Passage One (Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice)
In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence - as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us.
The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law.
Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each other’s problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. ‘Talk, talk, talk,’ the advocates of violence say, ‘all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser.’ It’s rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. ‘Possible, my lord,’ the barrister replied, ‘none the wiser, but surely far better informed.’ Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom: the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.
1. What is the best title for this passage?
[A] Advocating Violence.
[B] Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice.
[C] Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution.
[D] The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.
2. Recorded history has taught us
[A] violence never solves anything.
[C] the bloodshed means nothing.
3. It can be inferred that truly reasonable men
[A] can’t get a hearing.
[B] are looked down upon.
[C] are persecuted.
[D] Have difficulty in advocating law enforcement.
4. “He was none the wiser” means
[A] he was not at all wise in listening.
[B] He was not at all wiser than nothing before.
[C] He gains nothing after listening.
[D] He makes no sense of the argument.
5. According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is
[A] law enforcement.
[D] Mopping up the violent mess.
1. acute 严重的，2. 剧烈的，3. 敏锐的
4. loot v.抢劫，5. 掠夺;n.赃物
6. pillage v.抢劫，7. 掠夺
8. crunch v.吱嘎吱嘎咬或嚼某物;n.碎裂声
when it comes to the crunch = if/when the decisive moment comes. 当关键时刻来到时。
9. war-paint 出战前涂于身上的颜料。(美印第安战士用)
10. come to light = become known 显露，11. 为人所知
12. sap 剥削，13. 使伤元气，14. 破坏
I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. 我住院治疗几个月，15. 大伤元气。
16. mop up 擦去，17. 对付，18. 处理
19. wake 船迹，20. 航迹
in the wake of sth. = come after 随某事之后到来。
1. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all.
【结构简析】when it comes to the crunch = when / if the decisive moment comes.当关键时刻来到时。
【参考译文】真正令人可怖的，2. 令人绝望的是，3. 在关键时刻，4. 人们意识到我们一点儿也没有进步/前进。
5. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake.
【结构简析】in the wake of 在…之后。
【参考译文】由于我们不6. 得不7. 清理掉暴力之后所留下的烂摊子，8. 我们的力量因此削弱了。
9. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser.
【结构简析】none + the + 比较级。固定用法，10. 义：not at all 一点儿也不11. 。EX: After the treatment, he is none the better.治疗后，12. 他并没有因此见好，13. (一点儿也不14. 见好)。
【参考译文】听了律师的长篇解释，15. 法官抱怨说他一无所获，16. 并不17. 因此变得聪明些。
18. Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom.
1. B 暴力难以消除种族偏见。文章一开始就提出有些国家种族偏见严重，而2. 暴力却是公认的一种解决方法。白人采用暴力镇压，3. 黑人以防火、掠抢为反抗。而4. 双方的大人物平静地论及暴力，5. 似乎这是一种合法的解决方案。作者就此指6. 出人类的进步只在于表面――衣饰等，7. 人类的本能没有改变。整个有记录历史的文件没有教会人类任何东西。这是真正令人可怕的事件。
第二段论及真正有理智的懂得解决方案所在的人鼓吹法制，8. 人们不9. 停。他们反而10. 收到轻视、迫害。作者就此提出假设，11. 答出真正的解决方案嗜法制，12. 以法治理。
第三段进一步说明“交流、对话”是了解双方问题的前提，13. 即使暴力者不同14. 意，15. 但知道暴力制造它假装要解决的罪恶，16. 是智慧聪明的必要前提。
17. B没有什么。第一段中就明确提出整个人类有记录历史又长又臭的暴力文件记录，18. 一点都没有教给我们任何东西。
21. D在鼓吹法制方面有困难。答案在第二段，22. 真正有理智的人鼓吹法制，23. 遭到同24. 类们的轻视、不25. 信任和迫害。他们发现要人倾听他们的意见越来越困难。
27. C听后无所得。None the wiser一点也不28. 比以前聪明(这是按字面翻译)。实际就是C项。
A.在倾听别人上他一点也不29. 聪明。B.他和以前一个样。D.他听不30. 懂论点。
31. A法制。第二段最后一句，32. 如果我们在法律的构架中进行工作，33. 真正的持久的解决总是能实现的。第二段第二句，34. 他们遭到迫害是因为他们鼓吹法制这种显然令人不35. 能容忍的事。