craw through people’s legs and get hold of things they couldn’t get near themselves。

  Within minutes I had half a dozen people pushing under my nose, each wanting to be the first served. Where had the famous queue gone? The whole day continued like that, but I kept my temper ! I was taking money hand over fist and began to realize why, twice a year, Graham’s is happy to turn the expensive store into a battlefield like this。

  In the sale fever, people were spending money like water without thinking whether they needed what they were buying. As long as it was bargain it was OK。

  You won’t believe this, but as soon as I got home I crashed out for four hours. Then I had dinner and went back to bed, feeling the sound of the alarm which would tell me to get ready for the second day of the sale。

  36. What kind of clothes is likely to be sold 5% cheaper?

  A. Last summer’s clothes。

  B. Clothes not in perfect condition。

  C. Clothes bought in specially for the sales。

  D. Clothes for winter。

  37. Which of the following statements is true?

  A. The customers gave up the manners, which the English are famous for。

  B. The customers kept their temper while looking for clothes they wanted。

  C. Small children enjoyed crawling through people’s legs。

  D. The security guards were fearless of the crowd。

  38. In the author’s opinion, why is Graham’s happy to make the expensive store into a “battlefield”?

  A. There are too many clothes and they want to clear them in the sales。

  B. They are eager to show that they are clever at doing business。

  C. They can take the chance to raise the prices of all their clothes。

  D. They want to make more money by having sales。

  39. The expression “crashed out ” means 。

  A. chatted with friends B. slept soundly

  C. broke down D. dined out

  40. What would be the best title for the passage?

  A. The Best Bargain B. Hunting for a Job

  C. Sale Fever D. A Pleasant Fortnight

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  SectionB

  Directions: Reading the following text and answer questions by finding a subtitle for each of the marked parts or paragraphs. There are two extra items in the subtitle. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET . (10 points)

  A. The consequence of losing bones

  B. A better lab than on earth

  C. Two different cases

  D. Multiple effects form weightlessness

  E. How to overcome weightlessness

  F. Factors that are not so sure

  During weightlessness, the forces within the body undergo dramatic change. Because the spine is no longer compressed, people grow taller. The lungs, heart and other organs within the chest have no weight, and as a result, the rib cage and chest relax and expand. Similarly, the weights of the liver, kidneys, stomach and bowels disappear. One astronaut said after his flight: “You feel your guts floating up. I found myself tightening my belly, sort of pushing things back。”

  41.

  Meanwhile muscles and bones come to be used in different ways. Our muscles are designed to support us when stand or sit upright and to move body parts. But in space, muscles used for support on the ground are no longer needed for that purpose; moreover, the muscles used for movement around a capsule differ from those used for walking down a hall. Consequently, some muscles rapidly weaken. This doesn’t present a problem to space travelers as long as they perform only light work. But preventing the loss of muscle tissue required for heavy work during space walks and preserving muscle for safe return to Earth are the subject of many current experiments。

  Studies have shown that astronauts lose bone mass from the lower spine, hips and upper leg at a rate of about 1 percent per month for the entire duration of their time in space. Some sites, such as the heel, lose calcium faster than others. Studies of animals taken into space suggest that bone formation also declines。

  42.

  Needless to say, these data are indeed cause for concern. During space flight, the loss of bone elevates calcium levels in the body, potentially causing kidney stones and calcium crystals to form in other tissues. Back on the ground, the loss of bone calcium stops within one month, but scientists do not yet know whether the bone recovers completely: too few people have flown in space for long periods. Some bone loss may be permanent, in which case ex-astronauts will always be more prone to broken bones。

  43.

  These questions mirror those in our understanding of how the body works here on Earth. For example, elderly women are prone to a loss of bone mass. Scientists understand that many different factors can be involved in this loss, but they do not yet know how the factors act and interact; this makes it difficult to develop an appropriate treatment. So it is with bone loss in space, where the right prescription still awaits discovery。

  44.

  Many other body systems are affected directly and indirectly. One example is the lung. Scientists have studied the lung in space and learned much they could not have learned in laboratories on earth. On the ground the top and bottom parts of the lung have different patterns of air flow and blood flow. But are these patterns the result only of gravity, or also of the nature of the lung itself? Only recently have studies in space provided clear evidence for the latter. Even in the absence of gravity, different parts of the lung have different levels of air flow and blood flow。

  45.

  Not everything that affects the body during space flight is related solely to weightlessness. Also affected, for example, are the immune system and the multiple systems responsible for the amount and quality of sleep(light levels and work schedules disrupt the body’s normal rhythms). Looking out the spacecraft window just before going to sleep(an action difficult to resist, considering the view) can let enough bright light into the eye to trigger just the wrong brain response, leading to poor sleep. As time goes on, the sleep debt accumulates。

  For long space voyages, travelers must also face being confined in a tight volume, unable to escape, isolated from the normal life of Earth, living with a small, fixed group of companions who often come from different cultures. These challenges can lead to anxiety, depression, crew tension and other social issues, which affect astronauts just as much as weightlessness—perhaps even more. Because these factors operate at the same time the body is adapting to other environmental changes, it may not be clear which physiological changes result from which factors. Much work rem ains to be done。

  PartⅢ Translation

  Directions: Translate the following passage into Chinese and put your translation on the ANSWER SHEET。(15points)

  The system of higher education in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institutions: the university, which may contain: A. several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s (four-year) degree and B. one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s degree to obtain a master or a doctoral degree; the four-year undergraduate institution—the college—most of which are not part of a university; the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from six months to four years in duration and learn a wide variety of technical skills, from hair styling through business accounting to computer programming; and the two-year,or community college, from which students may enter many professions or may transfer to four-year colleges or universities。

  Any of these institutions, in any category, might be either public or private, depending on the source of its funding. There is no clear or inevitable distinction in terms of quality of education offered between the institutions which are publicly or privately funded;however, this is not to say that all institutions enjoy equal prestige nor that there are no material differences among them。

  PartⅣ Writing

  Section A

  Directions:假如你是湖北师范大学的校长王宏,你要给你校教师黄易写一封推荐信,具体内容如下:黄易自1995-1999年在你校英语系学习,在校学习期间成绩优秀并积极参加社会活动,爱好文学和艺术。毕业后留校任教至今,深得学生好评。(10points)

  Section B

  Directions: You are asked to write a composition according to the outline givenbelow. Your composition should be not less than 120 words. You should write it clearly. (15points)

  (1) 事业的成功与否离不开决心。

  (2) 举例说明成功的关键在于是否有恒心。

  (3) 成功的另一因素——机遇同样不可忽视。

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  2010年硕士研究生考试英语二模拟试卷二答案详解

  PartⅠClose test

  1. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试point的短语搭配。本句译文:生态学家指出,城市中的一群高层建筑经常使公共交通和停车场不堪重负。C正确。point sth.out意为“指出”;point at (twoards) sb./sth.意为“指向,瞄准”;point to意为“指明(方向/位置),显示”。

  2. [答案]B

  [解析]本题测试近义词辨析。四个选项都表示“能力,能”。capacity意为“(无生命事物的)承受、容纳、装载能力;(人的)潜在学习和理解力”;power意为“体能、智力或权力,尤其指控制他人的能力和权力”;potential意为“潜力,潜能”;capability意为“能力,才能,做某事的资格”,其复数形式表示“潜力,发展前途”。

  3. [答案]B

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。本句译文:摩天大厦也是巨大的电力消费者和浪费者。并列连词and表示前后两词的意思相近。consumer意为“消费者,耗费者”;saver意为“救助者,俭省的人,节省(时间、力量等)的工具”;loser意为“失败者,遗失者”;spender意为“花钱者”。

  4. [答案]A

  [解析]本题测试惯用搭配。本句译文:在近一年中,纽约市增加的1700百万平方英尺高层办公空间使每天对电的高峰需求量增长了12万千瓦——足以供整个Albany市一天的所需。addition意为“增加物”,与介词of连接,表示“……的增加”。to用在短语in addition to中,意为“再加上……,除了……”。

  5. [答案]D

  [解析]本题测试惯用搭配。四个选项都表示“点,顶点”。peak意为“(升降不定的数字记录)最高点”;point意为“点,阶段,地步,关键时刻”;top意为“地位程度最高的、最大的”;summit意为“顶点,最高层会议”。

  6. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试词义搭配。supply意为“供应(所需要,所要求的)”;distribute意为“分配,散发”;give意为“给予”,为一般词汇,一般接双宾语;donate意为“捐赠”。

  7. [答案]D

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。相关译文:“玻璃外墙的摩天大楼尤其浪费。一块半寸厚的平面玻璃墙的散热性(需热量)是充满绝缘板的典型砖瓦墙体的10倍之多。”前句提到摩天大楼耗电量大得惊人,后面用especially提出更甚之的例子,所以只有wasteful符合句意方向。thriftyr意为“节俭的”;economic意为“经济的,节省的”;prosperous意为“繁荣”。

  8. [答案]A

  [解析]本题测试结构搭配。that作代词,指代前面的the heat loss。those应用来指代复数名词。

  9. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试惯用搭配。本句译文:为减少对供热和空调设备的压力,摩天大厦的建筑者开始使用双层玻璃板,或使用贴着一层银或金色薄膜的反光玻璃,这种玻璃能够减少反光对眼睛的刺激和墙面的聚热性。分析上文:因为玻璃墙体的摩天大厦散热很快,并且不易供热,所以需减轻对供热和空调设备的压力。只有C在搭配和词义上合适,lessen the strain on意为“减轻对……的压力/负担”。

  10. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。builder意为“建筑者”;founder意为“创始人”;consumer意为“消费者”;supplier意为“供应商”。

  11. [答案]A

  [解析]本题测试短语辨析。films意为“胶片,薄膜”。be coated with意为“被覆盖一层……”;be filled with意为“充满了”;be powdered with意为“覆盖着(粉状的东西)”;be stained with意为“沾着(不易去除的污迹)”。

  12. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试词义搭配。glare意为“刺眼,耀眼的光”;brightness意为“光亮,光明”;light意为“光亮,目线”;gaze意为“注视,凝视”。

  13. [答案]D

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。本句译文:然而,镜体墙面的摩天大楼使周围空气的温度升高,从而影响周边建筑物。mirror-walled是上一句中reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films的重复,用however转引出:上一句提及的解决办法实际上存在着环境问题。glass-walled不切题;plastic-walled和concrete-walled为本文未涉及的无关选项。

  14. [答案]A

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。and表示前后的并列,:however已经引出弊端——使周围温度升高,所以只有A正确。affect意为“影响”;assist意为“帮助”;protect意为“保护”;benefit意为“有利于”。

  15. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试近义词辨析。本句译文:摩天大楼也给城市的卫生设施带来了巨大的压力。如果全部的空间都被利用上的话,仅纽约市世贸中心的两座塔楼每年要产生225万加仑的污水——相当于Connecticut州的Stamford,一座人口超过10. 9万人的城市,一年中所排放的污水总量。facilities指较大型的设备;decorations意为“装饰品”;utensils意为“特殊用途的设备(尤其指炊具)”;appliances指较小的器具。

  16. [答案]B

  [解析]本题测试词义搭配。根据上文得知,“as…as”表示数量大,故选much。

  17. [答案]A

  [解析]本题测试词义搭配。population意为“人口”;people意为“人,人民,民族”;mankind意为“人类”;race意为“种族”。

  18. [答案]B

  [解析]本题测试近义词辨析。本句译文:摩天大楼还干扰电视信号的接收、阻碍鸟儿飞行和航空运输。表示对电波、信号的干扰最常用interfere。intervene意为“介入,干涉”;interrupt sb.意为“打断某人说话/做事”;obstacle(+to)意为“妨碍”。

  19. [答案]C

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。译文:人们仍继续建筑摩天大楼,因为支持他们一直这样做的有种种原因——个人的野心以及楼主们迫切希望最大限度地拥有可租让空间。由副词still提示的线索及后文的语气判定continue“继续”正确。stop“停止”,pause“停顿”,terminate“终止”,均错。

  20. [答案]B

  [解析]本题测试逻辑性词义搭配。并列连词and列举不同原因,desire是与personal ambition表达的语气(急切)最搭配的词,强调“热切的期望”。wish意为“希望”。

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  Part Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  21. [答案]C

  [解析]词义推断题。首段第一句通过while一词对比美国和欧洲国家对愚人节的态度,由此可知C为正确答案。

  22. [答案]B

  [解析]事实细节题。由第二段 “This new system placed the day that had formerly been the first day of a new year on April 1. Many people were reluctant to adjust to the new calendar and continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on what had become the first day of April. Thus, they became the first April Fools. ”可知B为正确答案。

  23. [答案]A

  [解析]推理判断题。由第二段的第二句和第三句 “This new system placed the day that had formerly been the first day of a new year on April 1. Many people were reluctant to adjust to the new calendar and continued to celebrate New Year’s Day on what had become the first day of April. Thus, they became the first April Fools. ” 可知A正确答案。

  24. [答案]C

  [解析]观点态度题。村民们为了保护自己的土地,装疯骗过了国王的信使,这个故事说明村民们很有智慧,因此答案为C。

  25. [答案]D

  [解析]事实细节题。由最后一段“To avoid having their green meadows and pastures disturbed with one of the king’s roads, they built a fence that prevented the king from walking through their countryside. ” 可知D为正确答案。

