Section II Use of English(10 points) 英语知识应用
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C, D on ANSWER SHEET 1.
The loudest outcry about poverty seemed to come in the wealthiest country by far in the world. According to most calculations, 21 most of the 1945-1970 period the United States had a standard of living well 22 Europe’s and many times above the world 23 . Yet 24 about grinding poverty, hunger, and dreadful need proceed more from the United States than from countries with one-fortieth of their living standard. An annual per capita income of eight dollars is 25 of much of Africa and Asia and not a little of South America.
It would seem strange to these people 26 they only aware of the fact that American radicals demand a 27 from an American 28 to the far corners of the globe so that the money thus saved can be spent raising the standard of living of 29 Americans. What this last point suggests is not so much that human 30 are never to be satisfied though this is doubtlessly true, and the American suburbanite 31 of his second car and his color TV suffers just as 32 as an African farmer in need of a second cow and a screen door. Rather, it suggests the 33 of contemporary breach of social 34 —the emancipation of the individual self.
People have learned to consider any 35 to personal fulfillment an 36 insult. They have greatly expanded the circle of self-awareness. They no longer accept sharp limitations on individual desires in the 37 of the group. The amount of potential human discontent has always been 38 — misery, failure, misfitting, bitterness, hatred, envy 39 telling. It has usually failed of 40 , and in the past it was accepted passively as being beyond help.
21、 A. until
22、 A. over
23、 A. average
25、 A. now that
26、 A. was
D. to be
30、 A. anticipations
33、 A. margin
34、 A. liberties
37、 A. face
38、 A. bulky
39、 A. at
.www.59wj.com Section III Reading Comprehension(45 points) 阅读理解
No one should be forced to wear a uniform under any circumstance. Uniforms are demeaning to the human spirit and totally unnecessary in a democratic society. Uniforms tell the world that the person who wears one has no value as an individual but only lives to function as a part of the whole. The individual in a uniform loses all self-worth. There are those who say that wearing a uniform gives a person a sense of identification with a large, more important concept. What could be more important than the individual oneself? If an organization is so weak that it must rely on cloth and buttons to inspire its members, that organization has no right to continue its existence.
Others say that the practice of making persons wear uniforms, say in school, eliminates all envy and competition in a matter of dress, such that a poor person who cannot afford good-quality clothing, why would anyone strive to be better? It is only a short step from forcing everyone to wear the same clothing to forcing everyone to drive the same car, have the same type of house, eat the same type of food. When this happens, all incentive to improve one’s life is removed. Why would parents bother to work hard so that their children could have a better life than they had when they know that their children are going to be forced to have exactly the same life that they had? Uniforms also hurt the economy. Right now, billions of dollars are spent on the fashion industry yearly.
Thousands of persons are employed in designing, creating, and marketing different types of clothing. If everyone were forced to wear uniforms, artistic personnel would be unnecessary. Salespersons would be superfluous as well: why bother to sell the only items that are available? The wearing of uniforms would destroy the fashion industry which in turn would have a ripple effect on such industries as advertising and promotion. Without advertising, newspapers, magazines, and television would not be able to remain in business. Our entire information and entertainment industries would founder.
41、The author’s viewpoint on uniforms can best be described as __________.
42、Judged from its style, this passage might be found in __________.
A. a children’s comics book
B. an editorial in a paper
C. a sociology textbook
D. a political platform
43、It can be inferred that the author believes that __________.
A. individuals have no self-worth when they become part of an organization
B. individuals are more important than organizations
C. individuals are not so important as organizations
D. individuals are the same important as organizations
44、The author brings in the example of a parent striving to make life better for his children to make the point that __________.
A. parents have responsibilities for their children
B. uniforms would be less expensive than clothing for children
C. uniforms cause dissension between parents and children
D. individual motivation would be destroyed by uniforms
45、The last word of the passage "founder" probably means __________.
.www.59wj.com Text 2
A report consistently brought back by visitors to the US is how friendly, courteous and helpful most Americans were to them. To be fair, this observation is also frequently made of Canada and Canadians, and should best be considered North American. There are, of course, exceptions. Small-minded officials, rude waiters, and ill-mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment. For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence.
Dullness and loneliness were common problems of the families who generally lived distant from one another. Strangers and travelers were welcome sources of diversion, and brought news of the outside world. The harsh realities of the frontier also shaped this tradition of hospitality.
Someone traveling alone, if hungry, injured, or ill, often had nowhere to turn except to the nearest cabin or settlement. It was not a matter of choice for the traveler or merely a charitable impulse on the part of the settlers. It reflected the harshness of daily life: if you didn’t take in the stranger and take care of him, there was no one else who would. And someday, remember, you might be in the same situation. Today there are many charitable organizations which specialize in helping the weary traveler. Yet, the old tradition of hospitality to strangers is still very strong in the US, especially in the smaller cities and towns away from the busy tourist trails. "I was just traveling through, got talking with this American, and pretty soon he invited me home for dinner—amazing." Such observations reported by visitors to the US are not uncommon, but are not always understood properly.
