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  Section I Use of English


  Read thc following text.Choose the bcsl word(s) for each numbcred blank.and mark[A],[B],[C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  In 1924 American' National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawhtore Plant near

  Chicago It hoped they would learn how stop-floor Egnting __1__ workors productivity Instead,the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the“Hawhthome

  effect”the extremely inflentlcel ldea the veey__3__to bemg expenmented upon changed subjects’behavior

  The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plato.Accordmg to __5__of the cxpetmems.their.houriy output rose when hghtmg WaS

  increased.but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the expenment. __7__sometmg was changed.produchnty rose A(n) __8__ that they

  were bemg experimented upon seemed to be __9__t0 alterworkers' bchamor __10__ uself

  After several decades,the salile data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store j2一the descnpuons on record,no

  systematic __13__was foundthat lcvcls of produchxnty wererelated to changes in lighting

  It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the c~enments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happed.__15__,tighring was always changed on

  a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ , ,

  a comparison with data for weeks whenthere was no expenmentation showed that output always went up On Monday, workers __19__to be duigent for the first few

  days of the week in any case,before __21__a plateau and then slackening off This suggests that the alleged” Hawthorne effect“is hard to ptn down

  1.[A] affected [B]achieved [C]exlracted [D]restored

  2[A]at [B]up [C]with [D]Off

  3[A]Wuth [B]sight [C]act [D]proof

  4.[A]conVoversial [B]perplexing [c]mischieous [D]ambiguous

  5.[A]reqtttrents [B]cxplanalions [C]accounts [D]assements

  6[A]conclude [B]matter [C]indicate [D]work

  7[A]as faras [B]for fearthat [C]in casethat [D]so long as

  8.[A]awarerress [B]expectation [C]sentiment [D]illusion

  9.[A]suitale [B]excessive [C]enough [D]abundant

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  10.[A]about [B]for [C]on [D]by

  11[A]compared [B]shown [C]subjected [D]conveyed

  12.[A]contrary to [B]consistent with [C]parallel with [D]pealliar to

  13.[A]evidence [B]guidance [C]implication [D]source

  14.[A]disputable [B]enlightening [C]retiable [D]wasleadmg

  15.[A]In contast [B]For example [C]In consequence [D]As usual

  16.[A]duly [B]accidentally [C]unpredictably [D]suddenly

  17.[A]failed [B]ceased [C]started [D]continued

  20.[A]breaking [B]chrnbing [C]surpassmg [D]hiting

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A


  Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A],[B],[C]or[D].Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)

  Text 2

  Over the past decade,thousands of patents have seen granled for what are called business methods.Amazon com received one for its“one-click”online payment

  systern Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One invenlor patented a tochnique for lying a box

  Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale hack on business-method patents, which have been controversial e,ver since they were first

  authorized 10 years ago In a movethat has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S court of Appeals for the federal ctrcuit sald it would usea particular case tO

  conduct a broad review of business-method patents. Inre Bijskl, as the case is known, is“a very big deal”, says Dermis'D Crouch of the University of Missoun

  School of law.It “has the potential to elinate an entire class of patmts”

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  Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pinhts to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite tha fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。

  The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluste is wether it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling。

  The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme. Count that has nurrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reaction to the anti_patent trend at the supreme court” says Harole C wegner, a partend attorney and professor at aeorge Washington University Law School。

  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of

  [A] their limited value to business

  [B] their connection with asset allocation

  [C] the possible restriction on their granting

  [D] the controversy over authorization

  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?

  [A] Its rulling complies with the court decisions

  [B] It involves a very big business transaction

  [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit

  [D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S。

  28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Paro 3)most probably means

  [A] loss of good will

  [B]increase of hostility

  [C]change of attitude

  [D] change of auiuled

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  29.We learn from the last two pamgraphs that business-meihod Pateats

  [A] are immune to legal challenges

  [B] are of ten unnecessarily issued

  [C] lower the esteem for pateat holders

  [D] increase the incidence of risks

  30.Which of the following would bethe subject ofthe text?

