2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)

日期:12-15| http://www.59wj.com |考研英语真题|人气:642

2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)

  

  

  

  2004年考研英语完形填空真题解析

  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories 21 on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior 22 they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through 23 with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in 24 to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status 25 as a rejection of middleclass values.

  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, 26 the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes 27 lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are 28 to criticism.

  Changes in the social structure may indirectly 29 juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that 30 to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment 31 make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in 32 lead more youths into criminal behavior.

  Families have also 33 changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; 34 , children are likely to have less supervision at home 35 was common in the traditional family 36 . This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other 37 causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased 38 of drugs and alcohol, and the growing 39 of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, 40 a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

  21. [A] acting[B] relying[C] centering[D] cementing

  22. [A] before[B] unless[C] until[D] because

  23. [A] interactions[B] assimilation[C] cooperation[D] consultation

  24. [A] return[B] reply[C] reference[D] response

  25. [A] or[B] but rather[C] but[D] or else

  26. [A] considering[B] ignoring[C] highlighting[D] discarding

  27. [A] on[B] in[C] for[D] with

  28. [A] immune[B] resistant[C] sensitive[D] subject

  29. [A] affect[B] reduce[C] chock[D] reflect

  30. [A] point[B] lead[C] come[D] amount

  31. [A] in general[B] on average[C] by contrast[D] at length

  32. [A] case[B] short[C] turn[D] essence

  33. [A] survived[B] noticed[C] undertaken[D] experienced

  34. [A] contrarily[B] consequently[C] similarly[D] simultaneously

  35. [A] than[B] that[C] which[D] as

  36. [A] system[B] structure[C] concept[D] heritage

  37. [A] assessable[B] identifiable[C] negligible[D] incredible

  38. [A] expense[B] restriction[C] allocation[D] availability

  39. [A] incidence[B] awareness[C] exposure[D] popularity

  40. [A] provided[B] since[C] although[D] supposing

  .
       
        www.59wj.com

  文章背景

  本文是一篇关于青少年犯罪的文章,原文的标题是Juvenile Crime(青少年犯罪)。原文分为六个部分:Introduction(青少年犯罪介绍);History(青少年犯罪的历史); Juvenile Crime in the U.S.(青少年犯罪在美国的现状);Causes of Delinquency(青少年犯罪的起因);Treatment of Offenders(犯罪者的治疗措施);Juvenile Crime in Other Nations(其他国家青少年犯罪介绍)。试题中的文字出自"青少年犯罪的起因"一节。

  答案详解

  21.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。Theorieson the individual "……于个人的理论"。选项A. acting on 作用于; B. relying on 依赖于;C. centering on 集中于;D. commenting on 评论。前面句子…focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence."许多有关青少年犯罪根源的理论或者强调个人或者强调社会作为导致犯罪的主要原因。"因此,正确答案为C。 centering on 集中于,强调个人作为导致犯罪的主要原因的理论。

  22.【解析】[D] 逻辑衔接题。…that children engage in criminal behaviorthey were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds "孩子从事犯罪行为……以前的错误行为没有得到足够的惩罚。"不难发现,前后两个句子是因果关系。因此,正确答案为D。

  23.【解析】[A] 语义衔接题。…or that they have learned criminal behavior throughwith others. "或者他们通过跟其他人的……学会犯罪行为"。选项A. interaction 相互作用或影响;B. assimilation 同化;C. cooperation 合作;D. consultation 咨询。从前面的learned criminal behavior来判断,与别人的交往(相互作用或影响)是染上犯罪行为的途径。因此,正确答案为A。

  24.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/ 惯用衔接题。…children commit crimes into their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status… "孩子犯罪……想提高社会经济地位却遭受失败……"。不难发现,前后两个部分之间是因果关系。选项A. in return 作为回报,一般不与to 连用;B. in reply to 作为回复;C. in reference to 关于,参考;D. in response to 由于,作为回应,这里可以引申为"由于,出于"的意思,表达一种因果关系。

  25.【解析】[A] 逻辑衔接题。…children commit crimes in response to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic statusas a rejection of middleclass values. "孩子犯罪是因为想提高社会经济地位却遭受失败……由于他们对中产阶级的价值观念持否定态度产阶级的价值观给拒之门外"。选项A. or 或者;B. but rather 但是宁愿;C. but 但是;D. or else 然而。此处空格表达的是一种并列关系,按照对应关系此处应为or。因此,正确答案为A。

  26.【解析】[B] 语义衔接/结构衔接题。Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families,the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. "大多数青少年犯罪的理论都将矛头指向单亲家庭的孩子身上,……富裕家庭孩子也犯罪的事实"。选项A. considering 考虑到; B. ignoring 忽略;C. highlighting 强调,启发;D. discarding 抛弃。 "大多数青少年犯罪的理论都将矛头指向单亲家庭的孩子身上,忽略了富裕家庭孩子也犯罪的事实",符合句子含义。因此,正确答案为B。

  27.【解析】[C] 结构衔接题。The latter may commit crimeslack of adequate parental control. "后者也犯罪……缺少足够的父母控制。"不难发现,句子前后体现的是因果关系。因此,正确答案为C. for lack of译为"由于缺少……"。

  28.【解析】[D] 语义衔接题。本题目选择"are…to "的短语,在句子中充当谓语。句子叙述到All theories, however, are tentative and areto criticism. "然而,所有的理论都不是定论,常常……批评"。选择谓语动词,主语和宾语提供信息决定答案。选项A. be immune to 对……免疫;B. be resistant to 抵制……;C. be sensitive to 对……敏感;D. be subject to 遭受。与该空并列的形容词tentative表示"尝试性的",因此"容易招致批评",正确答案为D。

  29.【解析】[A] 语义衔接题。Changes in the social structure may indirectlyjuvenile crime rates. "社会结构的变革可能会间接……青少年犯罪率"。选项A. affect 影响;B. reduce 减少;C. check 检查;D. reflect 反映。因此,正确答案为A,社会结构的变革可能会间接影响青少年犯罪率。

  30.【解析】[B] 语义衔接/惯用衔接题。…changes in the economy thatto fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment…"that" 指代changes in the economy,"经济的变革……年轻人就业机会少,失业率高。"选项A. point to 指向;B. lead to 导致;C. come to 达到,苏醒;D. amount to 合计,总计。经济的变革会使就业机会少,失业率高,这是因果关系。只有lead to"导致"可以表示因果关系。

  31.【解析】[A] 结构衔接题。…changes in the economymake gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. "经济变革……使回报丰厚的工作更难找到。" 选项A. in general 一般来说;B. on average 平均;C. by contrast 对比;D. at length 最终。句子中没有统计,因此不涉及平均, on average 不符合句子含义;没有参照对象,因此不涉及对比, by contrast 不符合句子含义;没有时间期限,不涉及最终, at length不符合句子含义。in general "一般来说,经济变革使回报丰厚的工作更难找到",符合句子含义。因此,正确答案为A。

  32.【解析】[C] 语义衔接/惯用衔接题。本题目选择与介词in 构成的搭配,并且在句子中做状语。The resulting discontent may inlead more youths into criminal behavior. "由此而产生的不满……促使越来越多的年轻人卷入犯罪活动"。选项A. in case 万一;B. in short 简言之;C. in turn 反过来;D. in essence 本质上说。前文介绍各种变化带来的后果,空格处所在的句子"随之产生的不满……导致更多的年轻人走向犯罪",这说明变化和犯罪是相互作用的,故选择in turn"反过来"。

  33.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。Families have alsochanges these years. "这些年来,家庭也……变化"。选项A. survived 幸存;B. noticed 注意到;C. undertaken 承担, 许诺, 担任;D. experienced 经历。"这些年来,家庭也经历了变化",符合句子含义。因此,正确答案为D。

  34.【解析】[B] 语义衔接/结构衔接题。More families consist of one parent households or two working parents;, children are likely to have less supervision at home "更多的家庭只有父亲或者母亲在家,或者父母都在外工作。……孩子在家里面可能很少有人监督。"选项A. contrarily 相反地;B. consequently 结果是;C. similarly 相似地;D. simultaneously 同时。空格前后语句构成因果关系,因此选B项。

  35.【解析】[A] 结构衔接题。本题目选择关系代词或者关系副词或者连词,将前、后两个部分紧密连接。Children are likely to have less supervision at homewas common in the traditional family.不难发现,句子中体现了比较级,因此,正确答案为A。"与传统家庭相比,这类家庭的孩子很可能受到相对较少的管束。"本题中在than后省略了the supervision that。

  36.【解析】[B] 语义衔接题。前文提到了现代家庭的构成:More families consist of oneparent households or two working parents. 第三段首句Changes in the social structure…指出社会结构的变化影响青少年犯罪。因此structure "结构"为正确选项。system "系统",concept "概念",heritage "遗传"都不合文义。

  37.【解析】[B] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。Othercauses of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school,… "其他的……导致犯罪行为的原因包括上学受挫和失败……"。选项A. assessable 可评估的;B. identifiable 能够被发现的;C. negligible可以忽略的,微不足道的;D. incredible 不可相信的。青少年犯罪的原因都是社会认同的,所以不可能是"可以忽略的,微不足道的"或者"不可相信的"。assessable不与cause搭配。因此,正确答案为B。

  38.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。Other identifiable causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increasedof drugs and alcohol,…"其他的能够发现的导致犯罪行为的原因包括上学受挫和失败,毒品和酒类产品的……"。选项A. expense花费,支出;B. restriction 限制;C. allocation 分配;D. availability可利用性,有益,可得到的东西。本题所在的语句表述的是造成青少年犯罪的因素之一,四个选项中availability最符合题意,意为"毒品和酒越来越容易得到"。A项expense容易误选,但它表达的意思是"花费,开支",所以不符合句义。

  39.【解析】[A] 语义衔接题。Other identifiable causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased availability of drugs and alcohol, the growingof child abuse and child neglect."其他的能够发现的导致犯罪行为的原因包括上学受挫和失败,毒品和酒类产品的存在,虐待孩子和忽略孩子的……越来越多。" 选项A. incidence 发生,发生率;B. awareness 意识;C. exposure 暴露;D. popularity 普及,流行。文意想要表达:虐待孩子和忽视孩子也提高了青少年犯罪率。因此正确答案为A,这些事情的发生率增长会造成更多犯罪。

  40.【解析】[C] 逻辑衔接题。本题目选择连词,将前、后两个句子紧密连接。All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act,a direct causal relationship has not yet been established. "所有的这些情况都趋向于增加青少年犯罪的可能性,……其中直接的联系还没有建立起来。"不难发现,前、后两个句子之间体现为让步关系。选项A. provided 倘若(表示条件关系);B. since 既然(表示原因);C. although 虽然……但是(表示让步关系);D. supposing 假使(表示条件关系)。因此,正确答案为C。

  参考译文

  许多研究青少年犯罪(年轻人所犯的罪行)的理论要么强调个人,要么强调社会是导致犯罪的主要因素。以个人原因为中心的理论认为青少年从事犯罪活动是由于他们以前的恶性没有受到应有的惩罚或者是他们通过彼此的影响而学会了犯罪。关注于社会责任的理论认为青少年未能如愿地提升自己的社会经济地位,由此引发犯罪,或者是把犯罪看成是对中产阶级价值观的排斥。

  大多数有关青少年犯罪的理论强调这些儿童都是来自贫困家庭,而忽略了出身富裕家庭的孩子也会犯罪这一事实。后者可能是由于缺乏父母的管教而犯罪。不过所有的理论都不是确定的,并且都受到了批评。

  社会结构方面的变化可能间接影响了青少年的犯罪率。比如,经济领域的变化导致青少年就业机会减少和失业率上升,使得能挣钱的工作越来越难以获得。由此产生的不满就可能反过来使更多的年轻人犯罪。

  这些年,家庭也在发生着变化。单亲家庭或父母都有工作的家庭不断增加。这样一来,孩子可能在家庭受到的监督就可能比过去传统家庭要少。有人认为缺乏父母的监督会影响孩子的犯罪率。儿童犯罪的其他一些确凿原因还包括在学校的挫折与失败,药物和酒精更加容易得到,以及对孩子受到的虐待与忽视越来越多。所有这一切都会增加儿童犯罪的可能性,虽然其中的直接因果关系还不确定。

  .
       
        www.59wj.com 如果觉得《2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)》考研英语真题,kaoyan不错,可以推荐给好友哦。
本文Tags: 考研 - 考研英语 - 考研英语真题,kaoyan,
在百度中搜索相关文章:2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)
在谷歌中搜索相关文章:2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)
在soso中搜索相关文章:2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)
在搜狗中搜索相关文章:2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2004)
相关分类导航|
热门推荐|