The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition. As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships. And, of course, speaking a language does not necessarily mean that someone understands social and cultural patterns. Visitors who fail to "translate" cultural meanings properly often draw wrong conclusions. For example, when an American uses the word "friend", the cultural implications of the word may be quite different from those it has in the visitor’s language and culture. It takes more than a brief encounter on a bus to distinguish between courteous convention and individual interest. Yet, being friendly is a virtue that many Americans value highly and expect from both neighbors and strangers.
46、In the eyes of visitors from the outside world, ___________.
A. rude taxi drivers are rarely seen in the US
B. small-minded officials deserve a serious comment
C. Canadians are not so friendly as their neighbors
D. most Americans are ready to offer help
47、It could be inferred from the last paragraph that ___________.
A. culture exercises an influence over social interrelationship
B. courteous convention and individual interest are interrelated
C. various virtues manifest themselves exclusively among friends
D. social interrelationships equal the complex set of cultural conventions
48、Families in frontier settlements used to entertain strangers ___________.
A. to improve their hard life
B. in view of their long-distance travel
C. to add some flavor to their own daily life
D. out of a charitable impulse
49、The tradition of hospitality to strangers ___________.
A. tends to be superficial and artificial
B. is generally well kept up in the united States
C. is always understood properly
D. has something to do with the busy tourist trails
50、What’s the author’s attitudes toward the American’s friendliness?
.www.59wj.com Text 3
Today, there are many avenues open to those who wish to continue their education. However, nearly all require some break in one’s career in order to attend school full time. Part-time education, that is, attending school at night or for one weekend a month, tends to drag the process out over time and puts the completion of a degree program out of reach of many people. Additionally, such programs require a fixed time commitment which can also impact negatively on one’s career and family time. Of the many approaches to teaching and learning, however, perhaps the most flexible and accommodating is that called distance learning.
Distance learning is an educational method, which allows the students the flexibility to study at his or her own pace to achieve the academic goals, which are so necessary in today’s world. The time required to study many be set aside at the student’s convenience with due regard to all life’s other requirements. Additionally, the student may enroll in distance learning courses from virtually any place in the world, while continuing to pursue their chosen career. Tutorial assistance may be available via regular airmail, telephone, facsimile machine, teleconferencing and over the Internet. Good distance learning programs are characterized by the inclusion of a subject evaluation tool with every subject. This precludes the requirement for a student to travel away from home to take a test.
Another characteristic of a good distance-learning program is the equivalence of the distance-learning course with the same subject materials as those students taking the course on the home campus. The resultant diploma or degree should also be the same whether distance learning or on-campus study is employed. The individuality of the professor/student relationship is another characteristic of a good distance-learning program. In the final analysis, a good distance learning program has a place not only for the individual students but also the corporation or business that wants to work in partnership with their employees for the educational benefit, professional development, and business growth of the organization. Sponsoring distance learning programs for their employees gives the business the advantage of retaining career-minded people while contributing to their personal and professional growth through education.
51、According to the passage, which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of part-time education?
A. It requires some break in one’s career.
B. It tends to last too long for many people to complete a degree program.
C. It affects one’s career.
D. It gives the student less time to share with the family.
52、Which of the following is NOT an advantage of distance learning?
A. The students may choose his or her own pace.
B. The students may study at any time to his or her convenience.
C. They can pursue their chosen career while studying.
D. Their tutorial assistance comes through regular airmail, telephone, facsimile machine, etc.
53、What benefit will distance-learning program bring to a business?
A. Recruitment of more talented people.
B. Good image of the business.
C. Better cooperation with universities.
D. Further training of employees and business growth.
54、What benefit will distance learning bring to an employee of a business?
A. Professional growth.
B. Good relationship with the employer.
C. Good impression on the employer.
D. Higher salary.
55、Which is not the characteristic of distance learning?
A. It includes a subject evaluation tool with every subject.
B. Its course uses the same subject materials as those students taking the course on the home campus.
C. A distance-learning program has a place only for students.
D. The relationship of the professor/student is characterized by individuality.
.www.59wj.com Text 4
I remember the way the light touched her hair. She turned her head, and our eyes met, a momentary awareness in that raucous fifth grade classroom. I felt as though I’d been struck a blow under the heart. Thus began my first love affair. Her name was Rachel, and I mooned my way through the grade and high school, stricken at the mere sight of her, tongue-tied in her presence. Does anyone, anymore, linger in the shadows of evening, drawn by the pale light of a window—her window—like some hapless summer insect? That delirious swooning, asexual but urgent and obsessive, that made me awkward and my voice crack, is like some impossible dream now. I would catch sight of her, walking down an aisle of trees to or from school, and I’d become paralyzed.
