Reading Comprehension (20')
Directions： There are 4passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of there are four choices marked A),B),C),and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.
For anyone who is set on a career in fashion， it is not enough to have succeeded in college. The real test is whether they can survive and become established during their early 20s making a name for themselves in the real world where business skills can count for as much as flair(眼光) and creativity.
Fashion is a hard business. There is a continuous amount of stress because work is at a constant breakneck (高速而危险的) speed to prepare for the next season's collections. It is extremely competitive and there is the constant need to cultivate good coverage in newspapers and magazines. It also requires continual freshness because the appetite for new ideas is hard to satisfy. "We try to warn people before they come to us about how tough it is," says Lydia Kemeny, the Head of Fashion at St. Martin's School of Art in London. "And we point out that drive and determination are essential."
This may seem far removed from the popular image of fashionable young people spending their time designing pretty dresses. That may well be what they do in their first year of study but a good college won‘t be slow in introducing students to commercial realities. "We don’t stamp on the blossoming flower of creativity but in the second year we start introducing the constraints of price， manufacturability， marketing and so on."
Almost all fashion design is done to a brief. It is not a form of self-expression as such, although there is certainly room for imagination and innovation. Most young designers are going to end up as employees of a manufacturer or fashion house and they still need to be able to work within the characteristic style of their employer. Even those students who are most avant-garde(标新立异的) in their own taste of clothes and image may need to adapt to produce designs which are right for the mainstream of market. They also have to be able to work at both the exclusively expensive and the cheap end of the market and the challenge to produce good design inexpensively may well be demanding.
1.To be successful as a fashion designer you must .
A) have excellent academic qualifications
B) be able to handle business problems
C) be well established before you are 20
D) have taken an intensive commercial course
2.All fashion designers should expect to
A) work without carelessness and laziness
B) cope with continual fatigue
C) make a rapid turnover
D) endure tough competition
3.In fashion design one of the most important factors is to
A) make instant decisions
B) satisfy excessive demands
C) maintain good press contacts
D) cultivate public taste
4. Initially， many young designers have to
A) hold back their creativity
B) present an encouraging picture
C) change their personal taste in fashion
D) inform to a certain image
5.The views on fashion design expressed in this article
A) get rid of some common illusions
B) present an encouraging picture
C) contain some innovative ideas
D) discount the creative element
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage.
The United States court system， as part of the federal system of government, is characterized by dual hierarchies:there are both state and federal courts. Each state has its own system of courts， composed of civil and criminal trial courts， sometimes intermediate courts of appeal， and a state supreme court. The federal court system consists of a series of trial courts (called district courts)serving relatively small geographic regions (there is at least one for every state).a tier of circuit courts of appeal the hear appeals from many district courts in a particular geographic region， and the Supreme Court of the United States.
The two court systems are to some extent overlapping,in that certain kinds of disputes, such as a claim that a state law is in violation of the Constitution,may be initiated in either system. They are also to some extent hierarchical(等级的),for the federal system stands above the state system in that litigants (persons engaged in )who lose their cases in the state supreme court may appeal their cases to the Supreme Court of the United States.
Thus,the typical court case begins in a trial court-a court of general jurisdiction-in the state or federal system. Most cases go no further than the trial court: for example, the criminal defendant is convicted (by a trial or a guilty plea)and sentenced by the court and the case ends; the personal injury suit results in a judgment by a trial court (or an out-of –court settlement by the parties while the court suit is pending) and the parties leave the court system. But sometimes the losing party at the trial court cares enough about the cause that the matter does not end there. In "loser" at the trial court may appeal to the next higher court.
6. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A) Civil and criminal trial courts.
B) Typical court cases.
C) The court system in the United States
D) The appeal court process.
7. According to the passage， district courts are also known as .
A) circuit courts
B) supreme courts
C) intermediate courts
D) trial courts
8. The phrase "engaged in '(Line 4, Para.2) could best be replaced by " "
A) committed to
B) involved in
C) attentive to
D) engrossed in
9. The passage indicates that litigants who lose their cases in the state trial court may take them to a
A) different trial court in the same state
B) court in a different geographic region
C) federal trial court
D) state supreme court
10. It can be inferred from the passage that typical court cases are
A) always appealed
B) usually resolved in the district courts
C) always overlapping
D) usually settled by the supreme court
Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.
To read a new book， you simply need good light, time and the right frame of mind. But to read a new software package,you need a thousand pounds' worth of hardware,considerable computer knowledge, plenty of time,and most important of all,endless determination.
