2009年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题精析

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2009年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题精析

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  2009年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题

  National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM)

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are 1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer’s piece in the Science Times on Tuesday. Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives. This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is a(n) 4 in not being too terrifically bright.

  Intelligence, it 5 , is a highpriced option. It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning—a (an) 7 process—instead of instinct. Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they’ve apparently learned is when to 8 .

  Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That’s the question behind this new research. I like it. Instead of casting a wistful glance10at all the species we’ve left in the dust I.Q.wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11of our own intelligence might be. This is12the mind of every animal we’ve ever met.

  Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would13on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning. We believe that15animals ran the labs, they would test us to16the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain. They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really17, not merely how much of it there is.18, they would hope to study a19question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in?20 the results are inconclusive.

  1.[A]Suppose[B]Consider[C]Observe[D]Imagine

  2.[A]tended[B] feared[C]happened[D]threatened

  3.[A]thinner[B] stabler[C]lighter[D]dimmer

  4.[A]tendency[B]advantage[C]inclination[D]priority

  5.[A]insists on[B]sums up[C]turns out[D]puts forward

  6.[A]off[B]behind[C]over[D]along

  7.[A]incredible[B]spontaneous[C]inevitable[D]gradual

  8.[A]fight[B]doubt[C]stop[D]think

  9.[A]invisible[B]limited[C]indefinite[D]different

  10.[A]upward[B]forward[C]afterward[D]backward

  11.[A]features[B]influences[C]results[D]costs

  12.[A]outside[B]on[C]by[D]across

  13.[A]deliver[B]carry[C]perform[D]apply

  14.[A]by chance[B]in contrast[C]as usual[D]for instance

  15.[A]if[B]unless[C]as[D]lest

  16.[A]moderate[B]overcome[C]determine[D]reach

  17.[A]at[B]for[C]after[D]with

  18.[A]Above all[B]After all[C]However[D]Otherwise

  19.[A]fundamental[B]comprehensive[C]equivalent[D]hostile

  20.[A]By accident[B] In time[C]So far[D]Better still

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  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Habits are a funny thing. We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on autopilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century. In the everchanging 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative implication.

  So it seems paradoxical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. But brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel synaptic paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks.

  Rather than dismissing ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consciously developing new habits. In fact, the more new things we try—the more we step outside our comfort zone—the more inherently creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives.

  But don’t bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts of procedure are worn into the brain, they’re there to stay. Instead, the new habits we deliberately ingrain into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass those old roads.

  “The first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder,” says Dawna Markova, author of The Open Mind . “But we are taught instead to ‘decide,’ just as our president calls himself ‘the Decider.’ ” She adds, however, that “to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one. A good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities.”

  All of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, she says. Researchers in the late 1960s discovered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. At the end of adolescence, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.

  The current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. “This breaks the major rule in the American belief system—that anyone can do anything,” explains M. J. Ryan, author of the 2006 book This Year I Will... and Ms. Markova’s business partner. “That’s a lie that we have perpetuated, and it fosters commonness. Knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.” This is where developing new habits comes in.

  21.In Wordsworth’s view,“habits” is characterized by being

  [A]casual.[B] familiar.[C] mechanical.[D]changeable.

  22.Brain researchers have discovered that the formation of new habits can be

  [A]predicted.[B] regulated.[C] traced.[D] guided.

  23.The word “ruts”(line 1, paragraph 4) is closest in meaning to

  [A]tracks.[B]series.[C]characteristics.[D] connections.

  24.Dawna Markova would most probably agree that

  [A]ideas are born of a relaxing mind.[B]innovativeness could be taught.

  [C]decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas.[D]curiosity activates creative minds.

  25.Ryan’s comments suggest that the practice of standard testing

  [A]prevents new habits from being formed.

  [B]no longer emphasizes commonness.

  [C]maintains the inherent American thinking mode.

