READING COMPREHENSION[WT5] ［30 MIN.］
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION［25 MIN.］
In this section there are five passages followed by questions or unfinished statements, each with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one that you think is the correct answer. Mark your choice on your ANSWER SHEET.
One of the most fascinating questions about human behavior is each person is different from all others. The answer to this question would explain the aspect of human nature called personality. Some theories assume that inborn characteristics determine human personality. Many observers have hypothesized that each person has a dominant temperament, present from birth, that influences his or her behavior during an entire lifetime. According to one of these theories, people can be classified into four basic types: sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic and melancholic. Each type or temperament is characterized by a unique set of possible strengths and possible weaknesses.
Sanguine people are described as the most outgoing of the four temperaments. They are warm, fun-loving, and like the company of others. Because of these strengths, it is said that sanguines often make good salesmen, actors, or public speakers. Sanguines, however, may have some serious weaknesses. Their problem often come from their lack of discipline. Easily distracted, they often lack the concentrationto complete a job or other people may not trust them.
Choleric people, are quite different from the carefree, emotional sanguines. Because of their strong will, decisiveness, and productivity, cholerics are natural leaders who are good at making vast plans and motivating other people to help them carry out their plans. They are often successful in business, industry, or politics. Choleric weaknesses can be very damaging, however. Because a strong desire to lead, they can be cruel and cold towards those who do not wish to follow. They often do not listen to advice from others, and once they make a decision, they may became hostile towards anyone who questioning that decision.
Phlegmatics are calm, easy-going people who strive for efficiency and organization. Very diplomatic and polite, they make people feel comfortable and generally help keep things running smoothly. For these reasons, they make good teachers, technicians, etc. Phlegmatics, however, often have weaknesses that keep them from becoming successful. Afraid to take chances, they may avoid taking any steps to improve their position in life.
Melancholics are often considered to be gifted persons who possess creative talent. They are very analytical and able to understand complicated processes and to note detail. These people can make good doctors, scientists, artists, writers, and musicians. Melancholics are also said to be loyal, idealistic and self-sacrificing. However, melancholics frequently make themselves miserable because they tend to be negative and critical, and put up inflexible standards. They attach importance to everything they do, so they worry too much and see problems everywhere, and complain too much. They often become disappointed because neither they nor the people around them can live up to their high standards.
Explaining human personality in terms of innate temperaments is a theory that has not been generally accepted by psychologists. They criticize it for being too simplistic and unscientific. This may be so : however, present-day psychologists have been unable to formulate a single theory.
66. The word “dominant” probably means____.
A. primaryB. greatC. minorD. insignificant
67. What are said to be the most important feature of Choleric people?
A.Cruel but sympathetic.
B.Decisive and cold.
C.Hostile and fun-loving.
D.Strong-willed and polite.
68. Who are likely to be rejected by a bright-future project?
A. Cholerics.B. Sanguines.
C. Melancholics.D. Phlegmatics.
A few common misconceptions: Beauty is only skin-deep. One’s physical assets and liabilities don’t count all that much in a managerial career. A woman should always try to look her best.
Over the last 30 years, social scientists have conducted more than 1,000 studies of how we react to beautiful and not-so-beautiful people. The virtually unanimous conclusion: Looks do matter, more than most of us realize. The data suggest, for example, that physically attractive individuals are more likely to be treated well by their parents, sought out as friends, and pursued romantically. With the possible exception of women seeking managerial jobs, they are also more likely to be hired, paid well, and promoted.UN-American, you say, unfair and extremely unbelievable? Once again, the scientists have caught us mouthing pieties while acting just the contrary. Their typical experiment works something like this. They give each member of a group-college students, perhaps, or teachers or corporate personnel managersa piece of paper relating an individual’s accomplishments. Attached to the paper is a photograph. While the papers all say exactly the same thing the picture are different. Some show a strikingly attractive person, some an average-looking character, and some an unusually unattractive human being. Group members are asked to rate the individual on certain attributes, anything from personal warmth to the likelihood that he or she will be promoted.
Almost invariably, the better looking the person in the picture, the higher the person is rated. In the phrase, borrowed from Sappho, that the social scientists use to sum up the common perception, what is beautiful is good.
In business, however, good looks cut both ways for women, and deeper than for men. A Utah State University professor, who is an authority on the impact of physical attractiveness on males is only modest. But its potential impact on females can be tremendous, making it easier, for example, for the more attractive to get jobs where they are in the public eye. On another note, though, there is enough literature now for us to conclude that attractive women who aspire to managerial position do not get on as well as women who may be less attractive.
69. According to the passage, people often wrongly believe that in pursuing a career as manager____.
A.a person’s property or debts do not matter much
B.a person’s outward appearance is not a critical qualification
C. women should always dress fashionably
D.women should not only be attractive but also high-minded
70. Experiments by scientists have shown that when people evaluate individuals on certain attributes,____
A. they observe the principle that beauty is only skin-deep
B. they do not usually act according to the views they support
C. they give ordinary-looking persons the lowest rating
D. they tend to base their judgment on the individual’s accomplishment
Video recorders and photocopiers, even ticket machines on the railway, often seem unnecessarily difficult to use. Last December I bought myself a video cassette recorder (VCR) described as “simple to use”. In the first three weeks I failed repeatedly to program the machine to record from the TV, and after months of practice I still made mistakes. I am not alone. According to a survey last year by Ferguson, the British manufacturer, more than in four VCR owners never use the timer on their machines to record a programme: they don’t use it because theyve found it far too hard to operate.
So why do manufacturers keep on designing and producing VCRs that are awkward to use if the problems are so obvious? First, the problems are not obvious to technically minded designers with years of experience and trained to understand how appliances work. Secondly, designers tend to add one or two features at a time to each model, whereas you or I face all a machine’s features at once. Thirdly, although finding problems in a finished product is easy, it is too late by then to do anything about the design. Finally, if manufacturers can get away with selling products that are difficult to use, it is not worth the effort of any one of them to make improvements.
Some manufacturers say they concentrate on proving a wide range of features rather than on making the machines easy to use. But that gives rise to the question, “Why can’t you have features that are easy to use?” The answer is you can.
Good design practice is a mixture of specific procedures and general principles. For a start, designers should build an original model of the machine and try it out on typical members of the publicnot on colleagues in the development laboratory. Simple public trials would quickly reveal many design mistakes. In an ideal world, there would be some ways of controlling quality such as that the VCR must be redesigned repeatedly until, say, 90 per cent of users can work 90 per cent of the features correctly 90 per cent of the time.
71. According to the passage, before a VCR is sold on the market its original model should be tried out____.
A.among ordinary consumers who are not technically minded
B.among people who are technically minded
C.among experienced technicians and potential users
D.among people who are in charge of public relations
72. One of the reasons why VCRs are so difficult to use is that____.
A. the designers are often insensitive to the operational complexities of their machines
B. the range of features provided is unlimited
C. there is no ideal way of controlling quality
D. Their designers often ignore the complaints of their users
73. What did the author mean by “ I am not alone” in paragraph 1?
A. He and his family all didn’t know how to use the machine.
B. His family supported his opinion.
C. Many people faced the trouble as he did.
D. He was a popular guy.www.59wj.com
The founder of quantum mechanics (量子力学) and the inventor of the uncertainty principle, Werner Heisenberg was born in Wurzburg and brought up in Munich, where he entered the university in 1920 to study physics under Arnold Sommerfeld. After a brief stay at Gottingen University, he moved to Copenhagen to pursue research under Niels Boho and remained there until 1927.
After 1913 the quantum theory made considerable progress, but by 1924 it was running out of steam, largely owing to its lack of a coherent and systematic mathematical foundation. In the summer of 1925 Heisenberg discovered the foundation of just such a mechanics. Then his theory was rapidly developed by Max Born,Pascual Jordan, and P.A.M. Dirac.
In the spring of 1927, while a lecture at Boho’s insititute, Heisenberg followed uphis discovery of the uncertainty relations, which are of central importance in quantum mechanics.
Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1932 for his contribution to the development of quantum mechanics. From 1927 to 1941 he was professor of theoretical physics at the University of Leipzig. Although privately unsympathetic to the Nazi regime he remained in Germany throughout the Second World War, seeing it as his duty to work for the preservation of German physics and its future reconstruction. From 1941 to 1945 he was Director of the Kiser Wihelm Institute for Physics at Berlin, where he worked with Otto Hahn on the development of a nuclear reactor. After the war he became Director of the Max Planck Institute for Physics and played a prominent part in the promotion of scientific research in Germany.
Heisenberg has an important part in 20th century thought: the notion of uncertainty which he introduced is, like Einstein’s concept of relativity, one of the major idea of the century; it has changed not only physics but our entire world picture.
74. When was the firm foundation of quantum theory laid?
A. In 1913.B. In 1924.C. In 1925.D. In 1927.
75. Heisenberg did not leave Germany during the Second World War because he____.
A.supported the Nazi regime
B.wanted to contribute to the German physics
C.was not sympathetic for the Nazi regime
D.wanted to develop a nuclear reactor in Germany
76. Which of the following statements is true?
A. Quantum mechanics and uncertainty relations do not have obvious relationship.
B. Quantum theory, which contributes greatly to human beings, developed perfectly.
C. Quantum theory changed physics as well as the whole world picture.
D. Uncertainty principle is as great as Einstein’s concept of relativity.
77. Where does this article probably occur?
A. A magazine.
B. A physics textbook.
C. A physics report.
D. A government document.
It is, everyone agrees, a huge task that the child performs when he learns to speak, and the fact that he does so in so short a period of time challenges explanations.
Language learning begins with listening. Individual children vary greatly in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking, and late starters are often long listeners. Most children will “obey” spoken instructions some time before they can speak though the word obey is hardly accurate as a description of the eager and delighted cooperation usually shown by the child. Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gesture and by making questioning noises.
Any attempt to trace the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words leads to considerable difficulties. It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves out as particularly indicative of delight, distress, sociability, and so on. But since these cannot be said to show the baby’s intention to communicate they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new sounds to their repertoire (能发出的全部声音). This self-imitation leads to deliberate imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises as to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech.
78. The third paragraph is mainly about____.
A.the development of babies’ early forms of language
B.the difficulties of babies in learning to speak
C.babies’ strong desire to communicate
D.babies’ intention to communicate
79. From the passage we learn that____.
A. early starters can learn to speak within only six months
B. children show a strong desire to communicate by making noises
C. imitation plays an important role in learning to speak
D. children have various difficulties in learning to speak
80. The best title for this passage would be ____.
A. How Babies Learn to Speak
B. Early Forms of Language
C. A Huge Task for Children
D. Noise Making and language Learning
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING［5 MIN.］
In this section there are five passages with a total of ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
First read the following questions.
81. According to the article____.
A.if your bank fails, the government will make compensation
B.it is safe to deposit money in a bank
C.you may sue somebody for your drunkness
82. It is very easy to find someone to blame____.
A.if something goes wrong
B.when you get a divorce from your spouse
C.if you suffer from a mental distress
D.when you are in a bad mood
Now read Text F quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
To a lot of Americans, it now seems that prosperity can be bought like insurance. If you lose your job you can sue for the mental distress of being fired. If your bank goes broken, the government has insured your deposits. If your marriage goes wrong you can divorce … and then sue for a share of the money your spouse would have earned, had he or she not given up a lucrative job. If you drive drunkand crash you can sue somebody for failing to warn you to stop drinking. There is always somebody else to blame.www.59wj.com
First read the following questions.
83. Who is the author of Religion and the Rise of Capitalism?
84. Who was once the commander of the US army?
Now read Text G quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
Taverner, John (1495 - 1545) British composer and organist, known for his church music.Tawney, Richard Henry (1880 - 1962) British historian. He is best known for his book Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (1926). He was a keen socialist, and professor of economic history at the University of London (1931 - 1949).Taylor, Elizabeth (b. 1932) British-American actress. Her films include National Velvet, Father of the Bride, A Place in the Sun, Giant and Cleopatra (1963). Taylor, Zachary (1784 - 1850) 12th President of the USA (1849 - 50),a Whig. He was born in Virginia. He led army campaigns against the Indians, and was commander of the US army in the Mexican War.Tecumseh (1768 - 1813) Shawnee Indian chief who tried to unite all American Indians into a confederacy. He was killed while fighting as an ally of the British in the War of 1812.
First read the following questions.
85. Where is the article most likely from?
A.A text book.
D.A biological book.
86. The purpose of the ad is to____.
A.introduce a kind of fruit
B.introduce a kind of hot drink
C.introduce a kind of cold drink
D.introduce a fashion
Now read Text H quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
ever replace the taste
of good old grape
or apple juice?
How about raspberry?
The exciting new drink that’s made from 100% pure raspberry juice. Not too tart,not too sweet it’s got the taste that beats the others cold. And one can makes a whole litre. So pick up Westvale Raspberry from your grocer’s freezer and bring on the taste you’ve been missing. The honest-to-goodness taste of good old-fashioned raspberries.
First read the following questions.
87. Where can we find this kind of notice ?
A.In a college.
B.In a factory.
C.In a big company.
D.In a primary school.
88. Where does professor Alice Strevens come from?
Now skim the table below and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
CURRENT TRENDS IN LITERARY CRITICISM IN THE U.S.
Speaker: Professor Alice Strevens
State University of New York - BuffaloDate:Thursday, 6 October
Time:10 a.m.Place:Rm. 435 Library Building
First read the following questions.
89. The function of the passage is____.
90. The museum mentioned in the passage is a museum____.
A.of fine arts
B.which is open on public holidays
C.which doesn’t charge any admission fee
D.supported by the government financially
Now read Text J quickly and mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.
Admissions: Although the Museum of Fine Arts is a public museum, it is sustained not by government funds but by individual support. Membership subscriptions, gifts, and admission charges sustain this outstanding cultural resource.
Hours: Tuesday, 10 to 9; Wednesday through Sunday, 10 to 5. Closed Monday,New Year’s Day, July 4, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, December 24, and December 25.
Weekly Events and Schedule Changes: Dial A-N-S-W-E-R-S (267 - 9377) for a recorded listing. For further information call the Museum at (617) 267 - 9300.
Parking: Available off Museum Road adjacent to the building. www.59wj.com 如果觉得《英语专业四级考试全真模拟试卷三(2)》专四模拟试题,yyzszb不错，可以推荐给好友哦。