She always seemed so poised, so self-possessed. At home, I’d relive each encounter, writhing at the thought of my inadequacies. We eventually got acquainted and socialized as we entered our adolescence, she knew I had a case on her, and I sensed her affectionate tolerance for me. "Going steady" implied a maturity we still lacked. Her Orthodox Jewish upbringing and my own Catholic scruples imposed an inhibited grace that made even kissing a distant prospect, however fervently desired. I managed to hold her once at a dance—chaperoned, of course. Our embrace made her giggle, a sound so trusting that I hated myself for what I’d been thinking. At any rate, my love for Rachel remained unrequited. We graduated from high school, she went on to college, and I joined the Army.
When World War II engulfed us, I was sent overseas. For a time we corresponded, and her letters were the highlight of those grinding endless years. Once she sent me a snapshot of herself in a bathing suit, which drove me to the wildest of fantasies. I mentioned the possibility of marriage in my nest letter, and almost immediately her replies became less frequent, less personal. Her Dear John letter finally caught up with me while I was awaiting discharge. She gently explained the impossibility of a marriage between us. Looking back on it, I must have recovered rather quickly, although for the first few months I believed I didn’t want to live. Like Rachel, I found someone else, whom I learned to love with a deep and permanent commitment that has lasted to this day.
56、According to the passage, how old was the author when his first love affair began?
A. Before he entered his teens.
B. In his early teens.
C. In his middle teens.
D. When he was just out of his teens.
57、How did the author behave as a boy in love?
A. His first love motivated him toward hard study.
B. His first love evoked sentimental memories.
C. He was overpowered by wild excitement and passion.
D. He fulfilled his expectations and desires.
58、According to the passage, what held them back from a loving kiss?
A. Her Jewish origin did not allow it.
B. His Catholic adherence forbade it.
C. They were not sure whether it was proper or ethical to kiss in line with their religious decorum.
D. Kissing was found to be inelegant or even distasteful.
59、According to the passage, what was Rachel’s response to the author’s tender affection before the war?
A. She recognized and accepted his love affectionately.
B. She thwarted his affection by flatly turning him down.
C. She fondly permitted him to adore her without losing her own heart to him.
D. She didn’t care for him at all and only took delight in playing with his feelings.
60、Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
A. Statement and example.
B. Cause and effect.
C. Order of importance.
D. Linear description.
.www.59wj.com Section III Reading Comprehension(45 points) 翻译
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
That low moaning sound in the background just might be the Founding Fathers protesting from beyond the grave. They have been doing it ever since the Republicans announced a "religious war" in the name of "traditional values". It grew several decibels louder last week when George Bush, at a breakfast of religious leaders, attacked the Democrats for failing to mention God in their doctrines and declaimed that a President needs to believe in the Almighty. What about the constitutional ban on "religious tests". for public office? The Founding Fathers would want to know. (61) What about Tom Jefferson’s conviction that it is possible for a nonbeliever to be a moral person, "find incitements to virtue in the comfort and pleasantness you feel in its exercise"? Even George Washington must shudder in his sleep to hear the constant emphasis on "Judeo-Christian values". (62) It was he who wrote, "We have abundant reason to rejoice that in this Land … every person may here worship God according to the dictates of his own heart."
George Bush should know better than to encourage the theocratic ambitions of the Christian right. (63) He has claimed -- to much ironic scorn -- that when he was shot down during World War II and lay floating in the Pacific for four hours, he meditated on "God and faith and the separation of church and state". But there could be no better themes for a patriot to address in his final moments. (64) The "wall of separation" the Founding Fathers built between church and state is one of the best defenses freedom has ever had. Or have we already forgotten why the Founding fathers put it up? They had seen enough religious intolerance in the colonies: Quaker women were burned at the stake in Puritan Massachusetts; Virginians could be jailed for denying the Bible’s authority. They knew Europe had terribly disfigured itself in a religious war recalled now only by its duration -- 30 years. (65) No wonder John Adams once described the Judeo-Christian tradition as "the most bloody religion that ever existed," and that the Founding fathers took such pains to keep the hand that holds the musket separate from the one that carries the cross.
.www.59wj.com Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2.
(61)While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians，modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.Caught in the web of its own time and place，each generation of historians determines anew what is significant for it in the past.In this search the evidence found is always incomplete and scattered;it is also frequently partial or partisan.The irony of the historians craft is that its practitioners always know that their efforts are but contributions to an unending process.
Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves. While history once revered its affinity to literature and philosophy，the emerging social sciences seemed to afford greater opportunities for asking new questions and providing rewarding approaches to an understanding of the past.(62)Social science methodologies had to be adapted to a discipline governed by the primacy of historical sources rather than the imperatives of the contemporary world.
During this transfer，traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study. Methodology is a term that remains inherently ambiguous in the historical profession.
(63)There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. Historians，especially those so blinded by their research interests that they have been accused of“tunnel method，”frequently fall victim to the“technicist fallacy.”(64)Also common in the natural sciences，the technicist fallacy mistakenly identifies the discipline as a whole with certain parts of its technical implementation.
(65)It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources. And to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques.