2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2008)

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2009-2003年考研英语完形填空真题解析(2008)

  

  

  

  2008年考研英语完形填空真题解析

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway. He is that 2 bird, a scientist who works independently 3 any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not 4 thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

  5 he, however, might tremble at the 6 of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in 8 is a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection.

  This group generally does well in IQ test, 9 12-15 points above the 10 value of 100, and have contributed 11 to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the 12 of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, 13 . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, 14 , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been 15 to social effects, such as a strong tradition of 16 education. The latter was seen as a (an) 17 of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately 18 . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs.

  1. [A] selected[B]prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

  2. [A] unique[B]particular[C] special[D] rare

  3. [A] of[B]with[C] in[D] against

  4. [A] subsequently[B]presently[C] previously[D] lately

  5. [A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  6. [A] thought[B]sight[C] cost[D] risk

  7. [A] advises[B]suggests[C] protests[D] objects

  8. [A] progress[B]fact[C] need[D] question

  9. [A] attaining[B]common[C] mean[D] calculating

  10. [A] normal[B]common[C] mean[D] total

  11. [A] unconsciously[B]disproportionately[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  12. [A] missions[B]fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

  13. [A] affirm[B]witness[C] observe[D] approve

  14. [A] moreover[B]therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

  15. [A] given up[B]got over[C] carried on[D] put down

  16. [A] assessing[B]supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

  17. [A] development[B]origin[C] consequence[D]instrument

  18. [A] linked[B]integrated[C] woven[D] combined

  19. [A] limited[B]subjected[C] converted[D] directed

  20. [A] paradoxical[B]incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

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  文章背景

  这是一篇介绍个人学术观点的说明文,文章内容主要围绕一部分人是否比另外一部分人聪明这个主题展开。该文原文刊登在2005年6月2日的《经济学人》杂志上,原文的标题是The Evolution of Intelligence(智力的进化),命题专家对原文进行了一定的简化,但是意思没有发生丝毫的变化。

  文章结构

  文章采用了总分的叙述方式,文章第一段的前两句话就是文章叙述的主题,全片文章围绕这个主题展开。

  第一段:

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is 1 to say it anyway.(总述)

  第二段:

  Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only 7 that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about.(分述)

  第三段:

  This group generally does well in IQ test…

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases…

  His argument is that the unusual history of these people has 19 them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this 20 state of affairs.(结论)

  答案详解

  1.【解析】[B] 语义衔接题。本题目选择动词过去分词形式,构成be…to 的结构,在句子中充当谓语。 选项A. selected 选择;B. prepared 准备;C. obliged迫使,责成;D. pleased 高兴。前边相邻句子The idea that some people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. "一些人比另一些人聪明,这一观点一直是人们不敢明确提出来的假设之一。" 本题所在句子由But一词引导,在句义上与前一句相反,即"打算或准备说了",故选B。

  2.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。本题目选择形容词,在句子中充当定语。选项A. unique 独一无二的;B. particular 特殊的,特别的;C. special 特殊的;D. rare 珍惜的,罕见的,珍贵的。rare birds意为"稀世珍品,旷世奇才,罕见人(物)", Gregory Cochran打破常规,准备说了,因此像是"出头鸟"。

  3.【解析】[A] 惯用衔接题。independent其后应搭配of,意为"独立于,不依赖于"。还应注意dependent后面还可搭配on,但意为"依赖于, 依靠于"。He is that rare bird, a scientist who works independentlyany institution. "他就是那个稀有之人,是一位不依赖于任何机构的独立的科学家"。

  4.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。本题目选择副词,在句子中充当状语。句子叙述到He helped popularize the idea that some diseases notthought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which ruffled many scientific feathers when it was first suggested. "他普及了这种观点,即某些以前人们认为不是由细菌引起的疾病实际上是传染病,这一观点一经提出就引起了极大争议。" 分析本句结构可以看出:that引导的是同位语从句,说明idea的内容,从句中some diseases not…thought to have a bacterial cause是主语部分, 谓语是were actually infections…,而后面which 引导的非限制定语从句是修饰the idea这个名词的。解本题的关键词是actually "实际上",隐含转折之意,即过去的看法和实际情况不同。选项A. subsequently 随后;B. presently 当前;C. previously 先前;D. lately近来,最近。为了与本句子中的"actually,实际上"相互呼应,要体现时间上的先后交替关系。因此,正确答案为C。

