2017年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析

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2017年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析

  2011全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语模拟试题

  Section I Use of English

  What impact can mobile phones have on their users' health? Many individuals are concerned about the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations,  the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more .  Indeed, a systematic review  by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, rounds up  of the use of text-messaging in the  of health care. These uses  three categories: efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by  text-messaging into treatment regimes.

  Using texting to  efficiency is not profound science, but big savings can be achieved. Several  carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders       the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, and the number of missed hospital appointments by 33-50%. If such schemes were  nationally, this would translate  annual savings of £256-364 million.

  Text messages can also be a good way to deliver public-health information, particularly to groups  are hard to reach by other means. Text messages have been used in India to     people about the World Health Organization's strategy to control lung disease. In Iraq, text messages were used to support a  to immunize nearly 5 million children      paralysis.

   , there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to  their medicine, or to encourage accordance with exercise regimes. However, Dr. Rifat notes that the evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally  , and more quantitative research is

  1. [A] so [B] even [C] despite [D] and

  2. [A] interesting [B] abundant [C] clear [D] reasonable

  3. [A] went [B] came [C] performed [D] turned

  4. [A] approaches [B] situations [C] problems [D] examples

  5. [A] reality [B] reorganization [C] delivery [D] discovery

  6. [A] fall into [B] sum up [C] associate with [D] subject to

  7. [A] cooperating [B] incorporating [C] adapting [D] adopting

  8. [A] rise [B] boost [C] produce [D] encourage

  9. [A] questions [B] incidents [C] cases [D] trials

  10. [A] reduces [B] degrades [C] deserves [D] drops

  11. [A] called upon [B] switched to [C] rolled out [D] went through

  12. [A] into [B] for [C] on [D] from

  13. [A] what [B] whose [C] which [D] who

  14. [A] ask [B] inform [C] adopt [D] contact

  15. [A] campaign [B] event [C] decision [D] communication

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B],[C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Prudent investors learned long ago that putting your eggs into lots of baskets reduces risk. Conservationists have now hit on a similar idea: a population of endangered animals will have a better chance of survival if it is divided into interconnected groups. The prospects of the species will be better because the chance that all the constituent subpopulations will die out at the same time is low. And, in the long term, it matters little if one or two groups do disappear, because immigrants from better-faring patches will eventually reestablish the species' old haunts.

  One endangered species divided in just this way is the world's rarest carnivore, the Ethiopian wolf, which lives high in the meadows of the Bale Mountains. Just 350 exist in three pockets of meadow connected by narrow' valleys in the Bale Mountains National Park, with a further 150 outside this area.

  Two of the main threats to the Ethiopian wolf come from diseases carried by domestic dogs. One of these, rabies, is of particular concern because it is epidemic in the dog population. At first blush, vaccinating the wolves against rabies seems a simple solution. It would be ambitious, because the prevailing thinking — that all individuals matter and therefore all outbreaks of disease should be completely halted — implies that a large proportion of wolves would need to be vaccinated.

  Dan Haydon, of the University of Glasgow, and his colleagues believe that conservation biologists should think differently. With the exception of humans, species are important but individuals are not. Some outbreaks of disease can be tolerated. In a paper published this week in Nature, they recast the mathematics of vaccination with this in mind.

  On epidemiologists' standard assumption that every individual counts, vaccination programmes are intended to prevent epidemics by ensuring that each infected animal, on average, passes the disease on to less than one healthy animal. This implies that around two-thirds of all the wolves would need to be vaccinated. A programme that sought to save a species rather than individuals would allow each infected wolf to pass the disease on to more than one healthy animal and hence require fewer vaccinations. Dr Haydon and his colleagues have calculated, using data from a rabies outbreak in 2003, that vaccinating between 10% and 25% would suffice, provided veterinarians gave jabs to those wolves living in the narrow valleys that connect the subpopulations.

  If the threat of rabies arose every five years, targeting all the wolves in the corridors would cut the risk of extinction over a 20-year period by fourfold. If this were backed up by vaccinating a mere 10% of the wolves in the three connected meadows, the chance of extinction would drop to less than one in 1,000. Saving a few seems to be an efficient way of protecting the many.

  21. By citing prudent investors' idea, the author wants to illustrate that___________.

  [A] conservationists got inspirations from it.

  [B] endangered animals can be protected in a similar way.

  [C] the prospects of some species depend on conservation.

  [D] the subpopulations will die without being put into different groups.

  22. The Ethiopian wolf___________.

  [A] is facing the risk of extinction as the rarest carnivore.

  [B] is separated into three groups to achieve survival.

  [C] lives in narrow valleys in the Bale Mountains.

  [D] has altogether 350 alive in the world.

  23. The idea that nearly all the wolves would need to be vaccinated___________..

  [A] is due to that rabies carried by dogs is epidemic.

  [B] is very easy to be realized by local medical administration.

  [C] is based on the thinking that every wolf is necessarily protected.

  [D] is supported by Dan Haydon of the University of Glasgow.

  24. From the last two paragraphs, we know that___________.

  [A] if each individual counts, one-third of wolves have to be vaccinated.

  [B] Dr. Haydon proved epidemiologists' standard assumption is right.

  [C] to vaccinate 10% to 25% of wolves living in the connected meadows is enough.

  [D] it takes 20 years to reduce risk of extinction if all the wolves are targeted.

  25. The main purpose of the text is to___________.

  [A] show the dangers Ethiopian wolves are facing with.

  [B] inform people of the prospects Ethiopian wolves.

  [C] teach how to divide Ethiopian wolves into groups.

  [D] tell how to protect Ethiopian wolves from rabies.

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  Text 2

  It is no longer just dirty blue-collar jobs in manufacturing that are being sucked offshore but also white-collar service jobs, which used to be considered safe from foreign competition. Telecoms charges have tumbled, allowing workers in far-flung locations to be connected cheaply to customers in the developed world. This has made it possible to offshore services that were once non-tradable. Morgan Stanley's Mr. Roach has been drawing attention to the fact that the "global labor arbitrage" is moving rapidly to the better kinds of jobs. It is no longer just basic data processing and call centers that are being outsourced to low-wage countries, but also software programming, medical diagnostics, engineering design, law, accounting, finance and business consulting. These can now be delivered electronically from anywhere in the world, exposing skilled white-collar workers to greater competition.

  The standard retort to such arguments is that outsourcing abroad is too small to matter much. So far fewer than lm American service-sector jobs have been lost to off-shoring. Forrester Research forecasts that by 2015 a total of 3.4m jobs in services will have moved abroad, but that is tiny compared with the 30m jobs destroyed and created in America every year. The trouble is that such studies allow only for the sorts of jobs that are already being off-shored, when in reality the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise as IT advances and education improves in emerging economies.

  Alan Blinder, an economist at Princeton University, believes that most economists are underestimating the disruptive effects of off-shoring, and that in future two to three times as many service jobs will be susceptible to off-shoring as in manufacturing. This would imply that at least 30% of all jobs might be at risk. In practice the number of jobs off-shored to China or India is likely to remain fairly modest. Even so, the mere threat that they could be shifted will depress wages:

  Moreover, says Mr. Blinder, education offers no protection. Highly skilled accountants, radiologists or computer programmers now have to compete with electronically delivered competition from abroad, whereas humble taxi drivers, janitors and crane operators remain safe from off-shoring. This may help to explain why the real median wage of American graduates hat fallen by 6% since 2000, a bigger decline than in average wages.

  In the 1980s and early 1990s, the pay gap between low-paid, low-skilled workers and high-paid, high-skilled workers widened significantly. But since then, according to a study by David Autor, Lawrence Katz and Melissa Kearney, in America, Britain and Germany workers at the bottom as well as at the top have done better than those in the middle-income group. Office cleaning cannot be done by workers in India. It is the easily standardized skilled jobs in the middle, such as accounting, that are now being squeezed hardest. A study by Bradford Jensen and Lori Kletzer, at the Institute for International Economics in Washington D. C., confirms that workers in tradable services that are exposed to foreign competition tend to be more skilled than workers in non-tradable services and tradable manufacturing industries.

  26. To off-shore services that were once non-tradable results from ___________.

  [A] the blue-collar job market

  [B] the geographic location of the Underdeveloped world

  [C] the fierce competition among skilled workers

  [D] the dive of telecoms fee

  27. Which of the following statements is the typical reply concerning off-shoring?

  [A] Service-sector has sustained a great loss.

  [B] White-collar workers will not have a narrow escape.

  [C] Most economists underestimated the effects of off-shoring.

  [D] Outsourcing abroad has no significant impact.