  [D]complies with the American belief system.

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  Text 2

  It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom—or at least confirm that he’s the kid’s dad. All he needs to do is shell out $30 for a paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore—and another $120 to get the results.

  More than 60,000 people have purchased the PTKs since they first became available without prescriptions last years, according to Doug Fogg, chief operating officer of Identigene, which makes the overthecounter kits. More than two dozen companies sell DNA tests directly to the public, ranging in price from a few hundred dollars to more than $2500.

  Among the most popular : paternity and kinship testing , which adopted children can use to find their biological relatives and families can use to track down kids put up for adoption. DNA testing is also the latest rage among passionate genealogists—and supports businesses that offer to search for a family’s geographic roots.

  Most tests require collecting cells by swabbing saliva in the mouth and sending it to the company for testing. All tests require a potential candidate with whom to compare DNA.

  But some observers are skeptical, “There is a kind of false precision being hawked by people claiming they are doing ancestry testing,” says Trey Duster, a New York University sociologist. He notes that each individual has many ancestors—numbering in the hundreds just a few centuries back. Yet most ancestry testing only considers a single lineage, either the Y chromosome inherited through men in a father’s line or mitochondrial DNA, which is passed down only from mothers. This DNA can reveal genetic information about only one or two ancestors, even though, for example, just three generations back people also have six other greatgrandparents or, four generations back, 14 other greatgreatgrandparents.

  Critics also argue that commercial genetic testing is only as good as the reference collections to which a sample is compared. Databases used by some companies don’t rely on data collected systematically but rather lump together information from different research projects. This means that a DNA database may have a lot of data from some regions and not others, so a person’s test results may differ depending on the company that processes the results. In addition, the computer programs a company uses to estimate relationships may be patented and not subject to peer review or outside evaluation.

  26.In paragraphs 1 and 2 , the text shows PTK’s

  [A]easy availability.[B]flexibility in pricing.

  [C]successful promotion.[D]popularity with households.

  27.PTK is used to

  [A]locate one’s birth place.[B]promote genetic research.

  [C]identify parentchild kinship. [D]choose children for adoption.

  28.Skeptical observers believe that ancestry testing fails to

  [A]trace distant ancestors.[B]rebuild reliable bloodlines.

  [C]fully use genetic information.[D]achieve the claimed accuracy.

  29.In the last paragraph ,a problem commercial genetic testing faces is

  [A]disorganized data collection.[B]overlapping database building.

  [C]excessive sample comparison.[D]lack of patent evaluation.

  30.An appropriate title for the text is most likely to be

  [A] Fors and Againsts of DNA Testing[B]DNA Testing and It’s Problems

  [C]DNA Testing Outside the Lab[D]Lies behind DNA Testing

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  Text 3

  The relationship between formal education and economic growth in poor countries is widely misunderstood by economists and politicians alike. Progress in both areas is undoubtedly necessary for the social, political and intellectual development of these and all other societies; however, the conventional view that education should be one of the very highest priorities for promoting rapid economic development in poor countries is wrong. We are fortunate that is it, because building new educational systems there and putting enough people through them to improve economic performance would require two or three generations. The findings of a research institution have consistently shown that workers in all countries can be trained on the job to achieve radically higher productivity and, as a result, radically higher standards of living.

  Ironically, the first evidence for this idea appeared in the United States. Not long ago, with the country entering a recessing and Japan at its prebubble peak, the U.S. workforce was derided as poorly educated and one of the primary cause of the poor U.S. economic performance. Japan was, and remains, the global leader in automotiveassembly productivity. Yet the research revealed that the U.S. factories of Honda, Nissan, and Toyota achieved about 95 percent of the productivity of their Japanese counterparts—a result of the training that U.S. workers received on the job.

  More recently, while examining housing construction, the researchers discovered that illiterate, non-English-speaking Mexican workers in Houston, Texas, consistently met best-practice labor productivity standards despite the complexity of the building industry’s work.