  26. [答案]D

  [解析]细节题。根据原文第二段第一句:最近,在科学期刊《自然》杂志上发表的一篇研究文章指出,空气中的含铅废气的排放是造成格陵兰岛的雪中含铅量高的主要原因,这些废气都来自美国。“leading contributor”所指的就是来自美国的废气,因此美国便是格陵兰岛污染的“罪魁祸首”,可以得出D项答案。从后文可知,洁净条例对抑制、降低铅污染起到了至关重要的作用,所以A违背原意;Charles Boutron博士1991年发布的一项研究显示,北极雪中的铅含量正在逐年减少,所以B违背原意;从文中第五段可知,科学家们曾经以为,铅会在soil和snow中长时间滞留,文中还指出,关于铅在土壤中滞留的研究是发表在期刊Ambio上的,所以C违背原意。

  27. [答案]B

  [解析]细节题。根据第一段末句:自从美国实行空气洁净条例后,20年间,全世界的铅沉积都大大降低。理解mandate的意思,强制执行,同义转述,实行空气洁净条例便是立法通过,所以B正确。无铅汽油的使用是被提倡的,所以A违背原意;无铅汽油的使用是被立法通过,而不是禁止使用,所以C违背原意,D不够具体明确,应该是通过立法的途径,而不单单是简单的引入。

  28. [答案]D

  [解析]细节题。根据原文第三段第一句“…the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasolines…”可知,不同国家和地区的汽油中铅的含量不同;根据“thus enabled scientists to differentiate the lead sources.”可知,专家可以通过汽油中的铅含量来判断此种铅来自于何地。显然,就是利用判断汽油中铅含量的方法得出格陵兰岛的铅污染主要来自美国的结论。所以D正确。原文中没有提到要分析Nature和Ambio中报告给出的数据,所以A不对;原文没有提及观察北极不同区域铅的累积情况,所以B不对;对东北美土质进行监测的目的是测量土壤中铅的含量,见第四段“…that lead levels in soil…decreased markedly since…”,说明C也不对。

  29. [答案]A

  [解析]细节题。根据原文倒数第二段“The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected.”森林处理和重新分配铅污染的能力超出科学家的预料,同义转述是森林去除、净化铅污染的能力比科学家预计的要强,可知A正确。森林中的铅积累好处理,说明B与文中所述相反。原文没有提及铅沉积在美国的森林中广泛分布,所以C不对;文中没有提到哪层土更容易被污染,所以D也不对。

  30. [答案]C

  [解析]推论题。根据最后一段:尽管生态系统的某些环节对空气污染的改善反应迅速(respond rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollution,…),但这些研究成果不应该被当作对环境污染的许可。这说明,铅污染仍然应被重视,所以C正确。文中没有提到科学家们被森林污染所困扰,所以A不对;文中虽然举出了使用无铅汽油后铅污染减少,但并没有说铅污染已经解决,而且,“these findings should not be used as a license to pollute”,即暗指铅污染仍然应被重视,科学家们还能“feel relieved”,所以B不对;文中没有提到和污染斗争的方法手段问题,所以D也不对。

  31. [答案]B

  [解析]细节题。shrinking与文中提到的裁员相对应,而且“pottery industry”也是原文所限定的范围,所以B正确。文中只是说制瓷业将不景气,但并没有说会破产,所以A不对;文中提到restructuring的例子只是指制瓷厂的,并不是所有的公司都restructuring,所以C也不对;文中提到的不景气仅仅是指制瓷业,而不是整个英国,所以D也不对。

  32. [答案]B

  [解析]细节题。文章第五段第二句话捉出了非正式化的原因,就是因为long work hours and demanding family schedules。这与选项B中的Busy schedules相对应,所以正确。文中没有提到A项的原因;C项中的“in times of scarcity”不是“缺少时间”的意思,而是“物资匮乏的时代”,所以不对;文中只是提到现在的年轻人缺乏礼节,但没有指出是否是因为他们不愿意遵循过去的礼节,所以D不对。

  33. [答案]D

  [解析]归纳题。文章开头指出,制瓷业将萎缩,然后列举了Royal Doulton的例子,第三段最后一句还用了other pottery factories,说明该公司是一个瓷器公司。选项D中的fine china与上文所提到的精美相符,所以正确。A、C明显与文章的意思不符;文中指出,Wedgwood and other pottery factories made cuts earlier.这说明,Royal Doulton和Wedgwood and other pottery factories都是工厂,所以B项不对。