  [A]A looming threat to bvamess-melhcd patents

  [B]Protection for business-method patent holders

  [C]A legal case regarding business-methodpatents

  [D] A prevailing tread against business-method patents

  Text 3

  In his book The Tipping Poinl Malcohn aladuell aloues that social epidemics are dliven in largepart by the acting of a tiny minority of special

  individuals,often calledin flu entials who are unusuall informed, persuasive, or we connect The idea is intuit ively compelling but it doesn't explain howideas actually spread。

  The supposed importance of inftuentials derives from a plansible sounding but largely untested theory untested thelry called the "tow-step flow of communication" Information

  llows from the mediato the inftuentials and from then to ereryone else. Marke ters have embraced the two-step flow became it suggests that if they can just find and

  influence the in fluent ials, those select people will do most of the work for them Thetheory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of people was

  wearing promoting or developing whaterver it is before anyone else paid attention Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special

  people call drivetrends

  In their recent work howeyer some researchers have come up with the finding that in fluentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is genetally supposed In

  fact they don’t seem to be required of all

  The researchers' argument stems from a simple obserrating about social influence with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primanrilly a function of media not interpersonal influence-enen the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others Yet it is precisely these non-celebring influentials who according to the two-step-flow theoryare supposed to drive social enidemics by influcenciny their friends and colleagues directly .For a social epidemic to occur however each person so sffected must then influcence his or her own acquaintances,who must in turn influence theirs and so on and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential.If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant for example from the initial influential prove resistant, for example the casecade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people。

  Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s abilify to influence others and their tendence to be

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  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point the author intends to

  [A] analyze the consequences of social epid emics

  [B] discuss influentials’ funcition in spreading ideas

  [C] exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics

  [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials

  32. The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory”

  [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems

  [B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends

  [C] has won support from influentials

  [D] requires solid evidence for its validity

  33. what the researchers have observed recenty shows that

  [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions

  [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media

  [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public

  {D}most celebritiea enjoy wide media attention

  34.the underlined phrase “these people”in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who

  {A}stay outside the network of social influence

  {B}have little contact with the source of influence

  {C}are influenced and then influence others

  {D} are influenced by the initial influential

  34.what is the essential slement in the dynamics of social influence?

  {A}The eageiness to be accepted

  {B}The impulse to influence others

  {C}The resdiness to be influenced

  {D}The inclination to rely on others

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  Text 4

  Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public .Behind eht scenes,they have been taking aim at someone else the accounting standard-setters.Their rules,moan the banks,have forced them to report enormous losses,and it’s just not fair.These rules say they must value some assets at the price atheird party would pay,not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch。

  Unfortunately,banks’lobbying now seems to be working.The details may be unknowable,but the independence of standard-setters,essential to the proper functioning of capital marksts,is being compromised.And,unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers,reviving the banking system will be difficult.After a bruising encounter with Xongress.America;s Financial Accounting Standards Board(FASB)rushed through rule changse.These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long0term assets in their income statement.Bob Herz,the FASB’s chairman,cried out against ehose who ”question our motives。”Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls”the use of judgment by management。”

  European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board(IASB)do likewise.The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning,but the pressure to fold when it comletes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong Charlie McCreevy,a European commissioner,warned the IASB that is did”not live in a political vacuum”but”in the real word” and the Europe could yet develop different rules。

  It was banks that were on the wrong planet,with accouts htat wastly overvalued assets.today they argue htat market prices overstate loeees,because htey

  Largerly reflect the temporary illiquldity of markets,not the likely entent of bad debts.The truth will not be known for years.But bank’s shares trade below their book value,suggeting that investors are akeptical.And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses,yet are relucaant to buy all those supposed bargains。

  To get the sysytem working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with.America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that,cleaning up rules on stock options ang pensions,for example,against hostility interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions。

  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to

  [A]follow anfavorable asset evaluation rules

  [B]collect payments from third parties

  [C]cooperate with the price managers

  [D]reevaluate some of their assets

  37.According to the author,the rule changes of the FASB may result in

  [A]the dimingishing role of management

  [B] the revival of the banking syestem

  [C]the bank’s long-term asset lossers

  [D]the weakening og its indepentdence

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  38. According to Paragarph 4,McCreevy objects to the IASB’s attempt to

  [A] keep away from political influences

  [B] evade the pressure from their peers

  [C] act on their own in ruli-setting

  [D]take gradual measures in reform

  39、The author thinks the banks were“on the wrong planet”in that they

  [A]mis interpreted market price indicators

  [B]exaggerated the real value of their assets

  [C]neglected the likely existence of bad debts

  [D]denied booking losses in their sale of assets

  40、The author’s attitude towards standard-setters is one of





  Part B


  For Questions 41-45,choose the most suitable paragraphs from the first A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to from a coherent text Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which dose not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