  What is the real relationship between education and economic development? We have begun to suspect that continuing economic growth promotes the development of education even when governments don’t force it. After all, that’s how education got started. When our ancestors were hunters and gatherers 10,000 years ago, they didn’t have time to wonder much about anything besides finding food. Only when humanity began to get its food in a more productive way was there time for other things.

  As education improved, humanity’s productivity potential increased as well. When the competitive environment pushed our ancestors to achieve that potential, they could in turn afford more education. This increasingly high level of education is probably a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for the complex political systems required by advanced economic performance. Thus poor countries might not be able to escape their poverty traps without political changes that may be possible only with broader formal education. A lack of formal education, however, doesn’t constrain the ability of the developing world’s workforce to substantially improve productivity for the foreseeable future. On the contrary, constraints on improving productivity explain why education isn’t developing more quickly there than it is.

  31.The author holds in paragraph 1 that the importance of education in poor countries

  [A]is subject to groundless doubts. [B]has fallen victim of bias.

  [C]is conventionally downgraded. [D]has been overestimated.

  32.It is stated in paragraph 1 that construction of a new educational system

  [A]challenges economists and politicians. [B]takes efforts of generations.

  [C]demands priority from the government.[D]requires sufficient labor force.

  33.A major difference between the Japanese and U.S workforces is that

  [A]the Japanese workforce is better disciplined.[B]the Japanese workforce is more productive.

  [C]the U.S workforce has a better education.[D]the U.S workforce is more organized.

  34.The author quotes the example of our ancestors to show that education emerged

  [A]when people had enough time.[B]prior to better ways of finding food.

  [C]when people on longer went hungry. [D]as a result of pressure on government.

  35.According to the last paragraph , development of education

  [A]results directly from competitive environments.[B]does not depend on economic performance.

  [C]follows improved productivity.[D]cannot afford political changes.

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  Text 4

  The most thoroughly studied intellectuals in the history of the New World are the ministers and political leaders of seventeenthcentury New England. According to the standard history of American philosophy, nowhere else in colonial America was “so much important attached to intellectual pursuits.” According to many books and articles, New England’s leaders established the basic themes and preoccupations of an unfolding, dominant Puritan tradition in American intellectual life.

  To take this approach to the New Englanders normally mean to start with the Puritans’ theological innovations and their distinctive ideas about the church—important subjects that we may not neglect. But in keeping with our examination of southern intellectual life, we may consider the original Puritans as carriers of European culture adjusting to New World circumstances. The New England colonies were the scenes of important episodes in the pursuit of widely understood ideals of civility and virtuosity.

  The early settlers of Massachusetts Bay included men of impressive education and influence in England. Besides the ninety or so learned ministers who came to Massachusetts church in the decade after 1629, there were political leaders like John Winthrop, an educated gentleman, lawyer, and official of the Crown before he journeyed to Boston. There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness.

  We should not forget, however, that most New Englanders were less well educated. While few craftsmen or farmers, let alone dependents and servants, left literary compositions to be analyzed, it is obvious that their views were less fully intellectualized. Their thinking often had a traditional superstitions quality. A tailor named John Dane, who emigrated in the late 1630s, left an account of his reasons for leaving England that is filled with signs. Sexual confusion, economic frustrations , and religious hope—all name together in a decisive moment when he opened the Bible, told his father the first line he saw would settle his fate, and read the magical words: “come out from among them, touch no unclean thing , and I will be your God and you shall be my people.” One wonders what Dane thought of the careful sermons explaining the Bible that he heard in puritan churches.

  Meanwhile , many settlers had slighter religious commitments than Dane’s, as one clergyman learned in confronting folk along the coast who mocked that they had not come to the New world for religion . “Our main end was to catch fish. ”

  36. The author holds that in the seventeenthcentury New England

  [A]Puritan tradition dominated political life.

  [B]intellectual interests were encouraged.

  [C]politics benefited much from intellectual endeavors.

  [D]intellectual pursuits enjoyed a liberal environment.

  37. It is suggested in Paragraph 2 that New Englanders

  [A]experienced a comparatively peaceful early history.

  [B]brought with them the culture of the Old World.

  [C]paid little attention to southern intellectual life.

  [D]were obsessed with religious innovations.

  38. The early ministers and political leaders in Massachusetts Bay

  [A]were famous in the New World for their writings.

  [B]gained increasing importance in religious affairs.

  [C]abandoned high positions before coming to the New World.

  [D]created a new intellectual atmosphere in New England.

  39. The story of John Dane shows that less welleducated New Englanders were often

  [A]influenced by superstitions. [B]troubled with religious beliefs.

  [C]puzzled by church sermons. [D]frustrated with family earnings.

  40. The text suggests that early settlers in New England

  [A]were mostly engaged in political activities.[B]were motivated by an illusory prospect.

  [C]came from different intellectual backgrounds.[D]left few formal records for later reference.

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  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (4145), choose the most suitable one from the list AG to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41. .

  American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s. Morgan, along with Tylor, was one of the founders of modern anthropology. In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies.42. .

  In the early 1900s in North America, Germanborn American anthropologist Franz Boas developed a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology. 43. .

  Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture. 44. .

  Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 45. .

  Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Emile Durkheim developed a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function of society and culture—known as functionalism—became a major theme in European, and especially British, anthropology.

  [A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.

  [B] In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, Boas became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.

  [C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the “survival of the fittest,” in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.

  [D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people’s social structure, such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children’s entrance into adulthood.

  [E] Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.

  [F]Supporters of the theory viewed as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.

  [G] For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association.(46)It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. (47)Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world’s work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

  But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance.(48)While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. (49)Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

  (50)We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education—that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps the adults loyal to their group.

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  Section III Writing

  Part A

  51. Directions:

  Restrictions on the use of plastic bags have not been so successful in some regions. “White pollution ”is still going on. Write a letter to the editor(s) of your local newspaper to

  1)give your opinions briefly and,

  2) make two or three suggestions

  You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address.(10 points)

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and then

  3) give your comments.

  You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  2009年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语试题答案与解析

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  Research on animal intelligence always makes me wonder just how smart humans are 1 the fruit-fly experiments described in Carl Zimmer’s piece in the Science Times on Tuesday. Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit fly 2 to live shorter lives. This suggests that 3 bulbs burn longer, that there is a(n) 4 in not being too terrifically bright.

  Intelligence, it 5 , is a highpriced option. It takes more upkeep, burns more fuel and is slow 6 the starting line because it depends on learning—a (an) 7 process—instead of instinct. Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they’ve apparently learned is when to 8 .

  Is there an adaptive value to 9 intelligence? That’s the question behind this new research. I like it. Instead of casting a wistful glance10at all the species we’ve left in the dust I.Q.wise, it implicitly asks what the real 11of our own intelligence might be. This is12the mind of every animal we’ve ever met.

  Research on animal intelligence also makes me wonder what experiments animals would13on humans if they had the chance. Every cat with an owner, 14, is running a small-scale study in operant conditioning. We believe that15animals ran the labs, they would test us to16the limits of our patience, our faithfulness, our memory for terrain. They would try to decide what intelligence in humans is really17, not merely how much of it there is.18, they would hope to study a19question: Are humans actually aware of the world they live in?20 the results are inconclusive.

  对动物智能进行的研究总是让我想了解人类到底有多聪明。不妨考虑一下卡尔·齐默周二发表在《科学时报》杂志上的对于果蝇实验的描述,那些学得比普通果蝇更聪明的果蝇往往寿命比较短。这让人想起比较暗淡的灯泡照明时间反而比较长,不那么聪明也有自身的优势。

  事实证明,聪明是一种昂贵的选择。它需要更多的保养,消耗更多的燃料,起步慢,这是因为聪明依赖学习——一个渐进的过程——而不是本能。许多其他物种都能够学习,它们显然已经学会的一件事就是什么时候停止学习。

  是否有一个有限聪明的适应值呢?这是该项研究背后的问题。我喜欢它。该研究不是要我们对那些在智力方面已被人类远远抛在后面的物种投以悲怜的眼光,而是含蓄地提出一个问题:人类智慧的真正代价可能是什么。而这是我们遇见所有动物都在思考的问题。

  研究动物智能也让我想知道如果动物有机会的话,它们会对人类进行何种实验。例如,每一只有主人的猫都在进行一项有关操作性条件反射的小规模研究。我认为,如果让动物管理实验室的话,它们会对我们进行测试,来确定我们的忍耐度、我们的忠诚度、我们对地域的记忆力。它们将设法确定人类智慧的用途,而不仅仅是人类有多少智慧。更重要的是,它们希望研究一个基本问题:人类是否真正了解他们生活的这个世界?迄今为止,结果尚不确定。

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  1. [A]Suppose[B]Consider[C]Observe[D]Imagine

  2. [A]tended[B]feared[C]happened[D]threatened

  3. [A]thinner[B]stabler[C]lighter[D]dimmer

  4. [A]tendency[B]advantage[C]inclination[D]priority

  5. [A]insists on[B]sums up[C]turns out[D]puts forward

  6. [A]off[B]behind[C]over[D]along

  7. [A]incredible[B]spontaneous[C]inevitable[D]gradual

  8. [A]fight[B]doubt[C]stop[D]think

  9. [A]invisible[B]limited[C]indefinite[D]different

  10. [A]upward[B]forward[C]afterward[D]backward

  11. [A]features[B]influences[C]results[D]costs

  12. [A]outside[B]on[C]by[D]across

  13. [A]deliver[B]carry[C]perform[D]apply

  14. [A]by chance[B]in contrast[C]as usual[D]for instance

  15. [A]if[B]unless[C]as[D]lest

  16. [A]moderate[B]overcome[C]determine[D]reach

  17. [A]at[B]for[C]after[D]with

  18. [A]Above all[B] After all[C] However[D]Otherwise

  19. [A]fundamental[B]comprehensive[C]equivalent[D] hostile

  20. [A]By accident[B]In time[C]So far[D] Better still

  【内容提要】 本文围绕对动物智能的研究展开话题,说明智慧也是要付出代价的,并假想若是动物对人类智能进行研究的话,会是什么状况。

  1.【正确答案】B

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择动词,放在祈使句句首。选项A. suppose认为,假定;B. consider考虑;C. observe 观察;D. imagine 想象。文章开篇指出:Research on animal intelligence always makes us wonder just how smart humans are.“对动物智慧的研究总是让我对人类到底有多聪明感到好奇”,接着举了果蝇的例子,该句要选择的动词应与上句在语义上衔接。用consider意为“让读者考虑一下(果蝇实验)”,从而引出下文,其他选项均不符合题意。

  2.【正确答案】A

  【考查重点】语义衔接/固定搭配

  【解题过程】本题目选择动词(过去式),与介词“to”构成动词短语,在句子中充当谓语。选项A. tended to易于,往往会……;B. feared to 害怕做某事;C. happened to 碰巧做某事;D. threatened to 威胁要做某事。Fruit flies who were taught to be smarter than the average fruit flyto live shorter lives. 原文讲述的是在实验中经常发生的一种情况,即“通过训练变得更聪明的果蝇,其寿命往往比普通果蝇短”。故选A。

  3.【正确答案】D

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择形容词比较级,在句中作定语修饰bulbs。This suggests thatbulbs burn longer, ...“这让人想起……的灯泡照明时间比较长……。”上句讲到“聪明的果蝇寿命往往较短”,这句接着用灯泡作类比,承接上句语义,应该是越不亮的灯泡用的时间越长,所以选Ddimmer 较暗的;选项Clighter更亮的,与前文意思相悖; Athinner 更薄的,更瘦的;Bstable 更稳定的;该两项均不符合题意。

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  4.【正确答案】B

  【考查重点】词汇辨析/固定搭配

  【解题过程】本题目选择名词,并与in搭配。选项A. tendency 趋势,倾向,后面常接介词for或动词不定式,如:a tendency for sth.或a tendency to do sth.(做)某事的倾向;B. advantage 优势,后常接介词in,即an advantage in sth. 在某方面具有优势;C. inclination倾向,意愿,倾斜度,后常接介词for或动词不定式,即an inclination for sth.或an inclination to do sth.想做某事;D. priority 优先权,后常接over,如:take priority over sth./sb. (比某事/某人)具有优先权。且从上下文语义来看,前面说聪明的果蝇寿命短,越不亮的灯泡用的时间越长,所以这里语义应为“不太聪明(灯泡不太亮)是有优势的”,故B为正确选项。注意,bright在此处是一语双关,既可表示“灯泡不那么亮”,也可表示“人不那么聪明”。

  5.【正确答案】C

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目要选择动词短语,使插入语完整。从上文可知,“聪明的果蝇寿命往往较短”,以及“不太聪明是有优势的”,由此推出的结果是:聪明也是要付出代价的。C. turn out意为“结果是……”,把it turns out用作插入语,使该句与上段内容紧紧联系起来,因此选C。A. insist on坚持;B. sum up总计,总结;D. put forward提出。这三项均不符合题意。

  6.【正确答案】A

  【考查重点】语义衔接

  【解题过程】本题目选择介词,体现与the starting line(起跑线)的逻辑关系。选项B. behind和C. over可以首先排除,因为这里没有涉及空间位置关系;若选D. along则是“沿着起跑线徘徊”之意,这与后面的process意思不符;选项A. off 有“离开”之意,slow off the starting line表示“离开起跑线慢了”,即“起步慢了”,但仍在进步,与后文逻辑一致,故选A。

  7.【正确答案】D

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择形容词,做process的定语。破折号表示对前面内容即learning的解释。这里把learning(学习)与instinct(本能)作对比,结合前文的slow,以及学习自身的特点可知,只有gradual“渐进的” 符合题意。其它三项A. incredible 难以置信的;B. spontaneous 自发的;C. inevitable 不可避免的;均不符合题意,故本题答案为D。

  8.【正确答案】C

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】Plenty of other species are able to learn, and one of the things they’ve apparently learned is when to.“许多其它物种都能够学习,它们显然已经学会的一件事就是什么时候……学习。”由上文可知,聪明需要学习,很多物种都能够学习,但都没有变聪明,这是因为它们还学会了适时停止学习。因此选C。其它三项在语义上均不通。

  9.【正确答案】B

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择形容词,作定语修饰intelligence。由上文可知,智慧越多,付出的代价越多,因此智慧肯定是有限的,而且根据value也可以推断这里是关于intelligence多少的问题。选项A.invisible 看不见的;C. indefinite 不确定的;D. different 不同的;均与数量多少无关,只有limited“有限的,不多的”符合题意,故选B。

  10.【正确答案】D

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择副词以表明逻辑关系。“we’ve left in the dust I.Q.wise”是定语从句,修饰the species。cast a glance at...意为“对……投以目光”;“leave sb. in the dust”是固定搭配,“将某人远远抛在后面”的意思;I.Q.wise是派生词,后缀wise表示方式,意为“在I.Q.方面”。这句话是说“该研究不是要我们对那些在智力方面已被人类远远抛在后面的物种投以悲怜的眼光。”人类看这些被抛在后面的物种,自然是往后看了,所以D. backward为正确选项,A. upward向上;B. forward向前;C. afterward 之后,后来(表时间);该三项均不符合题意。

  11.【正确答案】D

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词义辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择名词,做宾语从句的主语。...it implicitly asks what the real of our own intelligence might be. “这项实验含蓄地提出一个问题:人类智慧的真正……可能是什么。”前文已经提到Intelligence...is a highpriced option,因此应选D.costs。选项A.features 特征;B.influences 影响;C.results 结果,均不符合题意。

  12.【正确答案】B

  【考查重点】固定搭配。

  【解题过程】本题目选择介词,与mind搭配。on one’s mind或on the mind of sb. 是固定短语,意为“有心事,总是想着”,其它三项均不能与mind构成固定搭配。

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  13.【正确答案】C

  【考查重点】固定搭配

  【解题过程】本题目选择动词,作为wonder引导的宾语从句的谓语。选择的动词应与experiments搭配。选项A. deliver 递送;D. apply 应用;两者均不能与experiments搭配。若用carry,则为carry out experiments,故只能选C. perform 执行,perform experiments意为“做实验”。

  14.【正确答案】D

  【考查重点】词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择介词短语在句中做插入语,表明逻辑关系。前文已经讲到作者很好奇,如果动物有机会的话,会对人类进行何种实验。本句接着说Every cat with an owner, , is running a smallscale study in operant conditioning.“每一只有主人的猫都在进行一项有关操作性条件反射的小规模研究。”这是以cat为例进一步论述动物对人进行实验,因此应选择表示举例的介词短语,故选D. for instance 例如。选项A. by chance 偶然;B. in contrast与……相比;C. as usual像往常一样;均不符合题意。

  15.【正确答案】A

  【考查重点】逻辑衔接

  【解题过程】本题目选择连词,体现句子之间的逻辑关系。由ran,would可知,本句使用了虚拟语气,是对动物可能对人类进行实验进行了假设,故选A。选项B. unless 除非;C. as因为;D lest 唯恐,均不符合题意。

  16.【正确答案】C

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】 本题目选择动词,与limits搭配,作为test的目的。选项A. moderate 缓和;B. overcome克服;D. reach 达到。既然作为测试的目的,应为确定某些内容,故选C. determine,这里是“查明,测定”的意思。

  17.【正确答案】B

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词义辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择介词,体现逻辑关系。该句承接上一句,继续论述假设动物对人类进行实验的内容。选项A. at表示方位; C. after表示时间;D. with表示伴随,均不符合语义,只有B. for表示目的,构成what...for符合语境,表明动物们想了解人类智慧是用来干什么的。

  18.【正确答案】A

  【考查重点】逻辑衔接

  【解题过程】本题目选择逻辑关系词,体现前后句子之间的逻辑关系。前面两句解释了假设动物对人类进行实验会进行的的内容:它们想了解人类的某些极限,想知道人类智慧的用途。本句与前两句构成并列排比,they would hope to study aquestion“它们希望研究一个问题”,与前两句应为顺承关系,表示强调或递进,所以B. After all毕竟;C. However但是;D. Otherwise 否则;三者均不符合题意,只有Above all“首先,尤其是”符合题意。

  19.【正确答案】 A

  【考查重点】语义衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择形容词,作定语修饰question。选项A. fundamental基本的;B. comprehensive 综合的;C. equivalent 相等的;D. hostile 敌对的。由下文可知,这个question是Are humans actually aware of the world they live in? “人类是否真正了解他们生活的这个世界?”这应该是个最基本的问题,故选A。

  20.【正确答案】 C

  【考查重点】逻辑衔接/词汇辨析

  【解题过程】本题目选择短语体现与前面句子的逻辑关系。前面句子提出一个问题,本句讲the results are inconclusive. “……结果是不确定的。”因此, 选项C so far“迄今为止”最符合题意,A. By accident偶然;B In time 及时;D. Better still更好;三者都不符合语义。

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