  34. [答案]C

  [解析]细节题。文章第二段指出,人们喜欢过简单、舒适的生活;第五段指出,人们没有时间去熨烫一块漂亮的桌布或者磨光银具。这说明,人们的生活方式发生了变化。所以C正确。A、B两项都是文中提到的原因,但文中用了although,说明这两个原因不是main reason;文中完全没有提到D。

  35. [答案]A

  [解析]细节题。文章倒数第二句话指出,礼节在某些地方是必需的。这说明A正确。文中没有提到传统是否会回归,所以B不对;文中倒数第二句话说的是这些礼节现在不能从家长那里得到了,说明C与文章的意思正好相反;文中并没有说明礼节是否能带来良好的人际关系,所以D不对。

  36. [答案]D

  [解析]事实细节题。由第二段 “Firstly, there is the special winter sack and the stock that people buy all the year round; some of these things are slightly reduced. ” 可知正确答案D。

  37. [答案]A

  [解析]事实细节题。可通过排除法,通过文章第四段和第五段排除B,C,D选项。

  38. [答案]D

  [解析]推理判断题。可由文章第六段推出正确选项为D。

  39. [答案]B

  [解析]词义猜测题。可由下文的 “… and went back to bed”推知,正确答案为B。

  40. [答案]C

  [解析]主旨大意题。通读全文可知文章在描述服装店热卖的情景,因此正确答案为C。

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  PartⅢ Translation

  [范文]

  美国的高等教育体系复杂。它包括四种学校。综合性大学,这类大学可能包括:A. 几所本科生攻读学士学位(四年)的学院。B. 一所或更多的研究生院,在这些研究生院,那些获得了学士学位的人可以继续从事专门研究,以便获得硕士或博士学位。四年制本科院校学院,其中的大部分不是综合性大学的分校。技术培训学校,在这些学校,中学毕业生可以选修学制六个月至四年的课程,能够学到许多专门技能,包括发型设计、商务会计以及计算机编程等。两年制或社区学校,学生从这些学校毕业后可以进入许多部门就业,或是转到四年制院校或综合性大学学习。

  任何这类学校,无论属于什么范畴,可能是公立的,也可能是私立的,这取决于其资金的来源。就教学质量而言,公共投资或私人投资的学校没有明显或必然的差别;然而,这并不是说所有学校都享有同样的声誉,也不是说所有学校都没有实质性的区别。

  PartⅣ Writing

  [范文]

  To Whom It May Concern,

  This is to certify that Mr. Huang Yi has been an excellent teacher of English in our college for the past four years.

  Mr. Huang was admitted in 1995 after an entrance examination into Foreign Language Department of Hubei Teacher’s College, where he stayed for four years, majoring in English. While at college, he was extremely successful in studies and took an active part in a number of social activities. He has a talent for literary and artistic work, and was on many occasions invited to give performances before large audiences, for which he enjoys great popularity.

  Upon his graduation with honors in 1999, he was engaged by his college as a teacher of English. While in our employ, Mr. Huang’s performances are rated satisfactory, and many of his colleagues and students often speak highly of his ability and teaching skills. He always proves himself hardworking and modest.

  It is my hope that the above information will help you know Mr. Huang. If any further information about his qualification is necessary, I’ll be glad to comply.

  Sincerely,

  Wang Hong

  President of Hubei Teacher’s College

  Section B

  [范文]

  Opportunity and Determination

  Everyone dreams of attaining success in his career. However, the way to success is not a smooth one. It is full of difficulties and obstacles. Whether one is able to gain success or not depends largely on the attitude he is to adopt towards difficulties or even failures. Faced with frustrations and setbacks, those who have a dogged determination can stick to their cause to the end so that they stand a chance of success. On the contrary, those whose determination is often weakened by difficulties can end up nowhere.

  Determination is the key to success. With a strong determination, one is able whatever hardships or dangers he may face. Take Sun Yat-sen for example. In spite of his failures, he continued to make unremitting efforts to pursue his objective and mortgaged his life to the revolutionary cause. As a result, he did not fail to live up to the expectations of Chinese people and eventually overthrew the Qing Dynasty.

  In addition to determination, opportunity is also indispensable to one’s success. Without opportunities, one, sometimes, can hardly display his talents, competence and abilities. Nor can he have his power into full play. But opportunities seem to favor those who have inflexible determination and resolute perseverance. Furthermore opportunities wait for no man. As the saying goes, “Opportunity knocks but once.” Therefore we must utilize every opportunity and not let it slip away.

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