Generally speaking， all books are very much alike， and the experienced reader has no difficulty coping with an unfamiliar book. But imagine how frustrating it would be if you had to make a mental adjustment,if you had to read in a different way, every time you read a book from a different publisher,yet this is exactly what it is like when you use a new software package.
You can be encouraged in a good book within a minute,but getting new software running takes ages. Learning to use a new piece of software is like trying to ride a trick bicycle,on which the handlebars have a reverse action. It looks easier than it really is. This is partly because you must first unlearn what you've learnt on the last package; no two packages use the control characters on the keyboard in quite the same way. How much easier it would be if there are some standards to which all software writers adhere!
Since you can't rely on your previous experience, the only way to understand your new software package is to rely on the manual. Some software manuals are written with the beginner in mind and have explicit instruction with well-designed exercises that lead you gently on from stage to stage. But most assume that you are already an expert, and expert,and have complicated explanations which only confuse and irritate you. All require a full set of fingers and thumbs to mark pages while hunting out information. Yes, perhaps the information is in the manual, but where?
11. When learning to use a new software package you may probably feel
12. The author mentions the trick bicycle, on which the handlebars have a reverse action,in order to show
A) how difficult it is to learn to ride a bicycle
B) it is impossible to learn to ride this bicycle
C) how difficult it is to learn a new software package
D) to learn to ride a bicycle is the same thing as to learn a new software package
13. How could a software package become easier to users according to the author?
A) All software packages are made by the same software company.
B) The users are familiar with all kinds of software packages.
C) There are some standards to which all software writers adhere.
D) There is a cormmitte which examines all software packages
14. What is the most common problem in software manuals according to the passage?
A) They have complicated explanations which are quite beyond your understanding.
B) They are printed in very small characters.
C) Their instructions and explanations are too simple.
D) They are written with the beginner in mind.
15. The word "explicit' (Line 3, Para. 4) probably means" "
Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.
Perhaps the most startling theory to come out of kinetics(动力学), the study of body ,was suggested by Professor Ray Birdwhistell. He believes that physical appearance is often culturally programmed. In other words， we learn our looks-we are not born with them.
A baby has generally unformed facial features. A baby,according to Birdwhistell, learns where to set the eyebrows by looking at those around-family and friends. This helps explain why the people of some regions of the United States look so much alike. New Englanders or Southerners have certain common facial characteristics that cannot be explained by genetics. The exact shape of the mouth is not set as birth， it is learned after. In fact， the final mouth shape is not formed until well after permanent teeth are set.
For many,this can be well into adolescence. A husband and wife together for a long time often come to look somewhat alike. We learn our looks from those around us. This is perhaps why in a single country there are areas where people smile more than those in other areas. In the United States， for example,the South is the part of the country where the people smile most frequently. In New England they smile less,and in the western part of New York state still less. Many Southerners find cities such as New York cold and unfriendly,partly because people on Madison Avenue smile less than people on Peachtree Street in Atlanta， Georgia. People in densely populated urban areas also tend to smile and each other in public less than people do in rural areas and small towns.
16. Ray Birdwhistell believes that physical appearance
A) has little to do with culture.
B) can be influenced by culture.
C) is ever changing.
D) varies from place to place.
17. According to the passage， the final mouth shape is formed
A) before birth
B) as soon as one's teeth are permanently set
C) sometime after permanent teeth are set
D) around 15years old
18. Ray Birdwhistell can tell what region of the United States a person is from by
A) how much he or she laughs
B) how he or she raises his or her eyebrows
C) what he or she likes best
D) the way he or she talks
19. People who are more friendly live in
A) densely populated areas
B) the country
C) New York city
D) the North
20. This passage might have been taken out of a book dealing with
Directions： There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C),and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
21. He a sum of money every month for his old age.
A) sets back
B) sets up
C) sets down
D) sets aside
22. His handwriting is,which makes other people hard to know what he really means.
23. The main road through Salisbury was blocked for two hours today after an accident 3 vehicles.
24. On small farm in a dry climate one should not grow crops that need space and a lot of water to ripen.
25. Unfortunately he could not the danger at that time.
26. When replying to this advertisement， please a stamped addressed envelope.
27. Tom and Mary were full of as they talked of their holiday plans.
28. The elegant decorations the gym into a starlit ballroom.
D) interrupted 29. Please yourself from smoking and spitting in public places， since the law forbids them. A) restrain
30. If the diver is in deep water， he must come to the surface in order to allow his body to
the change in pressure.
