PETS写作—开头的写作技巧

日期:12-30| http://www.59wj.com |专四写作辅导|人气:848

PETS写作—开头的写作技巧

  1. 开头技巧一:名人名言

  开头引用名人不仅能够作为很好的切入点展开话题,而且还能够显示考生深厚的英语功底。可能有的考生会疑惑:“我没有记住名言,怎么办?尤其是英语名言?”一般来说,引用名人名言不一定要记住每个单词才行。如果考生能够记住大致的内容,也可以引用。引用名人名言的经典句型:

  A proverb says, “you are only young once.” (适用于已记住的名言)

  It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. (适用于只记住大致意思的名言)

  经典句型:As everyone knows, no one can deny that…

  我们为考生总结了一些考生常用的名人名言,附在本节后面,供考生记忆使用。

  2. 开头技巧二:数字统计

  要想使自己的论证更有说服力,就应该用实际的数字来说明。原则上在议论文当中十不应该出现虚假数字的,可是在考试考生只需要记住一个大概得数据即可。所以不妨试用下面的句型:

  According to a recent survey, about 78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation.

  句型:

  A recent statistics shows that …

  除以上两种特殊用法以外,我们为考生整理了以下开头常用句型,供考生参考:

  文章开头句型:

  1. 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法,然后提出自己的看法或者偏向于某一看法,

  适用于有争议性的主题.

  例如

  1) When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ... But I think/view a bit differently.

  2) When it comes to .... , some people believe that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true . There is probably some truth in both arguments/statements , but (I tend to the proffer/latter ...)

  3) Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether.....

  2. 现象法 引出要剖析的现象或者问题, 然后评论 .

  1) Recently the rise in problem of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused public/popular/wide/worldwide concern.

  2) Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ...has been brought into focus. ( has been brought to public attention)

  3)Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly.

  3. 观点法 开门见山,直截了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法.

  1) Never history has the change of .. been as evident as ...Nowhere in the world/China has the issue/idea of .. been more visible/popular than...

  2) Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginning/coming to realize/accept/(be aware) that...

  3) Now there is a growing awareness/recognition of the necessity to......Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ......

  4) Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that.......

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  4. 引用法 - 先引出有代表性的看法, 来引出文章要展开论述的观点!

  1) "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon. This remark has been shared by more and more people.

   "Education is not complete with graduation." Such is the opinion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opinion.

  2) "........." How often we hear such statements/words like those/this. In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......".

  5. 比较法通过对过去,现在两种不同的倾向,观点的比较, 引出文章要讨论的观点. 

  1) For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... .

  2) People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new.

  6. 故事法先讲一个较短的故事来引发读者的兴趣, 引出文章的主题.

  1) Once in (a newspaper) , I read of/learnt .... The phenomenon of... has aroused public concern.

  2) I have a friend who ... Should he .... ? Such a dilemma we are often confront with in our daily life.

  3) Once upon a time , there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now.

  7.问题法 - 先用讨论或解答的设问, 引出自己观点, 适用于有争议性的话题.

  Should/What ...... ? Options of ... vary greatly, some ..., others ...But in my opinion, ...... .

  (二)主体段落的写作原则

  作文的主体部分是全文文字最密集的地方,也是最彰显考生功底的地方,于是,我们总结出了关于主体段落写作的几个原则,考生在平时练习时,注意体会掌握。长短句原则

  中国考生语法功底普遍很好,因此,在写作文时,很容易出现长句堆积的现象。但是,这样很容易使得文章枯燥乏味,读起来费解。相反,写一个短小精辟的句子,却可以起到画龙点睛的作用。而且,如果我们把短句放在段首或者段末,也可以揭示主题:

  As a creature, I eat; as a man, I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of mind, they are in a way quite similar.

  如此可见,长短句结合,抑扬顿挫,更能够使文章文采飞扬。

  在这里我们强烈建议考生:在文章第一段(开头)用一长一短,且先长后短;在文章主体部分,要先用一个短句解释主要意思,然后在阐述几个要点的时候采用先短后长的句群形式,定会让主体部分妙笔生辉。文章结尾一般用一长一短就可以了。

  2. 主题句原则

  英文写作和中文写作的一个很大的区别在于:中文写作喜欢水到渠成,只有在最后才透露观点,然而英文写作往往却开门见山,在文章的段首就讲明白整段的内容。所以在这里建一靠赊概念一定要写一个主题句,放在文章的开头(保险型)或者结尾,让阅卷人一目了然,文章结构更加清晰。

  特别提示:隐藏主体句可是要冒险的。

  To begin with, you must work hard at your lessons and be fully prepared before the exam(主题句). Without sufficient preparation, you can hardly expect to answer all the questions correctly.

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  3. 一 二 三原则

  领导讲话总是第一部分、第一点、第二点、第三点、第二部分、第一点… 虽然罗嗦。但是毕竟条理清楚。考官们看文章也必然要通过这些关键性的“标签”来判定你的文章是否结构清楚,条理自然。解决方法很简单,只要把下面任何一组的词汇加入到你的几个要点前就可以了。

  1)first, second, third, last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  2)firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally(不推荐,原因:俗)

  3)the first, the second, the third, the last(不推荐,原因:俗)

  4)in the first place, in the second place, in the third place, lastly(不推荐,原因:俗)

  5)to begin with, then, furthermore, finally(强烈推荐)

  6)to start with, next, in addition, finally(强烈推荐)

  7)first and foremost, besides, last but not least(强烈推荐)

  8)most important of all, moreover, finally

  9)on the one hand, on the other hand(适用于两点的情况)

  10)for one thing, for another thing(适用于两点的情况)

  4. 短语优先原则

  写作时,尤其是在考试时,如果使用短语,有两个好处:其一、短语会使文章增加亮点,如果老师们看到你的文章太简单,看不到一个自己不认识的短语,必然会低看你一等。相反,如果发现亮点—精彩的短语,那么你的文章定会得高分了。其二、关键时刻思维短路,只有凑字数,怎么办?用短语是一个办法。比如:

  I cannot bear it.

  可以用短语表达:I cannot put up with it.

  I want it.

  可以用短语表达:I am looking forward to it.

  这样字数明显增加,表达也更准确。

  5. 多实少虚原则

  原因很简单,写文章还是应该写一些实际的东西,不要空话连篇。这就要求一定要多用实词,少用虚词。我这里所说的虚词就是指那些比较大的词。比如我们说一个人很好的时候,不应该直说nice这样空洞的词,应该使用一些诸如generous, humorous, interesting, smart, gentle, warm-hearted, hospital 之类的形象词。再比如:

  走出房间,general的词是:walk out of the room,但是小偷走出房间应该说:slip out of the room

  小姐走出房间应该说:sail out of the room,小孩走出房间应该说:dance out of the room,老人走出房间应该说:stagger out of the room,所以多用实词,少用虚词,文章将会大放异彩。 

  6.多变句式原则

  (1)加法(串联)

  都希望写下很长的句子,像个老外似的,可就是怕写错,怎么办,最保险的写长句的方法就是这些,可以在任何句子之间加and, 但最好是前后的句子又先后关系或者并列关系。比如说:

  I enjoy music and he is fond of playing guitar.

  如果是二者并列的,我们可以用一个超级句式:

  Not only the fur coat is soft, but it is also warm.

  其它的短语可以用:besides, furthermore, likewise, moreover

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  (2)转折(拐弯抹角)

  批评某人缺点的时候,我们总习惯先拐弯抹角说说他的优点,然后转入正题,再说缺点,这种方式还比较容易让人接受。所以呢,我们说话的时候,只要在要点之前先来点废话,注意二者之间用个专这次就够了。

  The car was quite old, yet it was in excellent condition. the coat was thin, but it was warm.

  的短语:despite that, still, however, nevertheless, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding

  (3)因果(so, so, so)

  在街上我看到了一个女孩,然后我主动搭讪,然后我们去咖啡厅,然后我们认识了,然后我们成为了朋友…可见,讲故事的时候我们总要追求先后顺序,先什么,后什么,所以然后这个词就变得很常见了。其实这个词表示的是先后或因果关系。

  The snow began to fall, so we went home.

  短语:then, therefore, consequently, accordingly, hence, as a result, for this reason, so that

  (4)失衡句(头重脚轻,或者头轻脚重)

  有些人脑袋大,身体小,或者有些人脑袋小,身体大,虽然我们不希望长成这个样子,可如果真的是这样了,也就必然会吸引别人的注意力。文章中如果出现这样的句子,就更会让考官看到你的句子与众不同。其实就是主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句的变形。

  举例:This is what I can do.

  Whether he can go with us or not is not sure.

  同样主语、宾语、表语可以改成如下的复杂成分:

  When to go, why he goes away…

  (5)附加(多此一举)

  如果有了老婆,总会遇到这样的情况,当你再讲某个人的时候,她会插一句说,我见过他;或者说,就是某某某,如果把老婆的话插入到我们的话里面,那就是定语从句和同位语从句或者是插入语。

  The man whom you met yesterday is a friend of mine.

  I don’t enjoy that book you are reading.

  Mr Liu, our oral English teacher, is easy-going.

  其实很简单,同位语--要解释的东西删除后不影响整个句子的构成;定语从句—借用之前的关键词并且用其重新组成一个句子插入其中,但是whom or that 关键词必须要紧跟在先行词之前。

  (6)排比(排山倒海句)

  文学作品中最吸引人的地方莫过于此,如果非要让你的文章更加精彩的话,那么我希望你引用一个个的排比句,一个个的对偶句,一个个的不定式,一个个的词,一个个的短语,如此表达将会使文章有排山倒海之势。

  Whether your tastes are modern or traditional, sophisticated or simple, there is plenty in London for you.

  Nowadays, energy can be obtained through various sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, solar heat, and the wind and ocean tides.

  We have got to study hard, to enlarge our scope of knowledge, to realize our potentials and to pay for our life. (气势恢宏)

  要想写出如此气势恢宏的句子非用排比不可。 www.59wj.com 如果觉得《PETS写作—开头的写作技巧》专四写作辅导,yyzszb不错,可以推荐给好友哦。

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