  28. According to the text, Forrester Research Prediction might be different if ___________.

  [A] outsourcing abroad is large enough to matter much

  [B] the proportion of jobs that can be moved will rise

  [C] more comprehensive factors are taken into account

  [D] education improvement in emerging economies plays a role

  29. The narrative of the text in the last three paragraphs concentrates on ___________.

  [A] the standard retort to the arguments

  [B] off-shoring and the resulting income

  [C] the future off-shoring

  [D] the counter-measures at hand

  30. Which of the following could be the best title for the text?

  [A] Business consulting.

  [B] Blue-collar jobs.

  [C] Non-tradable services.

  [D] White-collar blues.

  Text 3

  The mythology of a culture can provide some vital insights into the beliefs and values of that culture. By using fantastic and sometimes incredible stories to create an oral tradition by which to explain the wonders of the natural world and teach lessons to younger generations, a society exposes those ideas and concepts held most important. Just as important as the final lesson to be gathered from the stories, however, are the characters and the roles they play in conveying that message.

  Perhaps the epitome of mythology and its use as a tool to pass on cultural values can be found in Aesop's Fables, told and retold during the era of the Greek Empire. Aesop, a slave who won the favor of the court through his imaginative and descriptive tales, almost exclusively used animals to fill the roles in his short stories. Humans, when at all present, almost always played the part of bumbling fools struggling to learn the lesson being presented. This choice of characterization allows us to see that the Greeks placed wisdom on a level slightly beyond humans, implying that deep wisdom and understanding is a universal quality sought by, rather than steanning from, human beings.

  Aesop's fables illustrated the central themes of humility and self-reliance, reflecting the importance of those traits in early Greek society. The folly of humans was used to contrast against the ultimate goal of attaining a higher level of understanding and awareness of truths about nature and humanity. For example, one notable fable features a fox repeatedly trying to reach a bunch of grapes on a very high vine. After failing at several attempts, the fox gives up, making up its mind that the grapes were probably sour anyway. The fable's lesson, that we often play down that which we can't achieve so as to make ourselves feel better, teaches the reader or listener in an entertaining way about one of the weaknesses of the human psyche.

  The mythology of other cultures and societies reveal the underlying traits of their respective cultures just as Aesop's fables did. The stories of Roman gods, Aztec ghosts and European elves all served to train ancient generations those lessons considered most important to their community, and today they offer a powerful looking glass by which to evaluate and consider the contextual environment in which those culture existed.

  31. The author appears to view fables as ______.

  [A] the most interesting and valuable form of mythology

  [B] entertaining yet serious subjects of study

  [C] a remnant tool of past civilizations, but not often used in the modern age

  [D] the primary method by which ancient values and ideas were transmitted between generations

  32. The way that fables were used in the past is most similar to today's ______.

  [A] fairy tales that entertain children at home

  [B] stories in children's school textbooks that reinforce the lesson

  [C] science documentaries that explain how nature works

  [D] movies that depict animals as having human characteristics

  33. The main purpose of paragraph 3 is to ______.

  [A] examine how one of Aesop's fables sheds light on certain facets of Greek belief

  [B] dissect one of Aesop's fables in order to study the elements that make up Greek mythology

  [C] learn from the lesson presented in one of Aesop's most well-known fables

  [D] illustrate a fable typical of Aesop's style, so as to examine how one goes about studying the meaning behind it

  34. The author names the Roman, Aztec and European cultures in order to ______.

  [A] identify other cultures in which fables were the primary method by which to pass on traditions and values

  [B] explicitly name the various types of characters in those culture's fables

  [C] stress that mythology was used by cultures other than the Greeks to convey societal morals

  [D] establish them, in addition to the Greeks, as the societies most notable for their mythology

  35. The main point of this text is ______.

  [A] Aesop's fables provide a valuable glimpse into early Greek thought and beliefs

  [B] the most efficient and reliable way to study the values system of an ancient culture is through study of its mythology

  [C] without a thorough examination of a society's fables and other mythology, a cultural study on that society would be only partial

  [D] through the study of a culture's mythological tradition, one can discern some of the underlying beliefs that shaped those stories

  Text 4

  Much has been written about poverty but none of the accounts seem to get at the root of the problem. It must be noted that the debilitating effects of poverty are not only the result of lack of money but are also the result of powerlessness.The poor are subject to their social situation instead of being able to affect it through action,that is,through behavior that flows from an individual's decisions and plans. In other words,when social scientists have reported on the psychological consequences of poverty,it seems reasonable to believe that they have described the psychological consequences of powerlessness. The solution to poverty most frequently suggested is to help the poor secure more money without otherwise changing the present power relationships. This appears to implement the idea of equality while avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power. But since the consequences of poverty are related to powerlessness,not to the absolute supply of money available to the poor,and since the amount of power purchasable with a given supply of money decreases as a society acquires a large supply of goods and services,the solution of raising the incomes of the poor is likely,unless accompanied by other measures,to be ineffective in a wealthy society.

  In order to reduce poverty — related psychological and social problems in the United States,the major community will have to change its relationship to neighborhoods of poverty in such fashion that families in the neighborhoods have a greater interest in the broader society and can more successfully participate in the decision-making process of the surrounding community. Social action to help the poor should have the following characteristics:the poor should see themselves as the source of the action;the action should effect in major ways the preconceptions of institutions and persons who define the poor;the action should demand much in effect or skill;the action should be successful and the successful self-originated important action should increase the feeling of potential worth and individual power of individuals who are poor.

  The only initial resource which a community should provide to neighborhoods of poverty should be on a temporary basis and should consist of organizers who will enable the neighborhoods quickly to create powerful,independent,democratic organizations of the poor. Through such organizations,the poor will then negotiate with the outsiders for resources and opportunities without having to submit to concurrent control from outside.

  36. By“powerless”(sentence 2,Para 1),the author most probably means that the poor__________.

  [A] have no right to make individual decisions and plans

  [B] can not exercise control over other groups of people

  [C] are not in a condition to change their present situation

  [D] are too weak to resist any social situation imposed on them

  37. The author expresses his opinion in the first paragraph that _________.

  [A] the hopeless condition of the poor is caused by their powerlessness rather than lack of money

  [B] great efforts should be made to help poor to secure more money without changing present power relationships

  [C] it is no use raising the incomes of the poor while not improve their state of powerlessness

  [D] in helping the poor attention should be paid to avoiding any unnecessary threat to the established centers of power

  38. According to the author,the primary role of the major community in helping the neighborhoods of poverty is _______.

  [A] to provide long-term assistance from outside

  [B] to offer necessary opportunities of securing more money

  [C] to carry out more social programs in the neighborhoods

  [D] to lend experienced advice in the formation of democratic self-help organizations

  39. What does the word“concurrent”(Para. 3)most probably mean?

  [A] Following.

  [B] Subsequent.

  [C] Previous.

  [D] Simultaneous.

  40. The main purpose of the author in writing the passage is _______.

  [A] to criticize the present methods employed to help the poor

  [B] to analyze the social and psychological aspects of poverty

  [C] to propose a way in which the poor can be more effectively helped

  [D] to describe the attitude of the community towards the poor

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  Part B

  Sample One

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A – G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Should doctor-assisted suicide ever be a legal option? It involves the extreme measure of taking the life of a terminally ill patient when the patient is in extreme pain and the chances for recovery appear to be hopeless. Those who argue against assisted suicide do so by considering the roles of the patient, the doctor, and nature in these situations.

  Should the patient take an active role in assisted suicide? When a patient is terminally ill and in great pain, those who oppose assisted suicide say that it should not be up to that patient to decide what his or her fate will be.(41)___________________________________________.

  What role should the doctor have? Doctors, when taking the Hippocratic oath, swear to preserve life at all costs, and it is their ethical and legal duty to follow both the spirit and the letter of this oath. It is their responsibilities to heal the sick, and in the cases when healing is not possible, then the doctor is obliged to make the dying person comfortable. Doctors are trained never to hasten death. (42)___________________________________________. Doctors are also, by virtue of their humanness, capable of making mistakes. Doctors could quite possibly say, for instance, that a cancer patient was terminal, and then the illness could later turn out not to be so serious. There is always an element of doubt concerning the future outcome of human affairs.(43)________________________________________.

  These general concerns of those who oppose assisted suicide are valid in certain contexts of the assisted-suicide question. For instance, patients cannot always be certain of their medical conditions. Pain clouds judgment, and so the patient should not be the sole arbiter of her or his own destiny. Patients do not usually choose the course of their medical treatment, so they shouldn't be held completely responsible for decisions related to it. Doctors are also fallible, and it is understandable that they would not want to make the final decision about when death should occur. (44)__________________________________________.

  I believe that blindly opposing assisted suicide does no one a service. If someone is dying of cancer and begging to be put out of his or her misery, and someone gives that person a deadly dose of morphine that seems merciful rather than criminal. If we can agree to this, then I think we could also agree that having a doctor close by measuring the dosage and advising the family and friends is a reasonable request. (45)____________________________________________.

  Life is indeed precious, but an inevitable part of life is death, and it should be precious, too. If life has become an intolerable pain and intense suffering, then it seems that in order to preserve dignity and beauty, one should have the right to end her or his suffering quietly, surely, and with family and friends nearby.

  [A] If one simply withholds treatment, it may take the patient longer to die, and so he may suffer more than he would if more direct action were taken and a lethal injection given.

  [B] The third perspective to consider when thinking about assisted suicide is the role of nature. Life is precious. Many people believe that it is not up to human beings to decide when to end their own or another's life. Only nature determines when it is the right time for a person to die. To assist someone in suicide is not only to break criminal laws, but to break divine laws as well.

  [C] Since doctors are trained to prolong life, they usually do not elect to take it by prescribing assisted suicide.

  [D] There are greater powers at work that determine when a person dies, for example, nature. Neither science nor personal preference should take precedence over these larger forces.

  [E] Without the doctor’s previous treatment, the person would surely be dead already. Doctors have intervened for months or even years, so why not sanction this final, merciful intervention?

  [F] There is no single, objectively correct answer for everyone as to when, if at all, one’s life becomes all things considered a burden and unwanted. If self-determination is a fundamental value, then the great variability among people on this question makes it especially important that individuals control the manner, circumstances, and timing of their death and dying.

  [G] Those who oppose assisted suicide believe that doctors who do help terminally ill patients die are committing a crime, and they should be dealt with accordingly.

  Sample Two

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41 – 45, you are requirec to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A – G to fill in each numbered box. Two paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)

  [A] This work, though, were relatively small-scale. Now, a much larger study has found that discrimination plays a role in the pay gap between male and female scientists at British universities.

  [B] Besides pay, her study also looked at the "glass-ceiling" effect -- namely that at all stages of a woman's career she is less likely than her male colleagues to be promoted. Between postdoctoral and lecturer level, men are more likely to be promoted than women are, by a factor of between 1.04 and 2.45. Such differences are bigger at higher grades, with the hardest move of all being for a woman' to settle into a professorial chair.

  [C] Seven years ago, a group of female scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology produced a piece of research showing that senior women professors in the institute's school of science had lower salaries and received fewer resources for research than their male counterparts did. Discrimination against female scientists has cropped up elsewhere. One study—conducted in Sweden, of all places—showed that female medical-research scientists had to be twice as good as men to win research grants.

  [D] Sara Connolly, a researcher at the University of East Anglia's school of economics, has been analyzing the results of a survey of over 7,000 scientists and she has just presented her findings at this year's meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in Norwich. She found that the average pay gap between male and female academics working in science, engineering and technology is around £ 1,500 ($ 2,850) a year.

  [E] To prove the point beyond doubt, Dr Connolly worked out how much of the overall pay differential was explained by differences such as seniority, experience and age, and how much was unexplained, and therefore suggestive of discrimination. Explicable differences amounted to 77% of the overall pay gap between the sexes. That still left a substantial 23% gap in pay, which Dr Connolly attributes to discrimination.

  [F] That is not, of course, irrefutable proof of discrimination. An alternative hypothesis is that the courses of men's and women's lives mean the gap is caused by something else; women taking "career breaks" to have children, for example, and thus rising more slowly through the hierarchy. Unfortunately for that idea, Dr Connolly found that men are also likely to earn more within any given grade of the hierarchy. Male professors, for example, earn over £ 4,000 a year more than female ones.

  [G] Of course, it might be that, at each grade, men do more work than women, to make themselves more eligible for promotion. But that explanation, too, seems to be wrong. Unlike the previous studies, Dr Connolly's compared the experience of scientists in universities with that of those in other sorts of laboratory. It turns out that female academic researchers face more barriers to promotion, and have a wider gap between their pay and that of their male counterparts, than do their sisters in industry or research institutes independent of universities. Private enterprise, in other words, delivers more equality than the supposedly egalitarian world of academia does.

2011年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析

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  Sample Three

  Directions:

  You are going to read a text about the introduction on how to pay in the future, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A – F for each numbered subheading (41 - 45). There is one extra example which you do use. Mark your answer on ANSWER SHEET 1 (10 points)

  Smart cards and mobile phones are quickly emerging as ways to pay with electronic cash.

  41. A cash call.

  42. Sending money home

  43. Energising money

  44. How to pay in Tokyo

  45. Flashing the plastic

  [A] The various "contactless" payment systems rely on a technology called "near-field communication" (NFC). But mobile phones can be much smarter. They can be de-activated remotely; they have a screen which can show information, like a credit balance and product information; they have a keyboard to enter information and they can communicate. This means they can also be used to authorise larger payments by entering PIN codes directly on the handset or topped up with stored credit from an online bank account without having to go to an ATM.

  [B] A decade ago some observers predicted that internet banking would render retail banking from high-street branches obsolete. But JPMorgan, Bank of America and others are adamant that people are nowadays using bank branches more than ever. Even if the phone and the smart card replace cash, who gets to collect the fees remains open to contention.

  [C] More banking services are also being offered on mobiles. On February 12th, 19 telephone operators with networks in over 100 countries said that people would be able to use their handsets to send money abroad. MasterCard will operate the system in which remittances will be sent as text messages. Sir John Bond, formerly chairman of the HSBC banking group and now chairman of Vodafone, has long been convinced that payments and mobiles would somehow converge. "Mobile phones have the ability to make a dramatic change to village life in Africa," he says.

  [D] Unlike the Japanese, Americans prefer to use plastic for their purchases. Cards account for more than half of all transactions, up from 29% a decade ago, according to Nilson Report. More than 1.5 billion credit cards are stuffed into Americans' wallets. The average household has more than ten. Banks and credit-card firms hope to convert more cash and cheque payments to plastic with new smart cards. Some versions are already very successful. Many Americans use EasyPass, in which drivers pay for highway tolls wirelessly.

  [E] Nowadays, some of the hottest nightclubs have a new trick for checking the identity of their VIP guests: they send an entry pass in the form of a super bar code to their mobile phones. Mobile phones are becoming an increasingly popular way to make all sorts of payments. In America fans of the Atlanta Hawks have been testing specially adapted Nokia handsets linked to their Visa cards to enter their local stadium and to buy refreshments. It reckons worldwide payments using mobile phones will climb from just $ 3.2 billion in 2003 to more than $ 37 billion by 2008.

  [F]To see the potential of mobile-phone money, start in Japan. Most Japanese have at least one credit card, but they tend to stay in their owners' pockets. Housewives routinely peel off crisp YI0 000 ($ 82) notes to pay for their shopping. Utility bills and other invoices are dutifully taken to the bank and paid in cash, or more likely these days at the local convenience store. Yet despite the popularity of cash, the mobile phone is starting to change even Japan's traditional habits."

  Sample Four

  Directions:

  You are going to read a list of headings and a text about AIDS. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-45). There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A] What route does HIV take after it enters the body to destroy the immune system?

  [B] How and when did the long-standing belief concerning AIDS and HIV crop up?

  [C] What is the most effective anti-HIV therapy?

  [D] How does HIV subvert the immune system?

  [E] In the absence of a vaccine, how can HIV be stopped?

  [F] Why does AIDS predispose infected persons to certain types of cancer and infections?

  In the 20 years since the first cases of AIDS were detected, scientists say they have learned more about this viral disease than any other.

  Yet Peter Piot, who directs the United Nations AIDS program, and Stefano Vella of Rome, president of the International AIDS Society, and other experts say reviewing unanswered questions could prove useful as a measure of progress for AIDS and other diseases.

  41.________

  Among the important broader scientific questions that remain:

  A long-standing belief is that cancer cells constantly develop and are held in check by a healthy immune system. But AIDS has challenged that belief. People with AIDS are much more prone to certain cancers like non-Hodgkins lymphomas and Kaposi's sarcoms, but not to breast, colon and lung, the most common cancers in the United States. This pattern suggests that an impaired immune system, at least the type that occurs in AIDS, does not allow common cancers to develop.

  42.________

  When HIV is transmitted sexually, the virus must cross a tissue barrier to enter the body. How that happens is still unclear. The virus might invade directly or be carried by a series of different kinds of cells.

  43.________

  Eventually HIV travels through lymph vessels to lymph nodes and the rest of the lymph system. But what is not known is how the virus proceeds to destroy the body's CD-4 cells that are needed to combat invading infectious agents.

