英语专业四级听力部分注意事项和技巧

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英语专业四级听力部分注意事项和技巧 听力理解对话

  对话的常考题型

  1. 主旨要义题:问对话讨论的是什么。

  a. 尽量在脑海中描述出正进行的对话:对谁在进行对话,在哪里进行对话做一定的假设;

  b. 尤其注意听一些关键词,被重复的词等等;

  c. 对所听到的内容进行归纳,什么是中心思想;

  d. 特别注意提问句,因为对话通常是一问一答,答的内容通常是围绕问题展开的。

  常见的就对话主题而提的问题有:

  What is the main topic of the conversation?

  What are the speakers mainly discussing?

  What is the subject of this conversation?

  What is the main idea of the conversation?

  Which of the following best summarizes the conversation?

  2. 身份职业题:问说话者的身份、职业以及两者的关系等。

  常见的就身份、职业及人物关系而提的问题有:

  What is the person’s probable vocation/job?

  Who are the speakers?

  What is the relationship between the two speakers?

  Who is the woman/man speaking to?

  常见的身份、职业及其相关的词语和句子:

  Customer and shop-assistant (salesgirl)

  for sale on sale discount 30 percent off

  selling season size style fashion

  in stock out of stock price change

  refund warranty deliver交付 sales slip销货单,销售发票

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  What can I do for you? I’m looking for…

  I’d like to have … How much …?

  Professor/teacher and student

  course assignment credit tuition

  freshman sophomore junior senior

  undergraduate postgraduate register graduate

  graduation ceremony term paper mid-exam final

  summer course grade semester/term quiz

  vacation scholarship

  Customer and waiter/waitress

  menu order dessert main course

  delicious taste reservation bill

  Can I help you, sir/madam? Are you ready to order?

  May I take your order now? I’d like to try…

  Can I have my bill, please? How would you like your beef?

  Doctor and patient

  headache stomachache backache catch a cold

  flu running nose fever run a temperature

  symptom examination check-up take one’s temperature

  X-ray indigestion blood pressure infection

  diagnose prescribe(prescription) medicine pill

  tablet give an injection operation recover

  What’s the matter with you?

  Postman and customer

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  parcel/package postcard stamp telegram

  postage airmail registered letter

  Bank clerk and customer

  deposit withdraw draw out savings

  account account number open an account balance

  cash traveler’s check cash a check interest rate

  Airport staff and traveler

  check in check out first class economy

  Single/return flight number reservation book a ticket

  Confirm/confirmation arrival departure delay

  Boarding card boarding gate take off transit

  Librarian and student

  Library card periodical journal magazine

  Catalogue call number due renew

  Overdue over-due time

  Hotel staff and customer

  lobby front desk reservation reception desk

  receptionist check in check out single room

  double room rate key card Room Service

  3. 地点方位问题:问对话发生的地点与场景。

  School: assignment, lecture, paper, exam, campus, dorm, grades

  Bank: account, cash, check, deposit, savings

  Hospital/Clinic: prescription, symptom, temperature, cold, fever, stomachache, pain, trouble

  Restaurant: menu, soup, drink, beverage, dish, beef, chicken, order, bill

  Airport/Station: train, coach, car, timetable, take off, passenger

  Post Office: parcel, package, stamp, letter, airmail, regular mail, postage, rate

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  关于地点的提问形式通常为:

  Where does/did the conversation probably take place?

  Where are the man and woman speaking?

  Where are the speakers now?

  Where will the man/the woman go?

  Where is the man/the woman?

  4. 时间数字计算体:对对话中出现的一些时间和数字进行提问,通常要经过一些简单的运算。

  听力试题所涉及的数字包括:年代、时间、年龄、距离、速度、价格、数量等,要求回答对话或某事在什么时间发生;或某人在什么时间做某事;或价格、数量等。在做数字计算题时,考生除了应该听清具体的数字,还应该注意表示倍数、百分率等的量词,例如: double, half, dozen, couple, thirty percent, three times, decade, century等等。同时,还要注意与数字有关的词,例如:more, less, before, ago, later等等。此外还要注意文中较长的数字。

  此类问题的提问形式通常为:

  When/ At what time did the conversation/dialogue take place?

  When is the man/ the woman going to…?

  How much/How many…?

  How long…?

  How often…?

  另外,当对时间进行提问时,也可能不用数字而用表示时间的短语来表示,考生应注意以下几点:

  a. 根据表示时间的关联词来判断事件发生的时间,如:before, after, when, while, then, until, later, right away, immediately, as soon as possible等。

  b. 掌握年、月、日、星期等时间的表达方法。注意一些表示时间的词,如 quarter, a couple of days, twilight, eve, fortnight(two weeks), dawn(daybreak), dusk(time just before it gets quite back)等。同时注意英、美不同的时间表达方式,如:2:15读作 a quarter past two(英)或 two fifteen(美);2:30读作 half past two(英) two thirty(美)等。

  c. 有时候,文中通过从句或短语表示时间,而不出现具体表示时间的数字或表示时间概念的单词,这种情况也要引起注意。例如:“Aren’t you glad the semester’s over?”可以判断出时间为“at the end of the semester”。

