专四专八高分文章秘诀:使英文作文句子多样化

日期:12-30| http://www.59wj.com |专八写作指导|人气:778

专四专八高分文章秘诀:使英文作文句子多样化 专四专八高分作文的奥秘何在?结合多年的阅卷经验认为,考生务必从以下四点入手,即:内容简单化、结构模式化、语言要包装、考前要强化。

  一、内容简单化

  内容简单化是考生在构思专八作文时应遵循的原则。考生不论是在练习时还是在考场上都应当牢记这一点。许多考生在作文上败下阵来就是因为花费了大量的时间和精力追求内容的新颖别致。国家考试中心在出专八作文试题时特别注意选择一些弹性不是很大的题目,因为考试作为一种语言测试方式,其重点在于测试考生英语语言水平,它不像出国英语考试,譬如托福、GMAT和GRE这类智商型考试那样测试考生逻辑思辩的能力;如果设置弹性较大的题目,评卷人在评分时就不容易把握。

   事实上,专八作文考试的内容并不会给评卷人留下太深的影响,参阅任何一本考试作文指南书的考生都可以发现书中范文的内容不会有太多新意,评卷人评判的是考生的文字能力,考生在构思时只要保证自己的内容符合逻辑,能够言之有理、言之成理、切题即可,然后把的注意力放在如何追求语言的得体性上;有的考生在考场上绞尽脑汁,想要找出些绝妙的内容来吸引评卷人的特别关注,结果往往是花费了十分的心思只得到一分的回报,有时反而会弄巧成拙,使评卷人的注意力转移方向,影响得分。

   在考场上,认为考生在构思内容上所花的时间不应超过5分钟,在认真读题并将其理解透彻以后,考生可以在试卷题目下方的空白处列一个简短的提纲,用中文即可,以此作为写作过程中内容的提示,在提笔开始写作的过程中就可将重点放在保证语言的流畅得体上,不会因为内容而中断思路。

   专八高分作文的第二大策略是结构模式化,这也是最核心的一条策略。通览以往的考试作文考题,细心的考生不难发现,专业英语作文考题不仅题目弹性很小,而且题型相结稳定,这就为考生在短期内提高作文分数创造了一个条件,使考生完全可以在考前针对考试中可能出现的题型按照固定的结构模式进行训练。

  二、结构模式化

   做到内容简单化和结构模式化,考生就已经向专八高分作文的目标迈进了一大步,如果考生还能在语言的细节上下一些功夫,作文的分数就会更上一层楼,这也就是我们接下来要谈的第三大策略:语言要包装。前面我们已经说过,专业英语作文的测试重点是考生的语言能力,因而在语言细节上下一点功夫就可以让考生展示自己的语言修养。

   作文中语言的包装主要应从以下六点入手。

   首先是语法方面的包装。考生要注意在作文中选取一个中心时态,通常选取一般现在时即可,但在陈述具体例证时要根据不同的情况变换时态。大纲明确要求高分作文的句子要做到多样化,所以最好不要全盘使用简单句,这样会降低文章的层次、复杂句和简单句应在文章中交叉出现,而对一些描述性的例证以及临时想起的内容可以使用简单句。

   同样在引用名人名言时考生也要特别注意:中国人习惯用别人说的话来证明自己的观点,而西方人引用名人名言通常都是为了进行批判性分析,这也是东西方文化上的一大差异,建议考生心意一不要使用名人名言,而应当用自己的逻辑去说服对方。

   说到这里自然就引出五一个语言包装的问题:应不应当在作文中作用谚语,大多数考生会觉得这些语言对评卷人而言已是陈词滥调,不应该在他们面前卖弄,事实恰恰相反,非英语国家的考生使用谚语常常会给英语国家的评卷人留下良好的印象,他们认为只有英语功底很扎实的考生才能正确地使用谚语。因此,在对所用表达法把握很大的情况下,考生不妨在作文中写一些地道的英语习语。

  三、语言要包装

  语言包装的最后一点是文体意识。普林斯顿所提供的评分标准中非常明确地指出考生所写的文章应当是academic(学术性)的,考生在提笔之前应当清楚地认识到现在这篇文章应当是学术性的正式文体,在遣词造句时要抛弃口语体的非正式的词汇和句型。

   最好的方法是以简单句为基础,配合适当的并列句和复杂句。简单句可长可短,通常要加些附属成分,如分词短语、介词短语、副词短语、不定式动词短语,以及节缩成分。总之,可根据情况,使句子多样化,使文章灵活多姿。例如下列五个句子的基本概念一样,但是句式不同,内容重点也有些差别:

   (1) The goats grazed peacefully in the farm and were unaware of the approaching hunter. (并列分句(1)+2)

   (2) Grazing peacefully, the goats in the farm were unaware of the approaching hunter. (现在分语短语+简单句)

   (3) In the farm, the goats grazed peacefully and were unaware of the approaching hunter. (副词短语+并列分句(1)-(2) )

   (4) There were goats grazing peacefully in the farm, unaware of the approaching hunter. (简单句+形容语短语)

   (5) As the goats grazed peacefully in the farm, they were unaware of the approaching hunter. (原因副词从句+主句)

   (6) The young pilot was on his first overseas training.