  5.【解析】[C] 逻辑关系/ 语义衔接题。由本句中的however可知,"虽然如此, 一想到他即将要做的,他本人也会有点战战兢兢",even符合逻辑关系, so和hence表示因果关系,与前文所述无内在的逻辑关系。

  6.【解析】[A] 语义衔接/固定搭配题。at和四个选项中的名词都可搭配, 但意思相去甚远。选项A. at the thought of 一想到……;B. at the sight of 一看到……;C. at the cost of 以……为代价;D. at the risk of 冒……的风险。根据句意,正确答案为A。

  7.【解析】[B] 词汇辨析题。本题目选择动词,在句子中充当谓语。选项A. advise 建议;B. suggest 提出;暗示,建议;C. protest 对……提出异议;D. object 反对。Gregory Cochran"不但……,而且解释了出现这种情况的过程",从本题所在的句意可以看出,B正确。 另注意:suggest有两个基本意义,一为"建议",其后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气;二为"提出,暗示",其后的宾语从句不用虚拟语气。

  8.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/固定搭配题。本题目选择介词短语,在句子中充当定语,修饰前面的the group。选项A. in progress 在……的进程中;B. in fact 事实上;C. in need 在危难(急)中;D. in question 讨论中的; 考虑中的。前句提到人类某些人的平均智商要高一些,词句衔接上一句,由此可知空格处要表达的是"正在被讨论的这个群体"。选项D符合句意。

  9.【解析】[B] 词汇辨析/ 惯用搭配题。本题目选择动词,在句子中充当谓语。选项A. attaining 获得(经过长期努力); B. scoring 得分;C. reaching 达到;D. calculating 通过计算得出。句子中的宾语是分数,因此要选择得分。因此,正确答案为B。

  10.【解析】[C] 词汇辨析题。本题目选择形容词,在句子中充当定语,修饰后面的名词。scoring 1215 points above thevalue of 100, "这个群体在智商测试中成绩最好,比100分的……分多得12分到15分。"选项A. normal 正常的;B. common 普通的;共同的;C. mean平均的;D. total 总共的。一般来说, average表示"平均的"较常用,mean表达这个意义时比较正式。 100分是个参照值,这个数字是大多数人的基本智商数值。因此,正确答案为C。

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  11.【解析】[B] 语义衔接题。本题目选择副词,在句子中充当状语。This group generally do well in IQ tests, scoring 1215 points above the mean value of 100, and have contributedto the intellectual and cultural life of the West, "这个群体在智商测试中成绩很好,比100分的平均分多得12分到15分。这个群体为西方的学术和文化做出的贡献是……", 选项B"不成比例地;不相称地,比例太大(或太小地)",与题意相符合。选项A. unconsciously 无意识地;C. indefinitely 不确定地;D. unaccountably 不能说明的; 不可理解的。这三项都不符合题意。

  12.【解析】[D] 语义衔接题。本题目选择名词,在as 引导的非限制性定语从句中充当主语,意为"正如他们的精英--包括一些世界知名的科学家--从事的职业所证实的"。选项A. missions 使命, 任务;B. fortunes 财富, 运气;C. interests 利益;兴趣;D. careers 生涯,事业。因此,正确答案为D。

  13.【解析】[A] 语义衔接/词义辨析题。本题目选择动词,在非限制性定语从句中充当谓语。选项A. affirm 证实,确定;B. witness 目击,证明;C. observe 观察;遵守;D. approve 赞成,批准。选项B常用作及物动词;选项C和选项D一般以人作主语。因此,正确答案为A。

  14.【解析】[C] 逻辑衔接题。本题目选择逻辑关系词,体现前后两个句子的逻辑关系。They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts,, have previously been thought unrelated. "此外,与多数人相比,他们更容易患一些恶性的遗传病,例如乳腺癌。……人们以前认为这些情况是没有关联的。"选项A. moreover 此外,而且;B. therefore 因此;C. however 然而,但是;D. meanwhile 同时。前后两个句子表现出转折关系。因此,正确答案为C。