  d. 从选择项看到时间和数字题型后,要集中精力获取时间和数字的信息。把听到的表示时间的数字顺序记下来,并理解各项数字之间的关系。这样做是因为文中有时不仅仅出现一个表示时间的数字。如果单靠听而不做任何记录,最后很容易混淆数字间的关系,无法正确回答问题。

  e. 听的时候注意近音的干扰要能准确区分:-teen /′ti:n/和/ti/。它们的区别不仅在于一个是长元音/i:/,另一个是短元音/i/;而且/′ti:n/是重读音节,而/ti/不重读。

  f. 时间推算也是对话题目中的考点,同学们要学会英语中表示时间提前或推后的方法,如:提前或提早5分钟 five minutes ahead of time; five minutes ahead of schedule; five minutes early; early by five minutes.推迟或吃到5分钟 five minutes later; five minutes behind schedule; late by five minutes; be delayed/postponed for five minutes.

  g. 为了快而准地对数字有所反应,同学们要熟悉一些单词和表达方式:

  时间:five o’clock sharp (5点整);on the dot(整点);the day before yesterday(前天); the day after tomorrow(后天);this time next week(下周此时); a fortnight(两周); weekly(每周); monthly(每月);quarterly(每季);yearly/annually(每年); a decade(十年);B.C.(公元前)。

  数字:one half/ a half; one and half; a quarter/ one fourth; five sixths; zero point five(0.5); one point five two(1.52); a couple of; million; billion。

  货币:a dollar/ a buck; five cents/ a nickel; a dime; a quarter/twenty-five cents; a pound; penny。

  有关计算的表达:plus/add/addition(加); minus/take off(减); ,multiply(乘); divide(除); double(翻倍); triple(增加倒三倍); two more(多两个); three less(少三个); half the price(半价); thirty percent off/ discount of 30%(打七折); at 15% discount(打八五折)。

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  5. 事实推理题:对对话中出现的一些细节进行提问,或者要求考生通过所听到的细节进行推理。

  a. 以事实为依据的问题要求考生回忆对话中的细节;尽量从上下文中推测不熟悉的单词的含义;在听的过程中尽快浏览各项选择,以便预测一些问题;并对听到的信息进行分析、判断。

  对事实的提问形式有:

  What does sb. do?

  What is sb. going to do?

  What/Which of the following is not mentioned in the dialogue?

  What does the speaker/listener seem most concerned about?

  What does the conversation say about…?

  Why does sb. do sth.?

  What is the purpose of …?

  What is the cause of …?

  b. 推理引申问题要求考生推测出某些细节的结果或对某些细节进行比较。

  引申问题要求应试者推测出某些细节的结果或对某些细节进行比较。回答引申问题时应特别注意对话的最后部分。在听的过程中尽快浏览各选择项,以便做出某些预测;运用常识猜测某个细节可能有的结果。

  常见的引申问题有:

  It can be inferred from the conversation that…

  The man/woman most probably…

  What will the man/woman probably do next?

  What can be concluded from the dialogue/conversation?

  What does the speaker mean?

  6. 观点态度题:问说话者对某事或者某话题的看法和观点。

  对话中经常涉及到一方对另一方或某一事件、观点、言论、行为的态度和反应,或赞成或反对,或满意或失望,喜怒哀乐等各种情绪。此类题目的解题方法有:

  a. 语音语调。英语中,语调主要有升调、降调两种,另外还有升降调和降升调。不同的语调表达不同的含义。例如,陈述句用升调表示说话者抱有迟疑、犹豫的态度;用降调表示肯定。反意疑问句如果反意部分是降调,就表示肯定,希望得到赞同或支持;反之,则表示征求对方的意见或不耐烦。

  b. 提示词和关键词。考生可以根据一些提示性的语言或一些相关的词语进行判断,如 I think…; It seems to me that…; As far as I’m concerned, I could say…; It is/sounds true that...同时还要注意表示否定、转折和虚拟等含义的指示词。如,I’d be sacked if I accepted your offer.所表达的是拒绝。

  c. 从字里行间判断。录音材料的内容、材料中不会直接说明态度,但在字里行间会有渗透,考生在听懂对话的基础上,依据语气,充分理解其言外之意和所反映出来的态度。

  常见的就语气而提问的问题有:

  What is the man’s/woman’s attitude toward the conversation?

  How does the man/woman feel?

  The man’s/woman’s feeling toward the subject can be best described as…?

  提高对话的听力技巧及策略

  一、 利用考试间隙,预读考题

  二、 掌握出题形式,抓住听的重点

  三、 把听到的内容做一定的语言代换也是出题的考察意图之一

  1、 同义词或近义词

  You will hear: We’ll leave for airport as soon as I finish typing the article.

  Correct choice: We’ll go to the airport immediately after I complete the typing of this article.

  2、 反义词选择

  You will hear: I was compelled to stay in the hotel.

  Correct choice: I was not allowed to leave the hotel.

  3、 同类词或下义词选择

  Scarlet, crimson, red是同类词;cabbage和carrot都归属于vegetable。

  4、 句子成分转换选择

  You will hear: Motorcycles are more dangerous than bicycle.

  Correct choice: Bicycles aren’t as dangerous as motorcycles.

  四、注意语言功底的积累

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