  [A]The first and more important is the consumer’s growing preference for eating out; the consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has risen from about 32 percent of total consumption in 1995 to 35 percent in 2000 and is expected to approach 38 percent by 2005. This development is boosting wholesale demand from the food service segment by 4 to 5 percent a year Europe compared with growth in retail demand of 1 to 2 percent. Meanwhile as the recession is looming large, people are getting anxious. They tend to keep a tighter hold on their purse and consider eating at home a realistic alternative。

  [B]Retail sales of food and drink in Europe’s largest markets are at a standstill,lesving European grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow.Most leading retailers have alteady tried e-commerce,with limit success,and expansion abroad.But almost all have ignored the big.profitable opportunity in their own backyard the wholesale food and drink trade,whoch appears to be just the kind of market retailers need。

  [C]Will such variations bring about a change in the overall structure of the food and drinkmarket?Definitely not.The functioning of the market is basrd on flexible

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  Trends dominated by potential buyers.In other words it is up to the buyer tather than the seller to decide what to buy.At any rate this change will ultimately be acclaimed by an ever-growing number of both domestic and international consumers regardless of how long the current consumer pattem will take hold。

  [D] All in all,this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect to rake in substantial profits there by.At least,that is how it looks as a whole.Closer inspection reveals import differences among the biggest national markets,especially in their customer segments and wholesale structures,as well as the competitive dynamics of individual food and drink categories.Big retailers must understand these differences before they can identify the segments of European wholesaling in which particular abilities might unseat smaller but enerenched competitors.New skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too。

  [E] Despite variations in detail,wholesale markets in the countries that have been closely examined—France,Germany,Italy,and Spain—are made out of same building blocks.Demand comes mainly from two sources:independent morn-and-pop grocery stores which,unlike large retail chains,are two small to buy straight from producers,and food service operators range from snack machines to large institutional catering ventures,but most of these businesses are known in the trade as “horeca”:hotels,restaurants,and cafes.Overall, Europe’s retail wholesale market, but the figures,when added together,mask two opposing trends。

  [F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales come to $268 billion in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom in 2000-more than 40 percent of retail sales. Moreover, average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often;and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to considerate。

  [G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retails and even some large good producers and existing wholesalers from trying their hand,for those that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable gains。

  41 → 42 → 43 → 44 → E → 45

  Part C


  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese.Your translation should be written carfully on ANSWER SHEET 2.(10


  One basic weakness in a comservation system based wholly one economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value Yet these ereatures are members of the biotic community and ,if its stability depends on its inteynity,they are entitled to continuance

  When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and if we happen to love it.We incert excuses to give it economic importance At the beginning pf century songbiras were supppsed to be disappearing。(46)Scinentists jumped to the resure with some distimctly shaky evidence to the effect the insecets would est us up of brids failed to control them the ecideuce had to be conbmic in order to be walid。

  It is pamful to read these round about accounts today.We have no land ehtic yet。(47)but we have at least drawn near the point pf admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinisic right reardless of the presence pf absence of economic adcantage to us。

  A panallel situation exists in respect of predatory mamals and fish-eating birds(48)Time was when biologosts somewhat over worded evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak or that they prey only on “worthless species”。

  Some species pf tree have been read out of the party by economici –minded fpresters they grow too slowty or have a sale vate to pay as imeber crops (49)In europe,where forestry is ecologically more advanced ,the ncommercial tree species are recognized ad members of native forest community,to be preserved as such,within reason。

  To sum up;a system of conservation based solely on econominc self-interest is hopelesstly lopsided(50)It tends to ignore,and thus eventually to eliminate,many elements in the land community that lack commercial value,but that are essential to its healthy functioning.Without the uneconomic pats。

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  Section III Writing

  Part A


  You are supposed to write for the postgraduate association a notice to recruit volunteers for an intemational conference on globalization,

  you should conclude the basic qualification of applicant and the other information you think relative。

  You should write about 100 words.Do not sign your own name at the end ofthe letter.Use"postgraduate association" instead。

  Part B


  Write an essay of 160200 words based on the following deawing.In your essay,you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) ecplain its intended meaning,and then

  3) give your comments。

  You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET2.(20 points)

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