  44.________

  Although HIV kills the immune ceils sent to kill the virus, there is widespread variation in the rate at which HIV infected people become ill with AIDS. So scientists ask: Can the elements of the immune system responsible for that variability be identified? If so, can they be used to stop progression to AIDS in infected individuals and possibly prevent infection in the first place?

  In theory, early treatment should offer the best chance of preserving immune function. But the new drugs do not completely eliminate HIV from the body so the medicines, which can have dangerous side effects, will have to be taken for a lifetime and perhaps changed to combat resistance. The new policy is expected to recommend that treatment be deferred until there are signs the immune system is weakening.

  Is a vaccine possible?

  45.________

  There is little question that an effective vaccine is crucial to controlling the epidemic. Yet only one has reached the stage of full testing, and there is wide controversy over the degree of protection it will provide. HIV strains that are transmitted in various areas of the world differ genetically. It is not known whether a vaccine derived from one type of HIV will confer protection against other types.

  Without more incisive, focused behavioral research, prevention messages alone will not put an end to the global epidemic.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

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  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlines segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  One of the most fashionable treatments for disease, gene therapy, has so far made little headway in tackling one of the most modish of illnesses, AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes it. (46)Even if the virus continued to destroy the patient's immune cells, new ones that could not be infected would replace them. Eventually, the disease would no longer threaten the health of the patient.

  A first step towards this has been achieved by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania and VIRxSYS, a biotechnology firm based near Baltimore. (47The results were published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  The team treated five infected patients who had not responded to at least two different programmes of treatment using conventional anti-retroviral drugs. They removed from each patient's blood the cells called “helper T-cells” that would normally mobilise the immune response to the virus. (48). This genetic fiddling disrupted the reproduction of the virus inside infected cells.

  Such a small experiment was designed merely to establish whether the approach was safe. But the researchers were pleasantly surprised to find that the number of viruses in each patient dropped. This suggests that the treatment was tackling the disease effectively in difficult patients for whom conventional drugs had failed. (49).

  The researchers are now moving to the next phase of study, which will involve more patients, including those whose disease is in its early stages. (50)

  Part C

  Second III Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  You have just learned that your friend Joe had his ankles injured and was in hospital now. Write a letter to him to convey your concern about his injury.

  You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, using "Li Ming" instead. (10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Study the following cartoon carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1) Describe the cartoon,

  2) deduce the purpose of the drawer of the picture, and

  3) give your comments.

  You should write about 160-200 words neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

2011年考研英语模拟试题及答案详细解析


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2011年考研英语模拟试题答案详细解析

  Section I Use of English

  1. [答案] C 本题考查逻辑关系

  [解析]“许多人担心手机及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害”和“缺乏可靠证据”两个分句之间是转折关系,[C]despite的意思是“尽管,不管”,表转折,符合题意。[D]and表并列,虽也说得通,但没有[C]despite贴切。 [A] so表结果,[B]even表递进,均不符合题意。

  2. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析]上文提到许多人担心手机及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害但缺乏可靠证据,下文提到研究者已经汇总了手机有利健康的案例并将其分类,可见关于手机对健康有益的证据是越来越多,[B]abundant的意思是“丰富的,充裕的”,符合题意。从下文内容可以知道研究人员汇总了150条手机短信用于提供医疗保健服务的事例,说明证据是丰富的,而[C]clear“明显的,清晰的”,不符合题意。[A]interesting和[D]reasonable不符合题意。

  3. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析]此处意思是“一篇系统性综述是由研究者撰写的”,而[C] performed的意思是carried out“进行(实验等)”,符合题意。

  4. [答案] D 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] 这句分句的主语是a systematic review,研究人员进行研究和撰写系统性综述时必须摆事实、讲道理,没有实例,其研究结论也站不住脚,故[D]examples“实例,例证,例子”符合题意。 [B]situations“情形”具有迷惑性,但从整个句子来看,“150个事例”更有说服力。 [A]approaches“方法”和[C]problems“问题”均不符合题意。

  5. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] 根据句意可知此处指的是发送医疗保健服务的短信,而[C]delivery的意思是“递送,投递,交付”,符合题意。 [D]discovery“发现”,文中所指并不是发现短信,而是发送短信,故不正确。 [A]reality“事实”和[B]reorganization“重新组织”均不合题意。

  6. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] [A]fall into的意思是“分成,变成”,文中意思是“根据用途可以把短信分为三类”,下文即具体列出三类用途;故[A]fall into符合题意。 [B]sum up的意思是“概括,总结”,往往指归纳观点和证词。 [C]associate with“联系起来”和[D]subject to“征服,遭受”均不符合题意,排除。

  7. [答案] B 本题考查形近词辨析

  [解析]incorporate 的意思是“ 包含,吸收”,通常与介词in或者into搭配。本句话的意思是“通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合”。

  8. [答案] B 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] 这一段的第二句举了英国的几项试验:短信提醒功能将手机用户同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了26%到39%,同医院的约会错过率则减少了33%到50%,由此可以推断编发短信可以提高工作效率, [B] boost“增强(某事物)的力量,提高(某事物)的价值”符合题意。[A]rise具有很大的迷惑性,它也有提高的含义,但其是不及物动词,后应接介词,所以排除。 [C] produce“生产”和[D]encourage“鼓励”均不符合题意。

  9. [答案]D 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] 句子中的数据只有根据试验才能获得,[D]trials“(对能力、质量、性能等的)测试、试验、考验”符合题意。 [C]cases的意思是“事例”,只通过一些事例,是不能得到精确的数据的,只有通过试验才可以获得。 [A]questions“问题”和[B]incidents“事件”均不符合题意,排除。

  10. [答案] A 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] 上文提到利用编发短信来提高工作效率,也就是降低了错过率,[A]reduces“减少”符合题意。 [B]degrades的意思是“降级,下降”,但一般指降低身份;[D]drops的意思是“降落,使 (某物)落下”,均不符合题意。 [C]deserves“应得,值得”不符合题意。

  11. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析]在这个条件状语从句中需要补充完整的是such schemes的动作,[C]rolled out的意思是to make a new product available for people to buy or use=launch“推出,推开,发行,启动”,符合题意。[A]called upon的意思是“号召,呼吁”,号召的对象通常是人,而不是such schemes,故不入选。 [B]switched to“转向”和[D]went through“经历,仔细检查”均不符合题意。

  12. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配

  [解析]translate into意为“翻译成、转化为”故[A]into符合题意。[B]for、[C]on、[D]from均不与translate搭配,排除。

  13. [答案] D 本题考查定语从句。

  [解析] groups在这里的意思是“人群”,需要填一个关系代词或关系副词以引导定语从句修饰groups,修饰人的关系代词是[D]who。 [C]which常用于修饰某物,所以排除。 [A]what相当于the thing that/the things that,[B]whose是修饰物的所有格,均不符合题意,排除。

  14. [答案] B 本题考查动词与介词的搭配

  [解析] 这句话意思是“印度已使用短信______国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略”,[B]inform“通知或报告某人(某事),告诉某人”符合题意。[D]contact表示“接触,交往”,不符合文意。 [A]ask“询问”和[C]adopt“采用”均不符合题意,排除。

  15. [答案] A 本题考查动词与介词的搭配

  [解析] 上文阐述了手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径,可应用于为儿童接种疫苗的行动中,[A]campaign“运动(为某一社会的、商业的或政治的目的而进行的一系列有计划的活动)”符合题意。[B]event尤指重要的大事,事件,不符合题意;[C]decision“决定、结果”看似正确,但不能表达句子完整的意思,排除。[D]communication“通讯”不符合题意,排除。

  16. [答案] C 本题考查介词用法

  [解析]此处意思应该是预防children患上polio,而[C]against有in preparation for(sth.)“为…做准备”之意,符合题意。[A]off、[B]with、[D]in均不符合题意,排除。

  17. [答案] A 本题考查逻辑关系

  [解析] 文章的第一段讲述了手机短信的三类用途。第二、三段分别是手机短信的第一、第二个功能,那么第三段应该就是最后一个功能,[A]Finally“最后”符合题意,入选。 [B]However“然而,可是”,表转折,但文章此处并无转折含义,故排除;文章第一段提出短信的这些用途可以分为三类,下面三段分别阐述一种短信的用途,如选[D]Obviously“明显地”,就不能体现文章的逻辑结构。 [C]Usually“通常”不符合题意,排除。

  18. [答案] D 本题考查固定搭配。

  [解析] “服药”的惯用表达是take medicine,故[D]take符合题意,入选。[A]buy、[B]receive、[C]get与medicine搭配都不能表示“服药”的意思,排除。

  19. [答案] C 本题考查语义搭配

  [解析] However表转折,说明有关这些手机短信作用效果的例证还不完全可信,[C]anecdotal“多趣闻轶事的,轶事一样的”,anecdotal evidence在心理学上称为“轶事证据”,即粗浅的证据,经常以故事形式出现:比如“我记得那时…”,“我听说…”,这种证据通常不准确、不可靠,故[C]anecdotal符合题意。 [A]unscientific“不科学的”虽然放进句子中也通顺,但需要进一步的定量研究,去证明这些作用是否科学,而不是过早地下定论,故[A]排除。 如选[B]real“真实的”或[D]legal“合法的”,说明有关这些作用效果的例证是真实的或是合法的,而这样的例证是不需要进一步定量研究的,故二者不符合题意,排除。

  20. [答案] C本题考查语义搭配[解析]最后一句话中里法特提出更多定量研究是______,[C]needed“需要的”符合题意。 [A]gained和[B]acquired的意思都是“获得的”,放进句子意思不对。[D]given“给予的、特定的”不符合题意,排除。

  全文翻译

  手机对使用者健康会产生什么样的影响呢?许多人担心手机手持装置及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害,不过始终缺乏可靠依据,而关于手机对健康有益的证据却越来越多。的确,在伦敦皇家学院里法特•亚顿及其同事撰写的一篇系统性综述中,就汇总了150条手机短信用于提供医疗保健服务的事例。短信的这些用途可以分为三类,即提高工作效率、促进公共卫生宣传以及通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合直接惠及病人。

  利用编发短信来提高工作效率并不是多么高深的科学,但是能节省大笔费用。比如,英国有几项试验发现,短信提醒功能将同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了26%到39%,同医院的约会错过率则减少了33%到50%。设若这种短信提醒系统能推广到全国,则相当于每年节省2.56~3.64亿英镑。

  手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径,对那些通过其他方式难以传达到的人群,比如青少年,或者是在没有其他通信手段的发展中国家,更是如此。比如,印度已使用短信来宣传国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略。在伊拉克,短信则被用来声援一项给将近5百万的儿童接种天花疫苗的行动。

  最后,手机短信还可作为治疗方案的一部分,其中包括提醒病人适时服药、督促病人按要求进行锻炼。然而,里法特强调,有关这些作用效果的例证一般都是道听途说来的,尚需进一步定量研究

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  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Text 1

  21. [答案] B

  [解析]推理题。第一句提到的谨慎投资者的想法是一种类比,把鸡蛋放到多个篮子里可以减少风险,说的是规避风险的方法,而第二句切入主题,环保主义者认为保护濒危动物也可以采取与此类似的方法,因此选项[B]正确。文中并没有说环保主义者的想法是从投资者那里得到的启发,排除[A];选项 [C]、[D]也不是由此推出的,均排除。

  22. [答案] A

  [解析]细节题。第二段介绍埃塞俄比亚狼共两句话,主要指出它是濒危动物,是世界上最少的食肉动物,选项[A]是同义转述,故正确。第二段 第一句只是提到它以上段叙述的方式被分成小组,但没有具体的数字,选项[B]错误;定语从句指出它住在贝尔山脉的草地中,可见选项[C]错误;第二句介绍贝尔山脉中有350只,另外还有150只在这一地区外面,所以共有500只,因此[D]错误。

  23. [答案] C

  [解析]推理题。题干中的想法出现在第三段最后一句,从implies一词可知其理由是破折号之间的 thinking的同位语,即所有个体都很重要,任何疾病的发作都要被完全制止,因此选项[C]符合文意。选项[A]的内容只是客观事实,不是这一想法的原因;第三句提到给狼群注射疫苗看似简单,但其实不然,排除[B];第四段第一句介绍了Dan Haydon的观点,显然与题干相对,说明他不赞同这一想法,排除 [D]。

  24. [答案] C

  [解析]推理题。最后两段主要介绍了流行病学家的设想和Dr Haydon的研究,他们的观点正好相反,首先排除[B],选项[A]在第五段第一、二句提及,文中说的是三分之二需要注射疫苗而不是三分之一;选项[D]是对最后一段第一句的断章取义;选项[C]则是对第五段最后一句的正确理解,故选[C]。

  25. [答案] D

  [解析]主旨题。全文从一开头就将分散避险的方法提出来,然后具体讨论了保护埃塞俄比亚狼免受狂犬病威胁的办法,最后一句重申了解救少数可以更有效地保护多数的观点,因此本文的主要目的是介绍如何保护埃塞俄比亚狼的方法,故选[D]。其他选项都是片面的。

  全文翻译

  谨慎的投资者很早以前就学会通过分散投资来降低风险。自然资源保护者最近偶然得出一个相似的想法:将濒危物种的种群划入几个互相联系的亚种群将增加它们的存活率。此举将为该物种带来更好的前景,因为各亚种群的成员同时灭亡的可能性较低。而且,从长期看来,就算物种的一两个亚种群消失了也无关紧要,因为那些来自食物充沛之地的“新移民”最终将重建物种原有的生境。

  埃塞俄比亚狼(Ethiopian wolf)就是根据此种方式分群而居的濒危物种之一。它们是世界上最珍稀的食肉动物,居住在贝尔山脉(Bale Mountains)的高地草场上。在贝尔山国家公园的三块由狭窄峡谷相联接的袖珍草场之上,仅存活着350余只埃塞俄比亚狼,另有150余只生存在其他地区。

  埃塞俄比亚狼群所面临的主要威胁有两类来自于家犬所携带的疾病。其中之一为狂犬病,尤为令人担忧,因为这是家犬种群的常见疾病。乍一看来,为狼群注射防狂犬病疫苗是一种简单的办法。不过这个想法未免脱离实际,因为人们普遍认为,每一匹狼都很紧要,因此应当避免狂犬病在任何一匹狼体内爆发,而这意味着将要为大量狼群注射疫苗。

  格拉斯哥大学(University of Glasgow)的丹·何顿(Dan Haydon)及其同事认为,保育生物学家(conservation biologist)们的想法应该不同。除人类以外,种群比个体来得重要。疾病在某些个体中爆发是可以接受的。本周刊登于《自然(Nature)》杂志的一篇论文称,他们基于上述想法,重新提出了计算疫苗接种数的数学方法。

  根据流行病学的标准假设:以个体来计算,要阻止流行病的爆发,疫苗接种方案要确保平均每个受感染的动物将疾病传播给其他健康的动物的数量少于一。这就意味着约有三分之二的狼群需要接受疫苗。但若某方案目的是拯救某个物种而非该物种中所有个体,它将允许上述疾病传播数量多于一,从而减少需要接受疫苗的狼群数量。何顿博士和他的同事曾采用2003年狂犬病爆发的数据进行计算,结果表明,如果兽医为那些居住在连接各分部狼群的峡谷中的狼注射疫苗,那么大约10%到25%的狼群接受疫苗就足够了。

  如果对居住于峡谷内的所有狼群每五年开展一次狂犬病治疗,在20年内,埃塞俄比亚狼种灭亡的可能性将降低四倍。如果,在这一做法的基础之上,再加上对三个相互联结的草场内仅10%的狼群注射疫苗,埃塞俄比亚狼种灭亡的可能性将减至低于千分之一。拯救某物种的少量个体看来是保护该物种大部分个体的有效之道。

  Text 2

  26. [答案] D

  [解析]细节题。第一段的第二、三句话指出“电信费用大幅度下降,使身处遥远地点的工作者与发达世界的客户连接在一起。这能够把以前无法进行交易的服务推向海外”。可见电信方面的因素起了一定的作用。故本题的正确选项应该是D。在阅读时要注意借助于指代词理清上下句之间的关系。

  27. [答案] D

  [解析]细节题。文章第二段首句中的“standard”一词的含义不是“标准的”,而是“常见的、一般的、典型的”。本句的大意是:“对上述论点的典型的(或常见的)反驳是向海外外包服务太微不足道了以至于不会有多大影响”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项应该是D。

  28. [答案] C

  [解析]推理题。第二段的第三句对“Forrester Research”的相关预测进行了介绍。第二段尾句(即第四句)针对“Forrester Research”的预测指出了其中的问题(trouble)之所在。第二段尾句的大意是:“问题在于这样的研究仅考虑到那些已经被移往境外的工作……”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项应该是C。

  29. [答案] B

  [解析]推理题。本题的答案可以从第三段的尾句、第四段的尾句和尾段的第一、二句中推理得出。第三段的尾句涉及“wages”,第四段的尾句涉及“median wage”和“average wages”,尾段第一、二句涉及“pay gap”以及“the middle-income group”等相关词语。由此可以推断本题的正确选项是B。

  30. [答案] D

  [解析]主旨题。本题的答案信息分布在全文的字里行间,但是最关键的信息在全文首段的第一句(即全文的中心主旨句)。首段第一句的大意是:“目前,被外包到海外的不只是蓝领工作,过去被认为不会受国外竞争影响的白领工作也正在被外包到海外”。由此可以推断本题的正确选项是D。

  全文翻译

  目前,被外包到海外的不只是蓝领工作,过去被认为不会受国外竞争影响的白领工作也正在被外包到海外。电信费用大幅度下降,使身处遥远地点的工作者与发达世界的客户连接在一起。这能够把以前无法进行交易的服务推向海外。Morgan Stanley的 Roach先生一直注意到这样一个事实,这就是“全球劳动力套利”正在转移到更好的工作种类上。不再仅仅是基本的数据处理和呼叫中心被外包给低工资国家,软件编程,医疗诊断,工程设计,法律,会计,金融和商业咨询也正在被外包给低工资国家。这些现在都可以从世界上任何地方电子化传送。这使得熟练的白领工人面临更大的竞争。

  对上述论点的典型的反驳是向海外外包服务太微不足道了以至于不会有多大影响。到目前为止接近100万个美国服务部门的工作已经丢到了境外。Forrester Research预测到2015年在服务部门总共会有340万份工作被转到国外,但是相对于美国每年消失和新创造的3000万个工作机会而言的确是非常少。问题在于这样的研究仅考虑到那些已经被移往境外的工作,但实际上能够被转移的工作的比率将会随着新兴国家的信息技术的发展以及教育的提高而上升。

  Princeton大学的经济学家Alan Blinder认为绝大部分的经济学家正在低估转移到境外的破坏性影响,而且在未来相当于制造业被转移的工作的两到三倍的服务业的工作也可能被转移。这可能意味着有至少30%的工作可能有风险。而事实上转移到中国或者印度的工作数目可能仍然相当少。即使如此,单就他们可能被转移的威胁就足以降低工资水平。

  而且,Blinder先生说到,教育并不能提供任何的保护。通过电子化传输,高技能的会计,放射学家或者计算机的编程员现在不得不参与到来自国外的的竞争。而粗俗的计程车司机,守卫和起重机驾驶员这些工作依然很安全不会有被移到海外的危险。这可能有助于解释为什么美国毕业生的中等真实工资水平自2000年以来已经下降了6% ,比一般工资水平下降的多。

  在20世纪80年代以及90年代早期,低收入低技能工人和高收入高技能工人之间的收入差距显著增大了。但是自从那时起,根据David Autor, Lawrence Katz和 Melissa Kearney的一项研究,在美国,英国和德国,底层和顶层的工人比中等收入的工人的表现要好。在印度,办公室清理找不到人手。现在类似于会计这种中等的而且其技能很容易被标准化的工作是被压榨的最厉害的。来自Washington, DC国际经济研究所的Bradford Jensen 和 Lori Kletzer的一项研究则肯定了暴露在外国竞争下的从事可贸易服务的工人势必比那些从事不可贸易的工人和可贸易的制造业工人的技能要求更高。

  Text 3

  31. [答案] B

  [解析]态度题。作者对寓言的评价需要综合分析,第一段第一句指出,了解一种文化中的神话传说可以为了解该文化中人们的信仰及价值观念提供极其重要的深刻见解,第三段最后一句提到这个故事以轻松的形式告诉读者或听众人心灵中的一个弱点,所以选项[B]是对寓言的最佳概括,为正确答案。选项[A]未提及;选项[C]转折句部分明显错误;选项[D]中的essential属于过度推断。

  32. [答案] B

  [解析]推理题。第一段第二句与题干对应,其中指出寓言是用来警戒后世的年轻人吸取前人的教训,一个社会就用这种方式将其最为珍视的观点、理念都表露出来,因此选项[B]最接近这种作用。其他选项都是娱乐和科学方式,可排除。

  33. [答案] A

  [解析] 主旨题。第三段前两句指出《伊索寓言》的中心主题以及最终目的,然后举例加以说明,因此四个选项中只有[A]最恰当地概括了本段的大意,其他选项都比较片面。

  34. [答案] C

  [解析]推理题。文章最后一段提到其他地区的文化,第一句说明了目的,即其他文化或社会中的神话也和伊索寓言一样展现出这些文化各自的内在特征,所以选项[C]最符合文义。选项[A]中的primary method没有根据;选项[B]和[D]都是对原文的错误理解。

  35. [答案] D

  [解析]主旨题。本文首句即为主题句,了解一种文化中的神话传说可以为了解该文化中人们的信仰及价值观念提供极其重要的深刻见解,第二、三段以《伊索寓言》为例进行了讨论,最后总结并呼应主题,所以选项[D]正确。选项[A]观点片面;选项[B]、[C]无法在文中找到依据。

  全文翻译

  了解一种文化中的神话传说可以为了解该文化中人们的信仰及价值观念提供极其重要的深刻见解。通过异想天开 —— 有时甚至是不可思议的故事来创造一种口头传诵的传统,以此来解释自然世界中的种种奇观,警戒后世的年轻人要吸取前人的教训,一个社会就用这种方式将其最为珍视的观点、理念都表露出来。然而,与人们从故事中所得到的教训一样重要的是这些故事中的人物在传递这个信息的过程中所扮演的角色,也就是所起的作用。 或许我们可以从希腊帝国时期被人们不断重复传诵的《伊索寓言》中找到神话的缩影以及它是如何被当成一种工具来传递文化价值观的。伊索是一个奴隶,由于想像力丰富而且他的故事描述逼真而获得王公大臣的宠幸,而他的小故事里的角色几乎专门由各种动物来担纲。如果有人出现在他的故事中,那么这个人几乎总是扮演犯错的笨蛋,故而总是拼命吸取故事中提出的教训。选择这种人物刻画手段以及拟人化手法使我们了解到希腊人将智慧定位于超越人类智力之上的层面上,这意味着深层次的智慧和理解力是人类普遍追求的共同品质,并非人类所固有。 《伊索寓言》的中心主题是谦虚恭谨和自力更生,它反映出,在早期的希腊社会中具有这些品质是非常重要的。作者常用人的愚行来反衬寓言的最终目的,那就是达到对自然以及人性中的真理的更深刻的认识和进一步的理解。例如,一篇很有名的寓言记载了一只狐狸三番五次试图得到一支很高的葡萄藤上的一串葡萄的故事。几次失利之后,狐狸便放弃了,并让自己相信这样一个事实 —— 这串葡萄很可能很酸。与寓言中的狐狸一样,我们常常贬低那些自己做不到的事情,以此寻求心理安慰。这个故事以轻松的形式告诉读者或听众人心灵中的一个弱点,让人们以此为戒。 正如《伊索寓言》揭示出希腊社会里的一些特点一样,其他文化或其他社会中的神话也展现出这些文化各自的内在特征。有关罗马诸神、阿兹特克鬼魂还有欧洲小精灵的故事都在教导先辈这方面发挥了一些作用,教会他们去了解那些对社会非常重要的事情,时至今朝,这些神话故事就像一面镜子,力量无穷,人们通过它去评估、去思忖神话所代表的文化是处于什么样的环境中的。

  Text 4

  36. [答案] C

  [解析] 词义题。题干中的信号词“powerlessness”,出自于文章第一段第二句话中。文章第一段指出:必须认识到,人们之所以贫穷,不只是因为缺少钱,还因为没有权势;穷人容易受他们所处的社会状况的影响,而不能通过行动来影响社会状况,也就是说不能通过产生于个人的决定和计划中的行动来影响社会状况。这说明:作者最可能的意思是说“穷人不能通过行动来影响社会状况”。[C]项中说“ are not in a condition to change their present situation”, 这与文章的意思相符。

  37. [答案] C

  [解析] 细节题。作者在第一段中指出:人们之所以贫穷,不只是因为缺少钱,还因为没有权势;穷人容易受他们所处的社会状况的影响,而不能通过行动来影响社会状况;解决贫穷建议最多的方法就是帮助穷人确保挣更多的钱而不改变目前的权力关系;但是,因为贫穷的结果与没有权势有关,并不是与穷人可用的钱的实际供给有关,所以,在一个富裕社会,如果不伴有其他措施,增加穷人收入的解决方法可能不会产生效果。这说明,作者认为,“帮助穷人确保挣更多的钱而不改变目前的权力关系”这种方法可能不会产生效果。[C]项中说“it is no use raising the incomes of the poor while not improve their state of powerlessness”,这与作者的观点相符。

  38. [答案] D

  [解析] 细节题。文章第二段指出:为了减少贫穷,较大的社团将不得不改变其同贫穷的邻居之间的关系;文章第三段指出:一个社团应该给贫穷的邻居提供早期的物质支持,这些活动应该包括一些组织的组织者,那些组织者能够使邻居迅速创建穷人的有影响、独立、民主的组织。这说明,作者认为,较大社团的主要作用是在创建穷人的民主组织方面提供帮助。[D]项中说“to lend experienced advice in the formation of democratic self-help organizations”,这与作者的观点相符。

  39.[答案] D

  [解析]词义题。文章第三段指出:一个社团应该给贫穷的邻居提供早期的物质支持,这些活动应该包括一些组织的组织者,那些组织者能够使邻居迅速创建穷人的有影响、独立、民主的组织;通过这样的组织,穷人将与外界洽谈资源和机会,而不必屈从于来自外界的、同时发生的操纵。这说明,该单词的意思应该是“同时发生的”。

  40. [答案] C

  [解析]主旨题。作者在第一段提到了对解决贫穷的方法的看法,认为这些方法可能没有效果;在第二段,作者提出了自己的扶贫方法;第三段讲的是较大的社团在帮助贫穷的邻居时应该采取的方法。这说明:作者写本文的主要目的是探讨如何扶贫。[C]项中说“to propose a way in which the poor can be more effectively helped”,这与作者的目的相符

  全文翻译

  有关贫穷,人们已写了不少东西,但没有哪篇文章似乎要从根本上解决这个问题。必须认识到:人们之所以贫穷,不只是因为缺少钱,还因为没有权势。穷人容易受他们所处的社会状况的影响,而不能通过行动来影响社会状况,也就是说不能通过产生于个人的决定和计划中的行动来影响社会状况。换句话说,当社会科学家报道了有关贫穷的心理结果时,有理由相信他们已经描述了没有权势的心理后果。解决贫穷建议最多的方法就是:帮助穷人确保挣更多的钱而不改变目前的权力关系。这表现为实现平等的愿望而又避免对已建立的权力中心产生任何不必要的威胁。但是,因为贫穷的结果与没有权势有关,并不是与穷人可用的钱的实际供给有关,因为随着一个社会需要更多的物质、提供更多的服务,用一定的钱购买权势的总就会减少,所以,在一个富裕社会,如果不伴有其他措施,增加穷人收入的解决方法可能不会产生效果。

  为了减少贫穷 — 这是与美国的心理和社会有关的问题,较大的社团将不得不改变其同贫穷的邻居之间的关系,他们采用这样的方式:邻居的家庭对更广泛的社会有更浓厚的兴趣,这些家庭能更成功地参与周围社团的决定过程。帮助穷人的社会行为应该具有以下特点:穷人应把他们自己当作行动的源泉;行为应该以更多的方式影响社会团体和那些确定穷人范围者的偏见;行动应该在作用或技能方面多提要求;行动应当成功,成功的、自发的重要行动将增强穷人的潜在价值感以及穷人的个体力量。

  一个社团应该给贫穷的邻居提供早期的物质支持,这种物质支持应该建立在临时基础之上,这些活动应该包括一些组织的组织者,那些组织者能够使邻居迅速创建穷人的有影响、独立、民主的组织。通过这样的组织,穷人将获得与外界洽谈资源和机会,而不必屈从于来自外界的,同时发生的操纵。

www.59wj.com

  Part B

  Sample One

  41. D 42. G 43. B 44. C 45. E

  分析

  本文主要谈论由医生帮助的自杀是否合法的问题。作者在文章中提到了反对者和支持者的理由,同时提出了自己的观点。

  全文翻译

  由医生帮助的自杀究竟是不是一种合法的方案?当病人极为疼痛而且看来没有希望康复的时候,这涉及结束一个病入膏肓的病人的生命的极端措施。那些反对由医生帮助自杀的人是考虑到在这种情况下病人、医生和自然的作用。

  病人在由医生帮助的自杀过程中应当发挥积极作用吗?当一个人病入膏肓而且极为疼痛的时候,那些反对由医生帮助的自杀的人说,病人的命运不应当由病人自己来决定。在决定一个人何时死亡方面,有一些更大的力量在起作用,譬如自然。科学或个人喜好都不应优先于这些更大的力量。

  医生应当起什么作用?医生在宣读希波克拉底誓言的时候已宣誓不惜一切代价保护生命,他们在道德和法律上都有义务遵守这个誓言的字面意思和精神实质。他们的责任是治好病人,在不可能治愈的情况下,医生有义务使奄奄一息的人感到舒服。医生接受培训绝不是为了加快死亡。那些反对由医生帮助的自杀的人认为,帮助病入膏肓的病人去死的医生是在犯罪,因而他们也应当受到相应的处置。由于医生是人,他们也会犯错误。例如,医生很可能说一个癌症病人是晚期病人,然而到后来,结果可能是病情并不这样严重。在涉及人的未来结局问题上总是有一种怀疑的因素。

  在思考由医生帮助的自杀问题时需要考虑的第三个视角是自然的作用。生命是宝贵的。许多人认为何时结束自己或另外一个人的生命不是由人来决定的。只有自然才能决定一个人死亡的恰当时间。帮助某个人自杀不仅破坏了刑法,而且也破坏了天赐法则。

  反对由医生帮助的自杀的那些人的这些一般考虑在由医生帮助的自杀问题所涉及的某些背景下也是有说服力的。例如,病人对于他们的病情不可能总是有把握。疼痛使判断力变得模糊了,因此病人不应当是自己命运的惟一决定者。病人通常不能选择他们的治疗方案,所以他们在与治疗有关的决定上不应承担全部责任。医生也是容易犯错误的。他们在何时死亡的问题上不愿做最后决定也是可以理解的。既然医生接受培训是为了延长寿命,因此他们通常不选择开出由医生帮助的自杀的处方来结束病人的生命。

  我认为,盲目反对得到医生帮助的自杀对任何人都没有好处。如果某个人由于癌症而奄奄一息,并乞求一死从而结束自己的痛苦,而某个人给这个人打一针致命的吗啡,那么这种做法似乎是发慈悲而不是犯罪。如果我们能同意这样的说法,那么我认为我们也能同意说,让一个医生来到病人身旁,测量一下用药剂量并向其家人和朋友提出建议,是一个合理的请求。没有这位医生以前的治疗,这个人肯定早已死了。医生已介入几个月,甚至已介入几年,所以为什么不批准这个最后和慈悲的介入呢?

  生命确实是宝贵的,但是生命中不可避免的一部分是死亡,死亡也应当是宝贵的。如果生命变成无法忍受的疼痛和极度的痛苦,那么看来,为了保持尊严和美,一个人应当有权在家人和朋友在旁的情况下静悄悄地、稳妥地结束自己的痛苦。

  Sample Two

  41. A 42. D 43. F 44. E 45. B

  分析

  本文分析了社会生活中对女性科学家歧视的现象。文章从男女科学家之间的收入差别及其他方面探讨了此种现象的原因,同时给出了自己的解释。

  全文翻译

  七年之前,一组麻省理工学院(MIT)的女科学家作了一份调查,表明该院自然科学学院的资深女教授们比起她们的男同事来拥有的薪水更低,获得的研究资源更有限。对女性科学家的歧视在其他地方也突然出现。一份基于瑞典各地的研究表明,从事医学研究的女科学家要想获得研究基金,必须有男科学家两倍强。

  不过,这些工作都是相对小范围的。如今,一份更大范围的研究发现,在英国大学里,性别歧视在男性科学家和女性科学家之间的薪水差距中扮演了一定的角色。

  东安格利亚大学经济学学院的萨拉·康诺莉(Sara Connolly)研究员一直在从事对一份涵盖7000名科学家的调查的分析,她刚刚在于诺利其召开的英国科学进步协会年会上公布了她的发现。她发现,在从事自然科学、工程和技术学科方面的男性和女性大学教授之间,平均的薪水差距在每年1500英镑(合2850美元)左右。

  当然,这并非是存在歧视的不可辩驳的证明。另一个假设是,男女生活的不同模式意味着差距是由其他东西造成的:比如说,女性中断职业去生孩子,因而层级提升得更慢。可惜的是,康诺莉博士还发现,在所有特定的层级上,男性都更可能挣钱更多。譬如男性教授可能比女性教授每年多挣超过4000英镑。

  为了使结论确证无疑,康诺莉博士计算出全部薪水差异中有多少可归因于诸如资历、经验和年龄的不同,有多少则不可,这就暗示了歧视的存在。那些可以得到解释的部分总计占到两性之间全部收入差距的77%。康诺莉博士将剩余的23%归之于歧视。

  除了收入,她的研究也兼及有关升迁过程中遇到无形障碍的所谓“玻璃天花板”效应,也就是,在女性职业生涯的所有阶段,她都要比她的男同事更不可能获得提升。在博士后和讲师级别之间,男性比女性更可能获得提升的比率是1.04~2.45。在更高的层级上这一差异就更大了,其中对女性来说,能被安排到教授职位是最为困难的。

  当然,也可能是在每个层级上男性比女性干活更多,因而更有资格升迁。但这一解释似乎也是错误的。同先前的研究不同,康诺莉博士比较了大学里的科学家同其他类别的实验室的科学家的经历。结果表明,相比那些在大学以外的工业或研究院所工作的姊妹们,在大学里的女性研究人员面临更多的提升障碍,同男同事的收入差距也更大。换言之,相比假想中属于平等主义世界的学术界而言,私人企业提供了更多的平等。

  Sample Three

  41. E 42. C 43. A 44. F 45. D

  分析

  本文主要分析了电子货币支付方式给人们的生活带来的变化,作者以美国和日本为例,对电子货币的革命性影响作了介绍。

  全文翻译

  以智能卡和移动电话为媒介的电子货币支付方式日渐流行。

  铃响钱到。现如今,有些顶级火辣的夜吧允许贵宾们采用一种新方式认证身份:他们把通行证以特别条码形式输入手机,守门的大块头只要轻松一扫就能顺利通关。手机在各式各样的支付过程中日渐流行。亚特兰大老鹰队的美国球迷现在可以联动威士卡和自己的诺基亚手机,用以支付入场门票及购买赛场小食。据估计到2008年,世界范围内手机支付额将从2003年的32亿美元增至370多亿美元。

  汇钱回家。很多银行服务也可以通过手机提供。2月12日,覆盖100多个国家的19家电信运营商宣布用户可以使用手机向海外地区汇钱。通过万事达系统,用户还可以短信汇款。汇丰银行前主席约翰邦德是现任沃达丰主席,他一直以来坚信支付手段和移动电话总有一天会通过某种方式结合起来。他说:“手机会极大的改变非洲的农村生活”

  活力货币。各种“不接触”支付系统都依赖“短距离通讯”(NFC)技术。但手机比智能卡还要智能。我们可以通过远程控制关闭相应功能,可以从手机屏幕上观看信息,如借款金额和产品情况;还可以通过键盘输入信息并用来沟通。这些都意味着手机可以采用直接输入密码的方式进行更大规模的交易,还可以自网上银行为手机账户充值,而不必找自助取款机。

  东京支付。最先把赌注押在手机货币上的是日本。多数日本人拥有不止一张信用卡,但这些信用卡总是乖乖的躺在主人的钱包里。日本几乎没有街头犯罪,现金交易自然处于主导地位。家庭主妇购买所需总要把10,000日元(82美元)破开。到银行去交水电费以及其他费用不是很方便,往往在当地便利店用现金支付。虽然现金仍然如此流行,但手机已经开始改变日本的传统习惯。

  抛光卡片。根据尼尔森的报告,和日本人不同,美国人倾向于使用卡类购物。各种卡类交易占了所有交易的一半以上,比十年前增长了29%。美国人的钱包里装了15亿张信用卡,平均每户人家拥有10张以上。银行和信用卡机构希望有更多的现金和支票交易通过新型智能卡进行。目前已经有了一些成功版本。许多美国司机都在用易通卡无线支付高速公路费用。

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  Sample Four

  41. F 42. A 43. D 44. C 45. E

  分析

  本文分析了围绕艾滋病人们提出的一些科学问题。同时作者对这些问题进行了详细的解答。

  全文翻译

  科学家说, 在第一批艾滋病例被发现以后的20年里, 他们对这种病毒性疾病的了解, 已超过其他任何一种病毒性疾病。

  但是, 联合国艾滋病规划署的负责人彼得?皮奥和国际艾滋病学会会长罗马的斯特凡诺?韦拉及其他一些专家都认为, 全面考察那些未决问题, 可能对艾滋病和其他疾病治疗的进展是一项有益的举措。

  这些较广泛的重要科学问题包括:

  为什么艾滋病使患者容易感染某些癌症和传染病?

  一种传统的说法是, 癌细胞在人体内不断繁殖, 但受到健康免疫系统的控制。艾滋病的情况却不是这样。艾滋病人很容易患非何杰金氏淋巴瘤和卡波西氏肉瘤, 但不易患在美国最常见的乳腺癌、结肠癌和肺癌等。这说明, 受损的免疫系统(至少是艾滋病患者的免疫系统), 可以抑制普通癌细胞的发展。

  艾滋病病毒侵入人体后通过什么途径摧毁免疫系统?当艾滋病病毒通过性接触传播时, 病毒必须穿过组织屏障进入人体。这个过程目前尚不清楚。病毒可能直接侵入, 或许由一系列不同种类的细胞带入。最终, 艾滋病病毒穿过淋巴管到淋巴结和淋巴系统的其他部分。但病毒是如何摧毁人体内负责打击入侵传染体的CD-4细胞的, 目前还无法确定。

  艾滋病病毒是怎样破坏免疫系统的?

  艾滋病病毒能杀死对付自己的免疫细胞, 但艾滋病病毒携带者患艾滋病的快慢却大不相同。因此科学家提出问题:免疫系统中那些使人患艾滋病时间出现差异的因素能否被识别出来?如果能, 它们能否用于制止艾滋病患者病情的恶化, 甚至在最初就可能防止人们感染艾滋病病毒?

  最有效的艾滋病疗法是什么?

  从理论上来说, 尽早治疗可以提供维护免疫功能的最佳时机。但是新药物无法彻底清除体内的艾滋病病毒, 因此患者不得不终身服用这些具有危险副作用的药物, 而且还可能在产生抗药性时改服别的药物。因此新的方法可能建议在免疫系统出现衰退迹象时才开始治疗。

  可能研制出疫苗吗?

  毫无疑问, 一种有效的疫苗是控制这种瘟疫的关键。但是目前只有一种疫苗进入了全面检验的阶段, 而对其会有多大的保护功能, 却有着很大的争议。世界各地流行的艾滋病在遗传类型上各不相同, 目前还不清楚, 从某种艾滋病病毒获得的疫苗能否防止其他类型的艾滋病。

  如果没有疫苗, 能否阻止艾滋病病毒的传播?

  如果没有深入集中的行为研究, 仅靠宣传是无法阻止这种全球性瘟疫的。

  Part C

  46. 用基因疗法治疗艾滋病的想法是制造一种基因,把这种基因放入一个被感染的人体内之后,可以使所有它附着的细胞的后代对艾滋病毒产生抵抗力。

  47. 他们没有直接植入一种基因,而是把免疫细胞从人体内移除,然后用被改良成可以抵抗病毒的变种来代替它们。

  48. 这些细胞被净化后,再用一种带有反射图象或者分子的“抗感觉”变种的一种艾滋病毒来填充,该变种可以使改变后的病毒繁殖。

  49. 根据宾夕法尼亚州立大学的卡尔朱恩的描述,病人的免疫系统反映出“他们好像在疫苗保护之下”,而且似乎他们的身体在自我接种疫苗来抵抗艾滋病毒。

  50. 如果接下来的试验确认了前面得出的有利结果,那么就证明这种方法是对现存药物或未来疫苗的一种有益的补充——甚至可以取代它们。

  Second III Writing

  Part A

  51.

  Dear Joe,

  I feel so awfully worried that your legs were injured in accident. I learned that your right ankle was seriously swollen so you can't put your weight on your feet. I hope you'll be feeling a great deal better by the time this letter reaches you. Anyway, you've been robust and healthy and you will recover soon. I am enclosing a funny comic in the letter so that it can help kill your time and you'll forget your pains momentarily, I hope you will like it. I will come to see you when I am free.

  With best wishes for your swift return to be healthy.

  Yours faithfully

  Li Ming

  Part B

  52.

  This cartoon presents in front of us a sharp contrast between two types of neighbors. The two lonely human neighbors seek to hold onto an attitude of indifference towards each other, while the two pet neighbors offer polite and amiable greetings.

  When we take a walk in any big cities in the modern society, we may often notice such a sad scene in which social etiquettes of great necessity have been dramatically diminishing. Since most people in most communities are urged to live on an on-the-move lifestyle, they are probably denied opportunities to share their feelings with their friends and relatives and it is inevitable that their pets serve as their good companions. Where there are so many dishonesties going around, they prefer to stay with a dog, which is likely to be faithful to them, particularly in dark situations. An individual appears to be acting ridiculous if he starts conversations with his neighbors, so he often has no alternative but to enjoy the company of his pet dog. That's why the scene depicted in the cartoon is not uncommon in our daily life.

  Our life would be, of course, enjoyable if we have pets. But we would enjoy much more meaningful life in a more harmonious world if the two human neighbors started a talk to each other in a friendly way, just like the two dogs.

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