2009年2月21日雅思阅读回忆

日期:12-15| http://www.59wj.com |历年真题|人气:414

2009年2月21日雅思阅读回忆 第一篇,是关于非洲农业的,关键提到了一种发明自非洲的农业技术:citemene. 关于citemene的英文解释文章:

  2月21号的雅思考试,三篇阅读都为新题。尤其是第一篇文章中讲到一个概念Citemene,很多同学很难理解,我将其破解在下:

  Citemene

  The Bemba have developed a unique shifting cultivation called the citemene system in the vast miombo woodlands of northern Zambia (Richard, 1939; Allan, 1965; Kakeya & Sugiyama, 1985; Chidumayo, 1987; Stromgaard, 1988; Moore & Vaughan, 1994; Oyama, 1996, 2005). The Bemba are also known for the military strength of their once-powerful kingdom and their matrilineal soci- ety with its high divorce rate (Richard, 1940; Roberts, 1973).

  Since 1983, we have conducted socio-ecological research in the Bemba vil- lages in the territory of Chief Luchembe, Mpika District, in northern Zambia. In this paper, we analyze the processes and mechanisms of agrarian changes in these Bemba villages over the 23 years from 1983-2006 in relation to changes in economic and agricultural policies.

  As our research base, we chose the village of Mulenga-Kapuli, which lies about 27 km west of the town of Mpika (Fig. 1). The village elder, Mulenga- Kapuli, founded this village in 1958, when he returned from working in the Copperbelt. Mulenga-Kapuli gathered his matri-kin, with his brothers and sisters at the core. The village of Mulenga-Kapuli has had close socio-economic rela- tionships with the neighboring village of Ndona.

  In 1983, Mulenga-Kapuli was small, with 13 households of which three were headed by females. Ndona had 30 households, of which ten were female- headed. Most villagers had experienced life in the city, but they led a subsis- tence life with strong reliance on the citemene system. The basic unit of pro- duction was the household, and the level of production never greatly exceeded what was necessary for self sufficiency. The villagers maintained a distribution and consumption mechanism that promoted social leveling, while avoiding a concentration of goods. Although 1/4 to 1/3 of the households in the two vil- lages were headed by females, there was little economic disparity among the households (Kakeya & Sugiyama, 1985; Sugiyama, 1987.)

  From about 1986, hybrid maize production using chemical fertilizers rapidly spread throughout the study area. We refer to maize production conducted in semi-permanent fields as faamu cultivation, according to the Bemba nomencla- ture. Faamu fields were prepared by felling and uprooting trees. By the mid- 1990s, most villagers had begun to build a stable system wherein citemene cul- tivation for subsistence coexisted with faamu cultivation for cash crops. How- ever, from the mid-1990s, the national economic policy shifted strongly toward market liberalization, and faamu cultivation ceased to be viable in the outly- ing rural areas. Moreover, the government Resettlement Project, which focused on the resettlement of large-scale commercial farmers, had reached full imple- mentation near the villages in 2000. Under these circumstances, the people held firmly to citemene cultivation as they engaged in trial and error, seeking better opportunities for cash income. These agrarian changes over the past 20 years can be classified into five periods: 1) subsistence economy based on citemene cultivation, 2) spread of faamu cultivation, 3) expansion of faamu cultivation, 4) return to citemene, and 5) search for a new livelihood strategy (Fig. 2). We discuss these five periods, their characteristics, and mechanisms of change in the following sections.

  第二篇,讲照相技术和艺术的关系的. 一些人认为照相会威胁到艺术;也有人为了证明照相是一种艺术就特意去拍出像画一样的照片;有人认为照相不需要去模仿艺术;等等

  第三篇,是讲从众心里的(conformity),提到了一些实验,其中有一个是数豆子的实验,一个是对比线的长度的(line length)实验,等。

  

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