31. Two criminals had escaped from the city prison and have been so far.
A) at length
B) at large
C) at least
D) at once
32. If your coat is too large， the tailor can it to fit you.
33. High in the sky a of birds was flying southward.
34. The plane was for two hours because of the heavy fog.
35. It's usually the case that people seldom behave in a way when in a furious state.
36. The report on the Canadian scientist's research stated that his to biology are original and of the greatest importance.
37. She was very tired,and in no for dancing.
D) mood 38. The lack of goods， services and household aids， caused by the country's concentration on heavy industry at the of consumer goods， affected women more than men.
39. When asked about the missing watch, the boy having taken it.
40. The for the computer programming course will amount to about $370.
41. She prefers to have her left photographed; she says that's her better side.
42. This book contains a (n) of words which are comparatively seldom used now.
D) attitude 43. Some people are to politics and what is going on in other places.
44. There are more and more customers who like to about prices when buying goods.
45. What was the doctor's of your aunt's chest pains?
46. When they saw the pile of paper on the teacher's desk， the class made the that they would have written work.
47. To look at something is to try to find faults with it.
48. Occasionally I read a passage or sentence over and over just to let the beauty of its construction in.
49. The only miner who the disaster was still in a serious condition.
50. In general' the amount that a student spends for housing should be held to one-fifth of the total for living expenses.
Directions： There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C), and D). You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.
If you want to stay young,sit sown and have a good think. This is the research 51 of a team of Japanese doctor, who say that most of our brains are not getting enough exercise-and
52 we are ageing unnecessarily soon.
With a team of colleagues at Tokyo National University, Professor Taiju Matsuzawa 53 measuring brain volumes of a thousand people of different ages and 54 occupations.
Computer technology enabled the researchers to obtain 55 measurements of the volume of the 56 and side sections of the brain,which relate 57 intellect and emotion, and determine the human character. (The 58 section of the brain, which controls 59 functions as eating and breathing, does not 60 with age, and one can continue living without 61 or emotional faculties.)
Contraction of front and side parts-as cells die 62 -was observed in some subjects in
63 thirties, but it was still not evident in some sixty and seventy year olds.
Matsuzawa concluded from his tests that there is a simple 64 to the contraction normally associated with age-using the head.
The findings show in general 65 that contraction of the brain begins 66 in people in the country than in the towns. Those 67 at risk,says Matsuzawa,are lawyers, followed by university professors and doctors. White collar workers doing 68 work in government offices are,69 , as likely to have shrinking brains 70 the farm worker, bus driver and shop assistant.
51. A) result B) outcome C) finding D) discovery
52. A) because B) as a result C) besides D) though
53. A) set about B) set aside C) set off D) set up
54. A) changing B) varying C) moving D) altering
55. A) exact B) correct C) precise D) proper
56. A) forward B) fore C) front D) ahead
57. A) to B) with C) in D) on
58. A) side B) front C) hind D) rear
59. A) same B) such C) some D) the
60. A) reduce B) decrease C) decline D) contract
61. A) intellectual B) intelligent C) physical D) intelligible
62. A) down B) off C) out D) away
63. A) its B) his C) their D) her
64. A) remedy B) way C) method D) reminder
65. A) terms B) term C) mean D) means
66. A) later B) sooner C) oftener D) latter
67. A) less B) least C) fewer D) fewest
68. A) regular B) daily C) routine D) common
69. A) therefore B) moreover C) furthermore D) however
70. A) as B) than C) like D) more
IV. Put the following passage into Chinese. (15')
New research from Australia shows that pets are good for your health. The findings of this of this new study suggest that people who have pets are at less risk from heart disease than those who do not.
The new research was carried out over three years and examined 3，000 people. They took tests that measured a variety of different factors known to be involved in heart disease- blood pressure and blood levels. Also， people were asked about their lifestyles. The 800 people who owned pets had lower levels on each of the factors measured than those who did not own pets. The study also showed that it did not matter what kind of pet was owned-a cat was as good as a dog-so the benefits could not be attributed to the exercises involved in walking a dog.
The question is just how pets manage to make their owners more healthy. The obvious answer is that they make their owners feel more relaxed and happier. The Australian scientists who organized this study commented that if a new drug was available that was as effective as simply having a pet， then this drug would undoubtedly be considered a breakthrough in the control of heart disease.
V. Writing (15')
Directions:For this part, you are to write a composition entitled No Pains, No Gains. You should write at least 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese.