1. The official name of the United Kingdom is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are three political divisions on the islands of Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales. About a hundred years ago, Britain ruled an empire that had one fourth of the world’s people and one fourth of the world’s land area. The Britain Empire was replaced by the Britain commonwealth in 1931,which is a free association of independent counties that were once colonies of Britain. Britain is separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel in the south and the North Sea in the east.
6. Britain has, for centuries, been tilting with the northwest slowly rising, and the southeast slowly sinking. The north and west of Britain are mainly highlands. The southeast and east are mainly lowlands.
7. The pennies, a range of hills running from north midlands to Scottish border, are the principal mountain chain.
8. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain in Britain, and the Lough Neagh in Northern Ireland is the largest lake in Britain.
9. There are three natural zones in Scotland: the highlands in the north, the central lowlands, and the southern uplands. The lowlands in the center comprise mostly the forth and Clyde valleys.
10. Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast are the capitals of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
11. Scotland has about 800 islands, including the Orkney, Shetlands and Hebrides.
12. Besides, the Tweed, the Tyne, the Tees and the Thames Rivers on the east coast all face the North Sea ports on the European continent.
13. The longest river in Britain is the Severn River. The most important river is Thames River. River Clyde is the most important river in Scotland.
14. Though the weather in Britain is so changeable and unpredictable, the climate is in fact a favorable one. Britain has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year.
15. Britain has a population of 57411000. it is a densely populated country with an average of 237 people per square kilometer, and it is very unevenly distributed. 90% of the population is urban, and only 10% is rural.
16. the English are Anglo-Saxons, but the welsh, Scots and Irish are Celts.
17. The Celts of Wales defended their freedom for 1000 years and were not conquered by the English until 1536. today about a quarter of the welsh population still speak welsh as their first language and about one percent speak only welsh.
18. though the Gaelic language is still heard in the Highlands and western isles, the English language is spoken all over the Scotland.
19. Since then, there has been bitter fighting between the Protestants who are the dominant group, and the Roman Catholics who are seeking more social and economic opportunities.
20. About three million have came to live and find work since world war second. They are mainly from the West Indies, India and Pakistan.