   (7) He felt very uneasy.

   (a) The young pilot on his first overseas training felt very uneasy.

   (b) The young pilot felt very uneasy during his first overseas training.

   (c) The young pilot’s first overseas training made him feel very uneasy.

   (d) Extreme uneasiness seized the young pilot on his first overseas training.

   (e) The young pilot was on his first overseas training, feeling very uneasy.

   (f) It being his first overseas training, the young pilot felt very uneasy.

   (g) Being on his first overseas training, the young pilot felt very uneasy.

   (h) The young pilot was on his first overseas training and felt very uneasy.

   (i) The young pilot, who was on his first overseas training, felt very uneasy.

   (j) When the young pilot was on his/first overseas trainging, he felt very uneasy.

   (k) As the young pilot was on his first overseas training, he felt very uneasy.

   (l) The young pilot was on his first overseas training, so that he felt very uneasy.

   在上述12个句子中,(a)-(g)是简单句;(h)是并列句;(i)-(l)是复杂句。简单句除(b)和(g)之外,其他五样,用的人并不多。人们最喜欢采用复杂句,尤其是(j)和(k)这两款;接着便是并列句(h)。如果大多数人的句子只限于(b),(g), (h), (j)和(k)这五种,而其他的则弃如敝屣,不是很可惜吗?

www.59wj.com   增强英语语句表现力的有效方法

  一、避免使用语意弱的“be”动词。

  1、把句中的表语转换为不同的修饰语。例如:

  Weak: The trees are bare. The grass is brown. The landscape seems drab.

  Revision:The brown grass and bare trees form. a drab landscape. (转换为前置定语)

  Or: The landscape, bare and brown, begged for spring green. (转换为并列结构作后置定语)

  2、将作表语用的形容词或名词变为行为动词。例如:

  1) Weak: The team members are good players.

  Revision: The team members play well.

  2) Weak: One worker’s plan is the elimination of tardiness.

  Revision: One worker’s plan eliminates tardiness.

  3、在以“here”或“there”开头的句子中,把“be”动词后的名词代词变成改写句的主语。例如:

  1) Weak: There is no opportunity for promotion.

  Revision: No opportunity for promotion exists.

  2) Weak: Here are the books you ordered.

  Revision: The books you ordered have arrived.

  二、多用语意具体的动词,保持句意简洁明了。例如:

  1、Poor: My supervisor went past my desk.

  Better: My supervisor sauntered (=walked slowly) past my desk.

  2、Poor: She is a careful shopper.

  Better: She compares prices and quality.

  三、尽量运用主动语态。例如:

  1、Weak: The organization has been supported by charity.

  Better: Charity has supported the organization.

  2、Weak: The biscuits were stacked on a plate.

  Better: Mother stacked the biscuits on a plate.

  四、防止使用语意冗长累赘的词语。例如:

  1、Wordy: My little sister has a preference for chocolate milk.

  Improved: My little sister prefers chocolate milk.

  2、Wordy: We are in receipt of your letter and intend to follow your recommendations.

  Improved: We have received your letter and intended to follow your recommendation.

  3、Redundant: We had a serious crisis at school yesterday when our chemistry laboratory caught fire.

  Improved: We had a crisis at school yesterday when our chemistry laboratory caught fire.

  4、Redundant: My sister and I bought the same, identical dress in different stores.

  Improved: My sister and I bought the same dress in different stores.

  五、杜绝滥用陈旧词语或难懂的专业术语。例如:

  1、Weak: They will not agree to his proposals in any shape or form.

  Improved: They will not agree to any of his proposals.

  2、Weak: I need her financial input before I can guesstimate our expenditures next fall.

  Improved: I need her financial figures before I can estimate our expenditures next fall.

  一篇好文章的条件很多。除了内容丰富和组织紧密之外,词汇的运用和句子的处理,也起着决定性作用。句子可长可短,同一件事,可以用不同的句式表达。如果句子清一色是简单句,文章必定很单调乏味。如果全篇充满了冗长的复杂句,读起来也很费力。

  词汇的包装是个较为艰巨的过程,但单从应试的角度而言,考生可以精选一些高分作文学习,吸取其中的语言营养,对其中的用词进行细致的研究和模仿,在练习时尽量使用范文中一些常用的优秀词汇。

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