Section A: Translate the following underlined part of the Chinese text into English
Science means the exploration of truth. In the process of exploring truth, people will have to experience tremendous hardships and difficulties before they can come to understand the objective laws. It is often the case that the differences in the research perspectives, the materials mastered, and the ways of understanding would lead to totally different results-as we might say, "a mountain becomes a hill when viewed horizontally and a ridge when viewed vertically, and it assumes totally different shapes when viewed from a short or a long distance, or from a high or a low position." - and even lead to academic disputes. Therefore, an accomplished scientist would regard opposing arguments as his most tremendous benefit and take others'' criticism of him as the most precious friendship that he can ever obtain. In Gothe''s words, "We take for granted what we are in favor of. However, only what we are opposed to can enrich our thoughts." This is all because the approving opinions are not necessarily justified while the opposing arguments are not necessarily unfounded. To put it in the least way, even the opposing arguments that are mistaken will be immensely beneficial to one''s own scientific research.
Section B: Translate the following underlined part of the English text into Chinese
Although the American economy has transformed itself over the years, certain issues have persisted since the early days of the republic. One is the continuing debate over the proper role for government in what is basically a marketplace economy. An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterized by private ownership and initiative, with a relative absence of government involvement. However, government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that economic opportunities are fair and accessible to the people, to prevent flagrant abuses, to dampen inflation and to stimulate growth.
Ever since colonial times, the government has been involved, to some extent, in economic decision-making. The federal government, for example, has made huge investments in infrastructure, and it has provided social welfare programs that the private sector was unable or unwilling to provide. In a myriad of ways and over many decades, the government has supported and promoted the development of agriculture.