Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions (41-45), choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino where gambling games are played. During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling.
He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a "Fun Card", which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user's gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls electronic morphine.
41 In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.
In March 1998, a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams's gambling problems. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a "cease admissions" letter. Noting the "medical/psychological" nature of problem gambling behaviors, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or wellbeing.
The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: "Enjoy the fun … and always bet with your head, not over it". Every entrance ticket lists a tollfree number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing he was "helplessly addicted to gambling", intentionally worked to "lure" him to "engage in conduct against his will." Well.
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says "pathological gambling" involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of taking risks in quest of a windfall.
44 Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.
Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on-you might say addicted to-revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers' dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of NEWSWEEK reported that2million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web's most profitable business.
[A] Although no such evidence was presented, the casino's marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected.
[B] It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?
[C] By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit.
[D] Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is government.
[E] David Williams's suit should trouble this gambling nation. But don't bet on it.
[F] It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will.
[G] The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conductive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?
41.【解析】[C] 从前后文表达的语义来看，前文的第一句话表明了本段的主题He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left。试题后面的句子是In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days，两者的侧重点都集中在lost(输钱)上，同是前后文中都出现了一些数字加以说明，因此从语义上判断，要填入的内容一定和此人输钱有关，同时选项中很可能会出现数字。对比选项，选项[C]中出现了$5,000和$5，500和前后文的数字形成照应，由于其他选项中没有任何数字，考生应该很快能看出这个答案。此外，从语义逻辑上看，试题所在的选项句和试题后面的一句其实是用具体的事实数据在描述David Williams的赌瘾越来越大，两者的语义逻辑表达方向一致，因此选项[C]是正确答案。
42.【解析】[A] 空格前面一句the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or wellbeing的主语是letter，letter后面的宾语从句讲的是letter的内容：David Williams在进入赌场之前要提交能证明不会对他的人身安全和财务造成威胁的信息。紧接着这句话的句子所表达的信息应当还要提及关于信件(letter)及其内容的信息，因此要填入的选项要表达这一方面的内容，才能在语义上和上文连贯。比较选项可以发现，选项[A]中出现了letter的同义词mail，同时从内容上分析，选项[A]中的Although no such evidence was presented和上文中的he would have to present medical/psychological…语义上衔接紧密，语义连贯。因此选项[A]是正确答案。
43.【解析】[B]试题前提到Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing he was "helplessly addicted to gambling", intentionally worked to "lure" him to "engage in conduct against his will"(Williams提出指控，Casino明明知道他无可救药地迷恋上赌博，还故意引诱他从事违背他意愿的活动)。注意空格前文字中的 "lure"和"will"两词，在这里分别表示"诱惑"和"意愿"。"lure" him to "engage in conduct…"是这段话表述的重点，通过词汇复现的方法我们很容易地发现，选项[B]It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?是对这一句话的补充和说明，里面同时出现了lure和will，因此，应当是正确答案。 44. 【解析】[F] 首先可以利用词汇同现的方法解答此题，试题前句的diagnostic(诊断上的),选项中的medicalize(医学化)以及空格后面的physical(身体上的)虽然不是近义词或同义词，但很明显它们属于同一医学范畴，因此属于同一范畴词汇对应;其次，还可以利用结构衔接法，选项中的defining as(注意选项中有倒装结构，原结构应该是define …as…)与空格后的reclassifying…as…是近义词表达法，都是表示"归类为，定义为";再次，可以利用词汇复现法，选项中的weakness of will ( 意志上的弱点)和空格后句中的character flaws(性格的缺陷)是上下义词的关系，前者属于后者。
45.【解析】[D] 首先，本题可以通过分析文章结构和上下文的语义逻辑关系获得正确答案。本题处于最后一段第一句话的位置，空格后面的Fortyfour states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on-you might say addicted to-revenues from wagering(44个州发行各种彩票，29个州开设赌场，大多数州在不同程度上依赖于赌场收入)是一个具体例子，它所说明的问题正是要填入的内容。通过对比选项可知，选项[D]Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever(赌博已经成为美国生活中一个司空见惯的现象)和下文的例子之间形成了总结例证的逻辑关系，因此是正确答案。