  15.【解析】[D] 词汇辨析/语义衔接题。本题目选择动词短语,在句子中充当谓语。选项A. be given up to 让与……;B. get over 克服(不与to 连用);C. carry on 继续(不与to 连用);D. be put down to 归因于。选项D. be put down to 归因于,句意为"智商归因于社会影响",符合句子含义。因此,正确答案为D。

  16.【解析】[D] 词汇辨析题。本题目选择动名词形式。选项A. assessing 评估,评价;B. supervising 监督;C. administering 管理,掌管;D. valuing 重视。assessing通常表示"估计"出某物的价值,以更有效地利用它。 此句要表达的意思是"高度重视教育",因此选D项。

  17.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。本题目选择名词,构成as…of的结构。The latter was seen as a of genetic isolation. "后者被视为遗传隔离的……。"选项A. development 发展;B. origin 起源;C. consequence 结果; D. instrument 工具,器皿。此处与第15题形成"对应结构",前后呼应,"前者归因于社会影响,例如重视教育的优良传统。" "后者被认为是遗传隔离的结果"。因此,正确答案为C。

  18.【解析】[A] 词汇辨析题。本题目选择动词,在句子中充当谓语。选项A. linked 两者之间的关联或联系;B. integrated 两者结合为一个整体;C. woven (原形 weave;过去式wove) 摇摆;D. combined 两者结合,连接。句子表达的含义为"智力和疾病是紧密相关的"。因此,正确答案为A。integrate隐含"部分是整体不可缺少的",而intelligence和disease 是两类不同属性的事物;weave通常表示"编入",意为"相互交织的"。

  19.【解析】[B] 语义衔接/固定搭配题。本题目选择动词,在句子中构成固定搭配,充当谓语。His argument is that the unusual history of these people hasthem to unique evolutionary pressures "他的观点是,这些人非同寻常的经历使其更容易遭受独特的进化压力"。选项A. limited to 局限于, 限制(只能构成be limited to短语,被限制在……);B. subjected to 使遭受(经受),屈服(subject…to…使……屈服于……);C. converted to 转变为,改变;D. directed to 指向,导向。选项B符合题意。

  20.【解析】[A] 词汇辨析/语义衔接题。His argument is that the unusual history of these people hasthem to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in thisstate of affairs."他的观点是,这些人非同寻常的经历使其更容易遭受独特的进化压力,而这些压力导致了这种似乎矛盾的状况"。本文一方面说,这类人贡献很大;但另一方面他们经受的独特的进化压力使他们更容易患上恶性疾病,看似矛盾,令人困惑,故A项正确。

  参考译文

  有关某些群体比其他群体更为聪明的观点是一个无人敢于说出来的假想。然而,格雷戈里·科克伦已经准备好将之公之于众。这人世间少见,是一个不隶属于任何机构的独立科学家。正是他推广了这一观点,即某些最初并不认为是细菌性的疾病其实是传染性的,这种观点刚一提出就引起了很大的争论。

  然而,即使是他,有时候也为他将要做的事情感到不寒而栗。他与另外两位科学家一起发表了一篇论文,不仅声称一个群体的人比其他人更为聪明,而且还解释了这种现象的形成过程。其所谈论的更加聪明的群体来自于中欧的一个特殊民族。 这个过程是自然选择。

  这个群体通常在智商测试中表现良好,得分比100分的平均分高出12到15分,并且在西方的知识和文化领域做出了巨大贡献。正如他们中的精英人物(包括几位知名的科学家在内)的一生所证实的那样。他们也更为经常地受到一些诸如乳腺癌等遗传疾病的影响。但是,以前人们并不认为这些事实具有相关性。前者归因于社会影响,例如重视教育的传统。后者则被看作是基因隔离的结果。Cochran博士认为智商与疾病是密切相关的。他认为这些人群不同寻常的历史使得他们承受了独特的进化压力,从而导致了这种矛盾的状态。

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